Abstract

We report the orthogonal tributary channel exchange of a polarization-multiplexed (pol-muxed) differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) signal by exploiting the Kerr effect-induced nonlinear birefringence in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF). We first implement Kerr effect-based 40-to-10, 80-to-10, and 160-to-10 Gbit/s demultiplexing of DPSK OTDM signals with power penalties of less than 0.5, 1.5, and 2.6 dB, respectively, at a bit-error rate (BER) of 10−9. We further demonstrate 10-Gbit/s tributary channel exchange between two orthogonal polarizations of a 160-Gbit/s pol-muxed DPSK OTDM signal with a power penalty of less than 4 dB at a BER of 10−9. Moreover, Jones matrix analyses are applied to the orthogonal polarization exchange, indicating the exchange condition of orthogonal polarization exchange with the characteristic of transparency to the modulation format. The exchange performance is analyzed in terms of the extinction ratio (ER) of the newly converted signal to the original residual signal. The dynamic range of the product of nonlinear coefficient, pump power, and effective fiber length, the dynamic range of pump power, the impact and tolerance of pump polarization offset are discussed to characterize and optimize the performance of orthogonal polarization exchange.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. G. Weber, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, M. Kroh, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, and C. Schubert, “Ultrahigh-speed OTDM-transmission technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4616–4627 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, P. G. Bernasconi, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, and L. W. Stulz, “1-Tb/s (6×170.6 Gb/s) transmission over 2000-km NZDF using OTDM and RZ-DPSK format,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1618–1620 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, H. Hu, A. T. Clausen, J. B. Jensen, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1438–1443 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-1438 .
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “A review of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks: architectures and challenges,” Opt. Netw. Mag. 4, 55–64 (2002).
  7. G. Zarris, E. Hugues-Salas, N. A. Gonzalez, R. Weerasuriya, F. Parmigiani, D. Hillerkuss, P. Vorreau, M. Spyropoulou, S. K. Ibrahim, A. D. Ellis, R. Morais, P. Monteiro, P. Petropoulos, D. J. Richardson, I. Tomkos, J. Leuthold, and D. Simeonidou, “Field Experiments With a Grooming Switch for OTDM Meshed Networking,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(4), 316–327 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Suzuki, K. Taira, Y. Fukuchi, Y. Ozeki, T. Tanemura, and K. Kikuchi, “All-optical time-division add-drop multiplexer using optical fibre Kerr shutter,” Electron. Lett. 40(7), 445–446 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. J. Winzer and R.-J. Essiambre, “Advanced Modulation Formats for High-Capacity Optical Transport Networks,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4711–4728 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Wang, O. F. Yilmaz, S. R. Nuccio, X. X. Wu, Z. Bakhtiari, Y. Xiao-Li, J.-Y. Yang, H. Huang, Y. Yue, I. Fazal, R. Hellwarth, and A. E. Willner, “Data traffic grooming/exchange of a single 10-Gbit/s TDM tributary channel between two pol-muxed 80-Gbit/s DPSK channels,” Proc. CLEO’10, San Jose, California, USA, paper CFJ5, 2010.
  11. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd Edition (San Diego, CA: Academic, 2002).
  12. V. Marembert, K. Schulze, C. Schubert, C. M. Weinert, H. G. Weber, S. Watanabe, and F. Futami, “Investigations of fiber Kerr switch: nonlinear phase shift measurements and optical time-division demultiplexing of 320 Gbit/s DPSK signals”, Proc. CLEO’05, paper CWK7, 2005.
  13. E. J. M. Verdurmen, A. M. J. Koonen, and H. de Waardt, “Time domain add-drop multiplexing for RZ-DPSK OTDM signals,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5114–5120 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-12-5114 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

2004

J. Suzuki, K. Taira, Y. Fukuchi, Y. Ozeki, T. Tanemura, and K. Kikuchi, “All-optical time-division add-drop multiplexer using optical fibre Kerr shutter,” Electron. Lett. 40(7), 445–446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, P. G. Bernasconi, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, and L. W. Stulz, “1-Tb/s (6×170.6 Gb/s) transmission over 2000-km NZDF using OTDM and RZ-DPSK format,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1618–1620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “A review of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks: architectures and challenges,” Opt. Netw. Mag. 4, 55–64 (2002).

Bernasconi, P. G.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, P. G. Bernasconi, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, and L. W. Stulz, “1-Tb/s (6×170.6 Gb/s) transmission over 2000-km NZDF using OTDM and RZ-DPSK format,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1618–1620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boerner, C.

H. G. Weber, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, M. Kroh, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, and C. Schubert, “Ultrahigh-speed OTDM-transmission technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4616–4627 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clausen, A. T.

H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, H. Hu, A. T. Clausen, J. B. Jensen, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1438–1443 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-1438 .
[CrossRef]

H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

Doerr, C. R.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, P. G. Bernasconi, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, and L. W. Stulz, “1-Tb/s (6×170.6 Gb/s) transmission over 2000-km NZDF using OTDM and RZ-DPSK format,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1618–1620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. D.

Essiambre, R.-J.

Ferber, S.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Weber, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, M. Kroh, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, and C. Schubert, “Ultrahigh-speed OTDM-transmission technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4616–4627 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fukuchi, Y.

J. Suzuki, K. Taira, Y. Fukuchi, Y. Ozeki, T. Tanemura, and K. Kikuchi, “All-optical time-division add-drop multiplexer using optical fibre Kerr shutter,” Electron. Lett. 40(7), 445–446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Futami, F.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Galili, M.

H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, H. Hu, A. T. Clausen, J. B. Jensen, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1438–1443 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-1438 .
[CrossRef]

H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, P. G. Bernasconi, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, and L. W. Stulz, “1-Tb/s (6×170.6 Gb/s) transmission over 2000-km NZDF using OTDM and RZ-DPSK format,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1618–1620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, N. A.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hansen Mulvad, H. C.

H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hillerkuss, D.

Hu, H.

Hugues-Salas, E.

Ibrahim, S. K.

Jensen, J. B.

Jeppesen, P.

H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, H. Hu, A. T. Clausen, J. B. Jensen, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1438–1443 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-1438 .
[CrossRef]

H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, K.

J. Suzuki, K. Taira, Y. Fukuchi, Y. Ozeki, T. Tanemura, and K. Kikuchi, “All-optical time-division add-drop multiplexer using optical fibre Kerr shutter,” Electron. Lett. 40(7), 445–446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koonen, A. M. J.

Kroh, M.

H. G. Weber, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, M. Kroh, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, and C. Schubert, “Ultrahigh-speed OTDM-transmission technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4616–4627 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leuthold, J.

Ludwig, R.

H. G. Weber, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, M. Kroh, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, and C. Schubert, “Ultrahigh-speed OTDM-transmission technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4616–4627 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Marembert, V.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Weber, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, M. Kroh, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, and C. Schubert, “Ultrahigh-speed OTDM-transmission technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4616–4627 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Monteiro, P.

Morais, R.

Mukherjee, B.

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “A review of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks: architectures and challenges,” Opt. Netw. Mag. 4, 55–64 (2002).

Mulvad, H. C. H.

Oxenløwe, L. K.

H. C. H. Mulvad, M. Galili, L. K. Oxenløwe, H. Hu, A. T. Clausen, J. B. Jensen, C. Peucheret, and P. Jeppesen, “Demonstration of 5.1 Tbit/s data capacity on a single-wavelength channel,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1438–1443 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-2-1438 .
[CrossRef]

H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ozeki, Y.

J. Suzuki, K. Taira, Y. Fukuchi, Y. Ozeki, T. Tanemura, and K. Kikuchi, “All-optical time-division add-drop multiplexer using optical fibre Kerr shutter,” Electron. Lett. 40(7), 445–446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Parmigiani, F.

Petropoulos, P.

Peucheret, C.

Raybon, G.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, P. G. Bernasconi, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, and L. W. Stulz, “1-Tb/s (6×170.6 Gb/s) transmission over 2000-km NZDF using OTDM and RZ-DPSK format,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1618–1620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Schmidt-Langhorst, C.

H. G. Weber, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, M. Kroh, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, and C. Schubert, “Ultrahigh-speed OTDM-transmission technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4616–4627 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, C.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Weber, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, M. Kroh, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, and C. Schubert, “Ultrahigh-speed OTDM-transmission technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4616–4627 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Simeonidou, D.

Spyropoulou, M.

Stulz, L. W.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, P. G. Bernasconi, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, and L. W. Stulz, “1-Tb/s (6×170.6 Gb/s) transmission over 2000-km NZDF using OTDM and RZ-DPSK format,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1618–1620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, J.

J. Suzuki, K. Taira, Y. Fukuchi, Y. Ozeki, T. Tanemura, and K. Kikuchi, “All-optical time-division add-drop multiplexer using optical fibre Kerr shutter,” Electron. Lett. 40(7), 445–446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Taira, K.

J. Suzuki, K. Taira, Y. Fukuchi, Y. Ozeki, T. Tanemura, and K. Kikuchi, “All-optical time-division add-drop multiplexer using optical fibre Kerr shutter,” Electron. Lett. 40(7), 445–446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tanemura, T.

J. Suzuki, K. Taira, Y. Fukuchi, Y. Ozeki, T. Tanemura, and K. Kikuchi, “All-optical time-division add-drop multiplexer using optical fibre Kerr shutter,” Electron. Lett. 40(7), 445–446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tomkos, I.

Verdurmen, E. J. M.

Vorreau, P.

Watanabe, S.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. G.

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Weber, R. Ludwig, S. Ferber, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, M. Kroh, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, and C. Schubert, “Ultrahigh-speed OTDM-transmission technology,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(12), 4616–4627 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weerasuriya, R.

Winzer, P. J.

Zarris, G.

Zhu, K.

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “A review of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks: architectures and challenges,” Opt. Netw. Mag. 4, 55–64 (2002).

Electron. Lett.

H. C. Hansen Mulvad, L. K. Oxenløwe, M. Galili, A. T. Clausen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, and P. Jeppesen, “1.28 Tbit/s single-polarisation serial OOK optical data generation and demultiplexing,” Electron. Lett. 45(5), 280–281 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Weber, S. Ferber, M. Kroh, C. Schmidt-Langhorst, R. Ludwig, V. Marembert, C. Boerner, F. Futami, S. Watanabe, and C. Schubert, “Single channel 1.28 Tbit/s and 2.56 Tbit/s DQPSK transmission,” Electron. Lett. 42(3), 178–179 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Suzuki, K. Taira, Y. Fukuchi, Y. Ozeki, T. Tanemura, and K. Kikuchi, “All-optical time-division add-drop multiplexer using optical fibre Kerr shutter,” Electron. Lett. 40(7), 445–446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. H. Gnauck, G. Raybon, P. G. Bernasconi, J. Leuthold, C. R. Doerr, and L. W. Stulz, “1-Tb/s (6×170.6 Gb/s) transmission over 2000-km NZDF using OTDM and RZ-DPSK format,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(11), 1618–1620 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Opt. Netw. Mag.

K. Zhu and B. Mukherjee, “A review of traffic grooming in WDM optical networks: architectures and challenges,” Opt. Netw. Mag. 4, 55–64 (2002).

Other

J. Wang, O. F. Yilmaz, S. R. Nuccio, X. X. Wu, Z. Bakhtiari, Y. Xiao-Li, J.-Y. Yang, H. Huang, Y. Yue, I. Fazal, R. Hellwarth, and A. E. Willner, “Data traffic grooming/exchange of a single 10-Gbit/s TDM tributary channel between two pol-muxed 80-Gbit/s DPSK channels,” Proc. CLEO’10, San Jose, California, USA, paper CFJ5, 2010.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd Edition (San Diego, CA: Academic, 2002).

V. Marembert, K. Schulze, C. Schubert, C. M. Weinert, H. G. Weber, S. Watanabe, and F. Futami, “Investigations of fiber Kerr switch: nonlinear phase shift measurements and optical time-division demultiplexing of 320 Gbit/s DPSK signals”, Proc. CLEO’05, paper CWK7, 2005.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Concept and principle of Kerr effect-based (a) DPSK OTDM signal demultiplexing and (b) orthogonal tributary channel exchange of a pol-muxed DPSK OTDM signal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. MLL: mode-locked laser; EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier; BPF: band-pass filter; ODL: tunable optical delay line; PC: polarization controller; PM: phase modulator; VOA: variable optical attenuator; OC: optical coupler; Pol.: polarizer; Rx: receiver.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

BER and balanced eyes of 40/80/160-to-10 Gbit/s DPSK OTDM signal demultiplexing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra for orthogonal tributary channel exchange of a 160-Gbit/s pol-muxed DPSK OTDM signal. (a) Before the HNLF (point A in Fig. 2). (b) After the HNLF (point B in Fig. 2). (c) Selected X-/Y-polarization after the orthogonal tributary exchange (point C in Fig. 2).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Eye diagrams of orthogonal tributary channel (Ch. 1) exchange of a 160-Gbit/s pol-muxed DPSK OTDM signal.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Eye diagrams of orthogonal tributary channel exchange of a 160-Gbit/s pol-muxed DPSK OTDM signal. (a) Ch. 4. (b) Ch. 7.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

BER and balanced eyes of orthogonal tributary channel exchange of a 160-Gbit/s pol-muxed DPSK OTDM signal.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Power penalties of orthogonal tributary exchange for 8 tributary channels.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Impact of the orthogonal tributary exchange on the neighboring channels.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

ER performance for Y-to-X and X-to-Y polarization exchanges without pump polarization offset. (a) ER vs. γ P P L e f f . (b) Dynamic range of γ P P L e f f vs. desired minimal ER. (c) ER vs. fiber length and pump power (ER>20dB within pairs of dashed lines). (d) Optimized pump power and dynamic range of pump power (ER>20 dB) vs. fiber length. (e) ER vs. pump power under different fiber lengths of L = 300, 400, 500 m. (f) Dynamic range of pump power vs. desired minimal ER under different fiber lengths of L = 300, 400, 500 m. γ = 25 W−1·km−1 and α = 0.5 dB/km are given for (c)-(f).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

ER performance for Y-to-X and X-to-Y polarization exchanges with pump polarization offset. (a) ER vs. γ P P L e f f under different pump polarization offsets. (b) Tolerance of pump polarization offset vs. desired achievable ER. (c) Dynamic range of γ P P L e f f vs. pump polarization offset under different desired ER. (d) ER vs. fiber length and pump power under a pump polarization offset of ± 9° (ER>20dB within pairs of dashed lines). (e) Optimized pump power and dynamic range of pump power (ER>20 dB) vs. fiber length under a pump polarization offset of ± 9°. (f) Dynamic range of pump power vs. desired minimal ER under different fiber lengths (L = 300, 400, 500 m) and different pump polarization offsets ( ± 6°, ± 9°, ± 13°). γ = 25 W−1·km−1 and α = 0.5 dB/km are given for (d)-(f).

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( E x 1 ' E y 1 ' ) = ( 1                     0 0       exp ( j Δ φ N L ) ) ( E x 10 E y 10 ) = ( 1                     0 0       exp ( j Δ φ N L ) ) ( cos θ E 10 sin θ E 10 )
( E x 2 ' E y 2 ' ) = ( 1                     0 0       exp ( j Δ φ N L ) ) ( E x 20 E y 20 ) = ( 1                     0 0       exp ( j Δ φ N L ) ) ( sin θ E 20 cos θ E 20 )
Δ φ N L = 2 π / λ L e f f n 2 B | E P | 2 = 4 / 3 γ P P L e f f
Δ φ N L = ( 2 N + 1 ) π ,     N = 0 , 1 , 2 , ...
θ = π / 4 ( ϕ = 0 )
( E x 1 ' E y 1 ' ) = ( E x 20 E y 20 )
( E x 2 ' E y 2 ' ) = ( E x 10 E y 10 )
( sin θ , cos θ ) ( E x 1 ' E y 1 ' ) = ( sin θ cos θ + sin θ cos θ exp ( j Δ φ N L ) ) E 10
( cos θ , sin θ ) ( E x 1 ' E y 1 ' ) = ( cos 2 θ + sin 2 θ exp ( j Δ φ N L ) ) E 10
( cos θ , sin θ ) ( E x 2 ' E y 2 ' ) = ( sin θ cos θ + sin θ cos θ exp ( j Δ φ N L ) ) E 20
( sin θ , cos θ ) ( E x 2 ' E y 2 ' ) = ( sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ exp ( j Δ φ N L ) ) E 20
ER Y to X = sin 2 2 θ sin 2 Δ φ N L 2 1 sin 2 2 θ sin 2 Δ φ N L 2 | E 20 | 2 | E 10 | 2
ER X to Y = sin 2 2 θ sin 2 Δ φ N L 2 1 sin 2 2 θ sin 2 Δ φ N L 2 | E 10 | 2 | E 20 | 2

Metrics