Abstract

We report an entanglement-based quantum key distribution experiment that we performed over 100 km of optical fiber using a practical source and detectors. We used a silicon-based photon-pair source that generated high-purity time-bin entangled photons, and high-speed single photon detectors based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes with the sinusoidal gating technique. To calculate the secure key rate, we employed a security proof that validated the use of practical detectors. As a result, we confirmed the successful generation of sifted keys over 100 km of optical fiber with a key rate of 4.8 bit/s and an error rate of 9.1%, with which we can distill secure keys with a key rate of 0.15 bit/s.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. Waks, A. Zeevi, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 052310 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Tsurumaru, and K. Tamaki, “Security proof for quantum-key-distribution systems with threshold detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 032302 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. J. Beaudry, T. Moroder, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Squashing models for optical measurements in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093601 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. Koashi, Y. Adachi, T. Yamamoto, and N. Imoto, “Security of entanglement-based quantum key distribution with practical detectors,” arXiv: 0804.0891 (2008).
  7. T. Tsurumaru, “Squash operator and symmetry,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 012328 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre,” N. J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post processing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Qi, Y.-M. Chi, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, “High-speed quantum random number generation by measuring phase noise of a single-mode laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 312–314 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. Jennewein, C. Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum cryptography with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729–4732 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. D. S. Naik, C. G. Peterson, A. G. White, A. J. Berglund, and P. G. Kwiat, “Entangled state quantum cryptography: eavesdropping on the Ekert protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4733–4736 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. A. Poppe, A. Fedrizzi, R. Ursin, H. Bohm, T. Lorunser, O. Maurhardt, M. Peev, M. Suda, C. Kurtsiefer, H. Weinfurter, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “Practical quantum key distribution with polarization entangled photons,” Opt. Express 12, 3865–3871 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Differential-phase quantum key distribution experiment using a series of quantum entangled photon pairs,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1165 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. T. Honjo, S. W. Nam, H. Takesue, Q. Zhang, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, B. Baek, R. Hadfield, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Long-distance entanglement based quantum key distribution over optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16, 19118–19126 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Generation of high-purity entangled photon pairs using silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 20368–20373 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. N. Namekata, S. Sasamori, and S. Inoue, “800 MHz single-photon detection at 1550-nm using an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode operated with a sine wave gating,” Opt. Express 14, 10043–10049 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  27. T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669–1670 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594–2597 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 325–331 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  30. H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Generation of 1.5-μm band time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar lightwave circuit interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 041804 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  31. B. Miquel, and H. Takesue, “Observation of 1.5 μm band entanglement using single photon detectors based on sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” N. J. Phys. 11, 045006 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  32. H. K. Lo, and H. F. Chau, “Unconditional security of quantum key distribution over arbitrarily long distances,” Science 283, 2050–2056 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. P. W. Shor, and J. Preskill, “Simple proof of security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 441–444 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 050304 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  35. H. de Riedmatten, V. Scarani, I. Marcikic, A. Acin, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Two independent photon pairs versus four-photon entangled states in parametric down conversion,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1637–1649 (2004).
  36. H. Takesue, and K. Shimizu, “Effects of multiple pairs on visibility measurements of entangled photons generated by spontaneous parametric processes,” Opt. Commun. 283, 276–287 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2010

T. Tsurumaru, “Squash operator and symmetry,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 012328 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Qi, Y.-M. Chi, H.-K. Lo, and L. Qian, “High-speed quantum random number generation by measuring phase noise of a single-mode laser,” Opt. Lett. 35, 312–314 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, and K. Shimizu, “Effects of multiple pairs on visibility measurements of entangled photons generated by spontaneous parametric processes,” Opt. Commun. 283, 276–287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

B. Miquel, and H. Takesue, “Observation of 1.5 μm band entanglement using single photon detectors based on sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” N. J. Phys. 11, 045006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

T. Honjo, S. W. Nam, H. Takesue, Q. Zhang, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, B. Baek, R. Hadfield, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Long-distance entanglement based quantum key distribution over optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16, 19118–19126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Generation of high-purity entangled photon pairs using silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 20368–20373 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post processing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsurumaru, and K. Tamaki, “Security proof for quantum-key-distribution systems with threshold detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 032302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Beaudry, T. Moroder, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Squashing models for optical measurements in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Differential-phase quantum key distribution experiment using a series of quantum entangled photon pairs,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1165 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

N. Namekata, S. Sasamori, and S. Inoue, “800 MHz single-photon detection at 1550-nm using an InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode operated with a sine wave gating,” Opt. Express 14, 10043–10049 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre,” N. J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Generation of 1.5-μm band time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar lightwave circuit interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 041804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 050304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. de Riedmatten, V. Scarani, I. Marcikic, A. Acin, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Two independent photon pairs versus four-photon entangled states in parametric down conversion,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1637–1649 (2004).

S. Fasel, N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 30 km of standard fiber using energy-time entangled photon pairs: a comparison of two chromatic dispersion reduction methods,” Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 2013148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Poppe, A. Fedrizzi, R. Ursin, H. Bohm, T. Lorunser, O. Maurhardt, M. Peev, M. Suda, C. Kurtsiefer, H. Weinfurter, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “Practical quantum key distribution with polarization entangled photons,” Opt. Express 12, 3865–3871 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Waks, A. Zeevi, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 052310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

T. Jennewein, C. Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum cryptography with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729–4732 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Naik, C. G. Peterson, A. G. White, A. J. Berglund, and P. G. Kwiat, “Entangled state quantum cryptography: eavesdropping on the Ekert protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4733–4736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. W. Shor, and J. Preskill, “Simple proof of security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 441–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

H. K. Lo, and H. F. Chau, “Unconditional security of quantum key distribution over arbitrarily long distances,” Science 283, 2050–2056 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594–2597 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bellf’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acin, A.

H. de Riedmatten, V. Scarani, I. Marcikic, A. Acin, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Two independent photon pairs versus four-photon entangled states in parametric down conversion,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1637–1649 (2004).

Amano, K.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

Baek, B.

Beaudry, N. J.

N. J. Beaudry, T. Moroder, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Squashing models for optical measurements in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, C. H.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berglund, A. J.

D. S. Naik, C. G. Peterson, A. G. White, A. J. Berglund, and P. G. Kwiat, “Entangled state quantum cryptography: eavesdropping on the Ekert protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4733–4736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bohm, H.

Brassard, G.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brendel, J.

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594–2597 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chau, H. F.

H. K. Lo, and H. F. Chau, “Unconditional security of quantum key distribution over arbitrarily long distances,” Science 283, 2050–2056 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chi, Y.-M.

Cova, S.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davis, P.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Riedmatten, H.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 050304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. de Riedmatten, V. Scarani, I. Marcikic, A. Acin, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Two independent photon pairs versus four-photon entangled states in parametric down conversion,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1637–1649 (2004).

Diamanti, E.

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre,” N. J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, A. R.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dynes, J. F.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post processing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ekert, A. K.

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bellf’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fasel, S.

S. Fasel, N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 30 km of standard fiber using energy-time entangled photon pairs: a comparison of two chromatic dispersion reduction methods,” Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 2013148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fedrizzi, A.

Fejer, M. M.

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre,” N. J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

Fukuda, H.

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Generation of high-purity entangled photon pairs using silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 20368–20373 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, J.-D.

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Fasel, N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 30 km of standard fiber using energy-time entangled photon pairs: a comparison of two chromatic dispersion reduction methods,” Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 2013148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 050304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. de Riedmatten, V. Scarani, I. Marcikic, A. Acin, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Two independent photon pairs versus four-photon entangled states in parametric down conversion,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1637–1649 (2004).

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594–2597 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R.

Hadfield, R. H.

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harada, K.

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Generation of high-purity entangled photon pairs using silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 20368–20373 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirano, K.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Honjo, T.

T. Honjo, S. W. Nam, H. Takesue, Q. Zhang, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, B. Baek, R. Hadfield, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Long-distance entanglement based quantum key distribution over optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16, 19118–19126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Differential-phase quantum key distribution experiment using a series of quantum entangled photon pairs,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1165 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre,” N. J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, K.

T. Honjo, S. W. Nam, H. Takesue, Q. Zhang, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, B. Baek, R. Hadfield, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Long-distance entanglement based quantum key distribution over optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16, 19118–19126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Differential-phase quantum key distribution experiment using a series of quantum entangled photon pairs,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1165 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre,” N. J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Generation of 1.5-μm band time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar lightwave circuit interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 041804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, M.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Inoue, S.

Itabashi, S.

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Generation of high-purity entangled photon pairs using silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 20368–20373 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jennewein, T.

Kamada, H.

Krainer, L.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kurashige, T.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kurtsiefer, C.

Kwiat, P. G.

D. S. Naik, C. G. Peterson, A. G. White, A. J. Berglund, and P. G. Kwiat, “Entangled state quantum cryptography: eavesdropping on the Ekert protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4733–4736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langrock, C.

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre,” N. J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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H. K. Lo, and H. F. Chau, “Unconditional security of quantum key distribution over arbitrarily long distances,” Science 283, 2050–2056 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, H.-K.

Lorunser, T.

Lutkenhaus, N.

N. J. Beaudry, T. Moroder, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Squashing models for optical measurements in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcikic, I.

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 050304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. de Riedmatten, V. Scarani, I. Marcikic, A. Acin, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Two independent photon pairs versus four-photon entangled states in parametric down conversion,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1637–1649 (2004).

Maurhardt, O.

Mermin, N. D.

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miki, S.

Miquel, B.

B. Miquel, and H. Takesue, “Observation of 1.5 μm band entanglement using single photon detectors based on sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” N. J. Phys. 11, 045006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moroder, T.

N. J. Beaudry, T. Moroder, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Squashing models for optical measurements in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naik, D. S.

D. S. Naik, C. G. Peterson, A. G. White, A. J. Berglund, and P. G. Kwiat, “Entangled state quantum cryptography: eavesdropping on the Ekert protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4733–4736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naito, S.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S. W.

T. Honjo, S. W. Nam, H. Takesue, Q. Zhang, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, B. Baek, R. Hadfield, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Long-distance entanglement based quantum key distribution over optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16, 19118–19126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Namekata, N.

Nishida, Y.

Oowada, I.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peev, M.

Peterson, C. G.

D. S. Naik, C. G. Peterson, A. G. White, A. J. Berglund, and P. G. Kwiat, “Entangled state quantum cryptography: eavesdropping on the Ekert protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4733–4736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poppe, A.

Preskill, J.

P. W. Shor, and J. Preskill, “Simple proof of security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 441–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qi, B.

Qian, L.

Rech, I.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ribordy, G.

S. Fasel, N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 30 km of standard fiber using energy-time entangled photon pairs: a comparison of two chromatic dispersion reduction methods,” Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 2013148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rochas, A.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

Sasamori, S.

Scarani, V.

H. de Riedmatten, V. Scarani, I. Marcikic, A. Acin, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Two independent photon pairs versus four-photon entangled states in parametric down conversion,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1637–1649 (2004).

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 050304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sharpe, A. W.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post processing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
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Shields, A. J.

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post processing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shiki, M.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, K.

H. Takesue, and K. Shimizu, “Effects of multiple pairs on visibility measurements of entangled photons generated by spontaneous parametric processes,” Opt. Commun. 283, 276–287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shor, P. W.

P. W. Shor, and J. Preskill, “Simple proof of security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 441–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, C.

T. Jennewein, C. Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum cryptography with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729–4732 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Someya, H.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suda, M.

Tadanaga, O.

Takahashi, J.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takesue, H.

H. Takesue, and K. Shimizu, “Effects of multiple pairs on visibility measurements of entangled photons generated by spontaneous parametric processes,” Opt. Commun. 283, 276–287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Miquel, and H. Takesue, “Observation of 1.5 μm band entanglement using single photon detectors based on sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” N. J. Phys. 11, 045006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Generation of high-purity entangled photon pairs using silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 20368–20373 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Honjo, S. W. Nam, H. Takesue, Q. Zhang, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, B. Baek, R. Hadfield, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Long-distance entanglement based quantum key distribution over optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16, 19118–19126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Honjo, H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Differential-phase quantum key distribution experiment using a series of quantum entangled photon pairs,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1165 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre,” N. J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Generation of 1.5-μm band time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar lightwave circuit interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 041804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, K.

T. Tsurumaru, and K. Tamaki, “Security proof for quantum-key-distribution systems with threshold detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 032302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tamechika, E.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tanzilli, S.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thew, R. T.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tittel, W.

H. de Riedmatten, V. Scarani, I. Marcikic, A. Acin, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Two independent photon pairs versus four-photon entangled states in parametric down conversion,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1637–1649 (2004).

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 050304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594–2597 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tokura, Y.

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Generation of high-purity entangled photon pairs using silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 20368–20373 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Generation of high-purity entangled photon pairs using silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 20368–20373 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tsurumaru, T.

T. Tsurumaru, “Squash operator and symmetry,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 012328 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsurumaru, and K. Tamaki, “Security proof for quantum-key-distribution systems with threshold detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 032302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, A.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ursin, R.

Waks, E.

E. Waks, A. Zeevi, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 052310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Watanabe, T.

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Generation of high-purity entangled photon pairs using silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 20368–20373 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Weihs, G.

T. Jennewein, C. Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum cryptography with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729–4732 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinfurter, H.

White, A. G.

D. S. Naik, C. G. Peterson, A. G. White, A. J. Berglund, and P. G. Kwiat, “Entangled state quantum cryptography: eavesdropping on the Ekert protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4733–4736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, K.

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Generation of high-purity entangled photon pairs using silicon wire waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 20368–20373 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

T. Honjo, S. W. Nam, H. Takesue, Q. Zhang, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, B. Baek, R. Hadfield, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Long-distance entanglement based quantum key distribution over optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16, 19118–19126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre,” N. J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Waks, A. Zeevi, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 052310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimori, S.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, K.

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, Z. L.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post processing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zbinden, H.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Fasel, N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 30 km of standard fiber using energy-time entangled photon pairs: a comparison of two chromatic dispersion reduction methods,” Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 2013148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 050304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. de Riedmatten, V. Scarani, I. Marcikic, A. Acin, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Two independent photon pairs versus four-photon entangled states in parametric down conversion,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1637–1649 (2004).

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594–2597 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zeevi, A.

E. Waks, A. Zeevi, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 052310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zeilinger, A.

Zeller, S. C.

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

T. Honjo, S. W. Nam, H. Takesue, Q. Zhang, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, B. Baek, R. Hadfield, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Long-distance entanglement based quantum key distribution over optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16, 19118–19126 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. F. Dynes, Z. L. Yuan, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “A high speed, post processing free, quantum random number generator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 031109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. L. Yuan, A. R. Dixon, J. F. Dynes, A. W. Sharpe, and A. J. Shields, “Gigahertz quantum key distribution with InGaAs avalanche photodiodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 201104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, Y. Tokura, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and S. Itabashi, “Entanglement generation using silicon wire waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 201108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

T. Shoji, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, and H. Morita, “Low loss mode size converter from 0.3 μm square Si wire waveguides to singlemode fibres,” Electron. Lett. 38, 1669–1670 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D

S. Fasel, N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum key distribution over 30 km of standard fiber using energy-time entangled photon pairs: a comparison of two chromatic dispersion reduction methods,” Eur. Phys. J. D 30, 2013148 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11, 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Harada, H. Takesue, H. Fukuda, T. Tsuchizawa, T. Watanabe, K. Yamada, Y. Tokura, and S. Itabashi, “Frequency and polarization characteristics of correlated photon-pair generation using a silicon wire waveguide,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16, 325–331 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

H. de Riedmatten, V. Scarani, I. Marcikic, A. Acin, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Two independent photon pairs versus four-photon entangled states in parametric down conversion,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1637–1649 (2004).

N. J. Phys.

B. Miquel, and H. Takesue, “Observation of 1.5 μm band entanglement using single photon detectors based on sinusoidally gated InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes,” N. J. Phys. 11, 045006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, E. Diamanti, T. Honjo, C. Langrock, M. M. Fejer, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Differential phase shift quantum key distribution experiment over 105 km fibre,” N. J. Phys. 7, 232 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Thew, S. Tanzilli, L. Krainer, S. C. Zeller, A. Rochas, I. Rech, S. Cova, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Low jitter up-conversion detectors for telecom wavelength GHz QKD,” N. J. Phys. 8, 32 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

H. Takesue, S. W. Nam, Q. Zhang, R. H. Hadfield, T. Honjo, K. Tamaki, and Y. Yamamoto, “Quantum key distribution over 40 dB channel loss using superconducting single-photon detectors,” Nat. Photonics 1, 343 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Uchida, K. Amano, M. Inoue, K. Hirano, S. Naito, H. Someya, I. Oowada, T. Kurashige, M. Shiki, S. Yoshimori, K. Yoshimura, and P. Davis, “Fast physical random bit generation with chaotic semiconductor lasers,” Nat. Photonics 2, 728 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

H. Takesue, and K. Shimizu, “Effects of multiple pairs on visibility measurements of entangled photons generated by spontaneous parametric processes,” Opt. Commun. 283, 276–287 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

T. Tsurumaru, “Squash operator and symmetry,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 012328 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Ribordy, J. Brendel, J.-D. Gautier, N. Gisin, and H. Zbinden, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 012309 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Waks, A. Zeevi, and Y. Yamamoto, “Security of quantum key distribution with entangled photons against individual attacks,” Phys. Rev. A 65, 052310 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsurumaru, and K. Tamaki, “Security proof for quantum-key-distribution systems with threshold detectors,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 032302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikic, V. Scarani, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Tailoring photonic entanglement in high-dimensional Hilbert spaces,” Phys. Rev. A 69, 050304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Takesue, and K. Inoue, “Generation of 1.5-μm band time-bin entanglement using spontaneous fiber four-wave mixing and planar lightwave circuit interferometers,” Phys. Rev. A 72, 041804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

P. W. Shor, and J. Preskill, “Simple proof of security of the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 441–444 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Brendel, N. Gisin, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Pulsed energy-time entangled twin-photon source for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2594–2597 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Beaudry, T. Moroder, and N. Lutkenhaus, “Squashing models for optical measurements in quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 093601 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Ekert, “Quantum cryptography based on Bellf’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 661 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. D. Mermin, “Quantum cryptography without Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Jennewein, C. Simon, G. Weihs, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, “Quantum cryptography with entangled photons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4729–4732 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Naik, C. G. Peterson, A. G. White, A. J. Berglund, and P. G. Kwiat, “Entangled state quantum cryptography: eavesdropping on the Ekert protocol,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4733–4736 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Tittel, J. Brendel, H. Zbinden, and N. Gisin, “Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time Bell states,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4737–4740 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

H. K. Lo, and H. F. Chau, “Unconditional security of quantum key distribution over arbitrarily long distances,” Science 283, 2050–2056 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. Koashi, Y. Adachi, T. Yamamoto, and N. Imoto, “Security of entanglement-based quantum key distribution with practical detectors,” arXiv: 0804.0891 (2008).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Coincidence rate (squares) and idler count rate (circles) as a function of idler interferometer temperature.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Sifted and secure key rates as a function of fiber length between Alice and Bob. Theoretical key rates are calculated assuming a fiber loss of 0.2 dB/km.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. QKD results

Equations (28)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ψ = 1 2 ( 1 s 1 i + 2 s 2 i )
Ψ 1 4 2 { 1 , p 1 s 1 , p 1 i 1 , p 1 s 1 , p 2 i
1 , p 2 s 1 , p 1 i + 1 , p 2 s 1 , p 2 i
+ 2 2 , p 1 s 2 , p 1 i + 2 2 , p 2 s 2 , p 2 i
+ 3 , p 1 s 3 , p 1 1 + 3 , p 1 s 3 , p 2 i
+ 3 , p 2 s 3 , p 1 i + 3 , p 2 s 3 , p 2 i } ,
R sec = R sif { 1 ( 1 + f ( e ) ) h ( e ) }
P μ ( x ) = μ x ! e μ
Ψ = 1 2 ( a s a i + b s b i )
D k 1 ( 1 α 2 ) k + d k α 2 + d .
Ψ x = ( 1 2 ) x k = 1 x { a sk a ik + b sk b ik }
F ( x ) = Σ y = 0 x ( 1 2 ) x x C y ( D x y + D y ) 2 = Σ y = 0 x ( 1 2 ) x x C y ( D x y 2 + 2 D x y D y + D y 2 ) .
F er ( x ) = Σ y = 0 x ( 1 2 ) x x C y ( 2 D x y D y )
R e = Σ x = 0 P μ ( x ) F ( x ) .
R e , er = Σ x = 0 P μ ( x ) F er ( x )
R e = α 2 μ 4 + ( μ α 2 + 2 d ) 2
R e , er = 1 2 ( μ α 2 + 2 d ) 2
D k k α 2 + 2 d
R t = α 2 μ 4 + ( μ α 2 + 4 d ) 2
R t , er = 1 2 ( μ α 2 + 4 d ) 2
G ( x ) = Σ y = 0 x ( 1 2 ) x x C y ( 2 D x y 2 D y + 2 D y 2 D x y )
T = Σ x = 0 P μ ( x ) G ( x ) .
T e = α 3 μ 2 16 ( 2 + μ ) + 3 4 α 2 d μ 2 + 3 α d 2 μ + 1 2 α 2 d μ + 4 d 3
T t = α 3 μ 2 16 ( 2 + μ ) + 3 2 α 2 d μ 2 + 12 α d 2 μ + α 2 d μ + 32 d 3
T = T e + T t .
R sif = R e + R t T
R er = R e , er + R t , er 1 2 T
e = R er R sif

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