Abstract

Experiments and numerical simulation were performed for verification of the role of femtosecond pulse chirp for supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber. We demonstrate that injection of high power negatively chirped pulses near zero dispersion point brings an advantage over positively chirped pulses resulting in additional collision between solitons and in development of a significantly broader spectrum. Coupling between Raman induced solitons and dispersive waves generated by higher order dispersion was proven to be the key mechanism behind the results.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, “Observation of self phase modulation and small-scale filaments in crystals and glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(11), 592–594 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21(19), 1547–1549 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. M. Dudley, G. Gentry, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Gorbach, “Looking at a soliton through the prism of optical supercontinuum,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(2), 1287–1299 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Z. Zhu and T. G. Brown, “Effect of frequency chirping on supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 12(4), 689–694 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. X. Fu, L. Qian, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Nonlinear chirped pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in microstructured optical fibre,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(11), 1012–1016 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Zhang, S. Yu, J. Zhang, and W. Gu, “Effect of frequency chirp on supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fibers with two zero-dispersion wavelengths,” Opt. Express 15(3), 1147–1154 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Fuerbach, C. Miese, W. Koehler, and M. Geissler, “Supercontinuum generation with a chirped-pulse oscillator,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5905–5911 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. K. J. Blow and D. Wood, “Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(12), 2665–2673 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic Press, 2007).
  13. J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, “Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(21), 213902 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. F. M. Mitschke and L. F. Mollenauer, “Discovery of the soliton self-frequency shift,” Opt. Lett. 11(10), 659–661 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. Luan, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and J. C. Knight, “Energy exchange between colliding solitons in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9844–9853 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, and P. S. Russell, “Four-wave mixing of linear waves and solitons in fibers with higher-order dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2411–2413 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Gorbach, “Looking at a soliton through the prism of optical supercontinuum,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(2), 1287–1299 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

F. Luan, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and J. C. Knight, “Energy exchange between colliding solitons in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9844–9853 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, G. Gentry, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, “Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(21), 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2003 (1)

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1996 (1)

1989 (1)

K. J. Blow and D. Wood, “Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(12), 2665–2673 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1970 (1)

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, “Observation of self phase modulation and small-scale filaments in crystals and glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(11), 592–594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, “Observation of self phase modulation and small-scale filaments in crystals and glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(11), 592–594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Atkin, D. M.

Birks, T. A.

Blow, K. J.

K. J. Blow and D. Wood, “Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(12), 2665–2673 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. G.

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Gentry, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corwin, K. L.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, G. Gentry, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Efimov, A.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, “Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(21), 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, D.

X. Fu, L. Qian, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Nonlinear chirped pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in microstructured optical fibre,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(11), 1012–1016 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fu, X.

X. Fu, L. Qian, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Nonlinear chirped pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in microstructured optical fibre,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(11), 1012–1016 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fuerbach, A.

Geissler, M.

Gentry, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Gentry, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gorbach, A. V.

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Gorbach, “Looking at a soliton through the prism of optical supercontinuum,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(2), 1287–1299 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, W.

Herrmann, J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Husakou, A.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joly, N.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, “Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(21), 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

F. Luan, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and J. C. Knight, “Energy exchange between colliding solitons in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9844–9853 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, “Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(21), 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21(19), 1547–1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koehler, W.

Korn, G.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luan, F.

Miese, C.

Mitschke, F. M.

Mollenauer, L. F.

Newbury, N. R.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nickel, D.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Omenetto, F. G.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, “Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(21), 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, L.

X. Fu, L. Qian, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Nonlinear chirped pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in microstructured optical fibre,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(11), 1012–1016 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

Russell, P.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, “Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(21), 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S.

Russell, P. St. J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21(19), 1547–1549 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shapiro, S. L.

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, “Observation of self phase modulation and small-scale filaments in crystals and glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(11), 592–594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Skryabin, D. V.

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Gorbach, “Looking at a soliton through the prism of optical supercontinuum,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(2), 1287–1299 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Luan, D. V. Skryabin, A. V. Yulin, and J. C. Knight, “Energy exchange between colliding solitons in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9844–9853 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, “Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(21), 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, and P. S. Russell, “Four-wave mixing of linear waves and solitons in fibers with higher-order dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2411–2413 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A. J.

Taylor, A. J.

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, “Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(21), 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, K.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, S.

X. Fu, L. Qian, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Nonlinear chirped pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in microstructured optical fibre,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(11), 1012–1016 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, and A. J. Stentz, “Visible continuum generation in air-silica microstructure optical fibers with anomalous dispersion at 800 nm,” Opt. Lett. 25(1), 25–27 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wood, D.

K. J. Blow and D. Wood, “Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(12), 2665–2673 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.

Yulin, A. V.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, J.

Zhavoronkov, N.

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Z.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. J. Blow and D. Wood, “Theoretical description of transient stimulated Raman scattering in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25(12), 2665–2673 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

X. Fu, L. Qian, S. Wen, and D. Fan, “Nonlinear chirped pulse propagation and supercontinuum generation in microstructured optical fibre,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 6(11), 1012–1016 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

K. L. Corwin, N. R. Newbury, J. M. Dudley, S. Coen, S. A. Diddams, K. Weber, and R. S. Windeler, “Fundamental noise limitations to supercontinuum generation in microstructure fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(11), 113904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, “Observation of self phase modulation and small-scale filaments in crystals and glasses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(11), 592–594 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, U. Griebner, N. Zhavoronkov, A. Husakou, D. Nickel, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, P. St. J. Russell, and G. Korn, “Experimental evidence for supercontinuum generation by fission of higher-order solitons in photonic fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(17), 173901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Efimov, A. V. Yulin, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, N. Joly, F. G. Omenetto, A. J. Taylor, and P. Russell, “Interaction of an optical soliton with a dispersive wave,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(21), 213902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

J. M. Dudley, G. Gentry, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Skryabin and A. V. Gorbach, “Looking at a soliton through the prism of optical supercontinuum,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(2), 1287–1299 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 4th ed. (Academic Press, 2007).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: NGVD, the mirror pair with negative dispersion; PCF, the photonic crystal fiber; MO, the microscopic objective; CL, condensing lens; OSA, the optical spectrum analyzer ANDO AQ-6315A; PM, the power meter. Insert: Cross section of the 2.5-μm core diameter PCF with zero dispersion wavelength 790 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Pulse evolution in PCF with input peak power P0 = 10 kW, for positively ((a)temporal domain,(b) spectral domain) and negatively((c)temporal domain,(d) spectral domain) prechirped 60 fs pulses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Pulse evolution in PCF with input peak power P0 = 100 kW, for positively ((a)temporal domain,(b) spectral domain) and negatively((c) temporal domain,(d) spectral domain) prechirped 60 fs duration pulse.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Comparison between spectra observed in the experiment (solid red curve – negatively prechirped pulse, solid green curve – positively prechirped pulse) and the calculated numerically (dashed red curve – negatively prechirped pulse, dashed green curve – positively prechirped pulse).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) (a) Spectral broadening at 0.01 for positively and negatively prechirped 60 fs pulses with different input power (experimental data + numerics). Output spectrum for negatively prechirped (solid red curve) and positively prechirped (dashed green curve) 60 fs pulse in hypothetical models, (b) excluding the Raman term, (c) excluding the dispersions terms higher than 3rd order, with input pulse peak power P0 = 100 KW.

Equations (2)

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A z = m 2 i m + 1 β m m ! m A τ m 0.5 α A + i γ ( 1 + i ω 0 τ ) [ A ( z , τ ) τ d τ ' R ( τ τ ' ) | A ( z , τ ' ) | 2 ] ,
A ( 0 , τ ) = P 0 sec h ( τ / T 0 ) exp ( i C T 2 2 T 0 2 )  ,        

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