Abstract

We demonstrate a cascaded optical link for ultrastable frequency dissemination comprised of two compensated links of 150 km and a repeater station. Each link includes 114 km of Internet fiber simultaneously carrying data traffic through a dense wavelength division multiplexing technology, and passes through two routing centers of the telecommunication network. The optical reference signal is inserted in and extracted from the communication network using bidirectional optical add-drop multiplexers. The repeater station operates autonomously ensuring noise compensation on the two links and the ultra-stable signal optical regeneration. The compensated link shows a fractional frequency instability of 3 × 10−15 at one second measurement time and 5 × 10−20 at 20 hours. This work paves the way to a wide dissemination of ultra-stable optical clock signals between distant laboratories via the Internet network.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2010 (4)

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 168–174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Terra, G. Grosche, and H. Schnatz, “Brillouin amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies over 480 km fiber,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16102-16111 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

2008 (5)

2007 (3)

N. R. Newbury, P. A. Williams, and W. C. Swann, “Coherent transfer of an optical carrier over 251 km,” Opt. Lett. 32(21), 3056–3058 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjoelker, “Stable Photonic Links for Frequency and Time Transfer in the Deep-Space Network and Antenna Arrays,” IEEE Proc 95(10), 1931–1946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. G. Karshenboim, “Fundamental physical constants: looking from different angles,” Can. J. Phys. 83(8), 767–811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

V. V. Flambaum, “Enhanced effect of temporal variation of the fine-structure constant in diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. D 69, 115006 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. P. Uzan, “The fundamental constants and their variation: observational and theoretical status,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(2), 403–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Amy-Klein, A.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, O. Lopez, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance ultrastable frequency transfer over urban fiber link: toward a European network,” Proc. SPIE 7431, 74310D (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Kéfélian, O. Lopez, H. Jiang, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution optical frequency dissemination on a telecommunications network with data traffic,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1573–1575 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Shelkovnikov, R. J. Butcher, C. Chardonnet, and A. Amy-Klein, “Stability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 150801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bize, S.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butcher, R. J.

A. Shelkovnikov, R. J. Butcher, C. Chardonnet, and A. Amy-Klein, “Stability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 150801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Byrd, J. M.

Calhoun, M.

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjoelker, “Stable Photonic Links for Frequency and Time Transfer in the Deep-Space Network and Antenna Arrays,” IEEE Proc 95(10), 1931–1946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chambon, D.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chardonnet, C.

A. Shelkovnikov, R. J. Butcher, C. Chardonnet, and A. Amy-Klein, “Stability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 150801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chardonnet, Ch.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, O. Lopez, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance ultrastable frequency transfer over urban fiber link: toward a European network,” Proc. SPIE 7431, 74310D (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Kéfélian, O. Lopez, H. Jiang, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution optical frequency dissemination on a telecommunications network with data traffic,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1573–1575 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crane, S.

Daussy, C.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doolittle, L.

Ertmer, W.

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, T.

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Flambaum, V. V.

V. V. Flambaum, “Enhanced effect of temporal variation of the fine-structure constant in diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. D 69, 115006 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, S. M.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friebe, J.

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujieda, M.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 168–174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, “Stable radio frequency transfer in 114 km urban optical fiber link,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2949–2951 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goncharov, A.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grosche, G.

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Terra, G. Grosche, and H. Schnatz, “Brillouin amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies over 480 km fiber,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16102-16111 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10 -19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, “Phase-coherent comparison of two optical frequency standards over 146 km using a telecommunication fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 541–551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guinet, M.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Holleville, D.

Holman, K. W.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holzwarth, R.

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, “Phase-coherent comparison of two optical frequency standards over 146 km using a telecommunication fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 541–551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10 -19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, F. L.

Hosokawa, M.

Huang, G.

Huang, S.

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjoelker, “Stable Photonic Links for Frequency and Time Transfer in the Deep-Space Network and Antenna Arrays,” IEEE Proc 95(10), 1931–1946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, D. D.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

Jones, D. J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karshenboim, S. G.

S. G. Karshenboim, “Fundamental physical constants: looking from different angles,” Can. J. Phys. 83(8), 767–811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kéfélian, F.

Kumagai, M.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 168–174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, “Stable radio frequency transfer in 114 km urban optical fiber link,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2949–2951 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Legero, T.

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, “Phase-coherent comparison of two optical frequency standards over 146 km using a telecommunication fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 541–551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lemonde, P.

Lipphardt, B.

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, “Phase-coherent comparison of two optical frequency standards over 146 km using a telecommunication fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 541–551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10 -19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez, O.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, O. Lopez, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance ultrastable frequency transfer over urban fiber link: toward a European network,” Proc. SPIE 7431, 74310D (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Kéfélian, O. Lopez, H. Jiang, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution optical frequency dissemination on a telecommunications network with data traffic,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1573–1575 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lours, M.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Z. H.

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luiten, A. N.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Millo, J.

Musha, M.

Nagano, S.

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 168–174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kumagai, M. Fujieda, S. Nagano, and M. Hosokawa, “Stable radio frequency transfer in 114 km urban optical fiber link,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2949–2951 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakagawa, K.

Narbonneau, F.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newbury, N. R.

Pape, A.

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Predehl, K.

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, “Phase-coherent comparison of two optical frequency standards over 146 km using a telecommunication fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 541–551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10 -19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasel, E.-M.

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Riedmann, M.

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Santarelli, G.

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, O. Lopez, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance ultrastable frequency transfer over urban fiber link: toward a European network,” Proc. SPIE 7431, 74310D (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Kéfélian, O. Lopez, H. Jiang, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution optical frequency dissemination on a telecommunications network with data traffic,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1573–1575 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Jiang, F. Kéfélian, S. Crane, O. Lopez, M. Lours, J. Millo, D. Holleville, P. Lemonde, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance frequency transfer over an urban fiber link using optical phase stabilization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(12), 2029–2035 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnatz, H.

O. Terra, G. Grosche, and H. Schnatz, “Brillouin amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies over 480 km fiber,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16102-16111 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, “Phase-coherent comparison of two optical frequency standards over 146 km using a telecommunication fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 541–551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10 -19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelkovnikov, A.

A. Shelkovnikov, R. J. Butcher, C. Chardonnet, and A. Amy-Klein, “Stability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 150801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staples, J. W.

Sterr, U.

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, “Phase-coherent comparison of two optical frequency standards over 146 km using a telecommunication fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 541–551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10 -19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swann, W. C.

Terra, O.

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Terra, G. Grosche, and H. Schnatz, “Brillouin amplification in phase coherent transfer of optical frequencies over 480 km fiber,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16102-16111 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, “Phase-coherent comparison of two optical frequency standards over 146 km using a telecommunication fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 541–551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Grosche, O. Terra, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, B. Lipphardt, F. Vogt, U. Sterr, and H. Schnatz, “Optical frequency transfer via 146 km fiber link with 10 -19 relative accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 34(15), 2270–2272 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tjoelker, R. L.

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjoelker, “Stable Photonic Links for Frequency and Time Transfer in the Deep-Space Network and Antenna Arrays,” IEEE Proc 95(10), 1931–1946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tobar, M. E.

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, T.

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K.

Uzan, J. P.

J. P. Uzan, “The fundamental constants and their variation: observational and theoretical status,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(2), 403–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, F.

Wang, L. J.

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, R.

Williams, P. A.

Wübbena, T.

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, M. Lours, Ch. Chardonnet, and G. Santarelli, “High-resolution microwave frequency dissemination on an 86-km urban optical link,” Appl. Phys. B 98(4), 723–727 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Terra, G. Grosche, K. Predehl, R. Holzwarth, T. Legero, U. Sterr, B. Lipphardt, and H. Schnatz, “Phase-coherent comparison of two optical frequency standards over 146 km using a telecommunication fiber link,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 541–551 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys. (1)

S. G. Karshenboim, “Fundamental physical constants: looking from different angles,” Can. J. Phys. 83(8), 767–811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, C. Daussy, Ch. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, and G. Santarelli, “86-km optical link with a resolution of 2×10−18 for RF frequency transfer,” Eur. Phys. J. D 48(1), 35–41 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Proc (1)

M. Calhoun, S. Huang, and R. L. Tjoelker, “Stable Photonic Links for Frequency and Time Transfer in the Deep-Space Network and Antenna Arrays,” IEEE Proc 95(10), 1931–1946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control (2)

M. Fujieda, M. Kumagai, and S. Nagano, “Coherent microwave transfer over a 204-km telecom fiber link by a cascaded system,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 168–174 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Schnatz, O. Terra, K. Predehl, T. Feldmann, T. Legero, B. Lipphardt, U. Sterr, G. Grosche, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, T. Udem, Z. H. Lu, L. J. Wang, W. Ertmer, J. Friebe, A. Pape, E.-M. Rasel, M. Riedmann, and T. Wübbena, “Phase-coherent frequency comparison of optical clocks using a telecommunication fiber link,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control 57(1), 175–181 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. D (1)

V. V. Flambaum, “Enhanced effect of temporal variation of the fine-structure constant in diatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. D 69, 115006 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

C. Daussy, O. Lopez, A. Amy-Klein, A. Goncharov, M. Guinet, C. Chardonnet, F. Narbonneau, M. Lours, D. Chambon, S. Bize, A. Clairon, G. Santarelli, M. E. Tobar, and A. N. Luiten, “Long-distance frequency dissemination with a resolution of 10(-17).,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(20), 203904 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Shelkovnikov, R. J. Butcher, C. Chardonnet, and A. Amy-Klein, “Stability of the proton-to-electron mass ratio,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(15), 150801 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

F. Kéfélian, H. Jiang, O. Lopez, Ch. Chardonnet, A. Amy-Klein, and G. Santarelli, “Long-distance ultrastable frequency transfer over urban fiber link: toward a European network,” Proc. SPIE 7431, 74310D (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

J. P. Uzan, “The fundamental constants and their variation: observational and theoretical status,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 75(2), 403–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. M. Foreman, K. W. Holman, D. D. Hudson, D. J. Jones, and J. Ye, “Remote transfer of ultrastable frequency references via fiber networks,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78(2), 021101 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

B. Shillue, S. Albanna, and L. D'Addario, “Transmission of low phase noise, low phase drift millimeter-wavelength references by a stabilized fiber distribution system,” Proceedings of IEEE International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (IEEE, 2004), pp. 201–204.

G. Grosche, et al., “1,5 µm Fiber Network for Long-Distance Metrology,” Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IEEE, 2010), to be published.

G. Grosche, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig, Germany; patent application DE 10.2008.062.139, “Method for making available a reference frequency” (personal communication, 2010).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scheme of the Nth repeater station, FM: Faraday mirror, PD: photodiode, LO: local RF oscillator, AOM: acousto-optic modulator, Log: logarithmic amplifier, µC: microcontroller, PLL: phase-lock loop

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

End-to-end fractional frequency instability of a 2x150 km cascaded testbed link: 150-km free running up-link (red circles), 2x150 km compensated link measured with a 10 Hz filter (black squares), system floor with zero-length link (green up-triangles)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scheme of the 2 x 150 km cascaded optical link.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal behavior (sampled every 10s) of the optical link propagation delay: (a) end-to-end propagation delay of the 300 km free-running optical link recorded without repeater station at Nogent l’Artaud (red trace); (b) end-to-end propagation delay of the 300-km cascaded compensated link (black trace), (c) correction signal (applied to the input AOM at LPL) of the 150-km up-link (red dashed trace). Curves (b) and (c) were recorded simultaneously.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phase noise power spectral density of the different subsections of the link. Black line: first subsection LPL-Interxion1-LPL of 22 km. Blue line: LPL-Telehouse2-LPL link of 94 km. Red line: LPL-Nogent l’Artaud-LPL link of 300-km.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Phase noise power spectral density (PSD) of the compensated 2 × 150 km link (black line) and twice the phase noise PSD of the free running 150 km up-link (red line).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

End-to-end fractional frequency instability of the 150 km free running up-link (red circles), and 2x150 km compensated link measured without filter (blue up-triangles) and with a 10 Hz filter (black squares)

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