Abstract

A detailed numerical study of propagation characteristics of a coupled wedge plasmon polariton (CWPP) in splitted groove waveguide (SGW) formed with two metal wedges is performed by using the finite element method (FEM). It is shown that the SGW structure could confine CWPP modes tightly to the nano-gap region between the wedge tips, operating in a much broad bandwidth. The effect of the glass substrate, wedge roundness, gap width, groove wedge angle, and groove depth are also investigated. Particularly, our SGWs are found to be quite robust against groove depth reduction, which could be beneficial to minimize the waveguide structure dimensions. Feasibility of using such SGWs for the design of efficient subwavelength plasmonic elements is also discussed on the nanoscale whispering gallery resonators as an example.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2009 (4)

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2968–2975 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Manjavacas and F. J. García de Abajo, “Robust plasmon waveguides in strongly interacting nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1285–1289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J. R. Vesseur, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “Modal decomposition of surface--plasmon whispering gallery resonators,” Nano Lett. 9(9), 3147–3150 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, D. F. P. Pile, S. Nam, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Compressing surface plasmons for nano-scale optical focusing,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7519–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Wavelength selective nanophotonic components utilizing channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 880–884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Oxborrow, “Traceable 2-D Finite-Element Simulation of the Whispering-Gallery Modes of Axisymmetric Electromagnetic Resonators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(6), 1209–1218 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (8)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Effective-index modeling of channel plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9467–9476 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1928–1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(9), 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Channel plasmon-polaritons: modal shape, dispersion, and losses,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3447–3449 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Haraguchi, D. F. P. Pile, T. Okamoto, M. Fukui, and D. K. Gramotnev, “New Plasmon Waveguides Composed of Twin Metal Wedges with a Nano Gap,” Opt. Rev. 13(4), 228–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, D. K. Gramotnev, M. Haraguchi, T. Okamoto, and M. Fukui, “Numerical analysis of coupled wedge plasmons in a structure of two metal wedges separated by a gap,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 013101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express 13(17), 6645–6650 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vial, A.-S. Grimault, D. Macias, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(8), 1158–1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 668–670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3008–3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1928–1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barchiesi, D.

A. Vial, A.-S. Grimault, D. Macias, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

H. Choi, D. F. P. Pile, S. Nam, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Compressing surface plasmons for nano-scale optical focusing,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7519–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berini, P.

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2968–2975 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Wavelength selective nanophotonic components utilizing channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 880–884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Channel plasmon-polaritons: modal shape, dispersion, and losses,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3447–3449 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Effective-index modeling of channel plasmon polaritons,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9467–9476 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 668–670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3008–3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(12), 2442–2446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Catrysse, P. B.

Chandran, A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Choi, H.

de la Chapelle, M. L.

A. Vial, A.-S. Grimault, D. Macias, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

Devaux, E.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Wavelength selective nanophotonic components utilizing channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 880–884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1928–1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Wavelength selective nanophotonic components utilizing channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 880–884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erland, J.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3008–3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Felidj, N.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, M.

D. F. P. Pile, D. K. Gramotnev, M. Haraguchi, T. Okamoto, and M. Fukui, “Numerical analysis of coupled wedge plasmons in a structure of two metal wedges separated by a gap,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 013101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Haraguchi, D. F. P. Pile, T. Okamoto, M. Fukui, and D. K. Gramotnev, “New Plasmon Waveguides Composed of Twin Metal Wedges with a Nano Gap,” Opt. Rev. 13(4), 228–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

García de Abajo, F. J.

A. Manjavacas and F. J. García de Abajo, “Robust plasmon waveguides in strongly interacting nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1285–1289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J. R. Vesseur, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “Modal decomposition of surface--plasmon whispering gallery resonators,” Nano Lett. 9(9), 3147–3150 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García-Vidal, F. J.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Channel plasmon-polaritons: modal shape, dispersion, and losses,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3447–3449 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genet, C.

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gramotnev, D. K.

M. Haraguchi, D. F. P. Pile, T. Okamoto, M. Fukui, and D. K. Gramotnev, “New Plasmon Waveguides Composed of Twin Metal Wedges with a Nano Gap,” Opt. Rev. 13(4), 228–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, D. K. Gramotnev, M. Haraguchi, T. Okamoto, and M. Fukui, “Numerical analysis of coupled wedge plasmons in a structure of two metal wedges separated by a gap,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 013101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grimault, A.-S.

A. Vial, A.-S. Grimault, D. Macias, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.

Haraguchi, M.

D. F. P. Pile, D. K. Gramotnev, M. Haraguchi, T. Okamoto, and M. Fukui, “Numerical analysis of coupled wedge plasmons in a structure of two metal wedges separated by a gap,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 013101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Haraguchi, D. F. P. Pile, T. Okamoto, M. Fukui, and D. K. Gramotnev, “New Plasmon Waveguides Composed of Twin Metal Wedges with a Nano Gap,” Opt. Rev. 13(4), 228–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Harel, E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, S.

Holmgaard, T.

Hvam, J. M.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3008–3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koel, B. E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kurokawa, Y.

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(9), 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laluet, J.-Y.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Wavelength selective nanophotonic components utilizing channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 880–884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamprecht, B.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 668–670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3008–3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lezec, H. J.

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1928–1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, L.

Macias, D.

A. Vial, A.-S. Grimault, D. Macias, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manjavacas, A.

A. Manjavacas and F. J. García de Abajo, “Robust plasmon waveguides in strongly interacting nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1285–1289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Markey, L.

Martín-Moreno, L.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Channel plasmon-polaritons: modal shape, dispersion, and losses,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3447–3449 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyazaki, H. T.

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(9), 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, E.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Channel plasmon-polaritons: modal shape, dispersion, and losses,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3447–3449 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, S.

Nikolajsen, T.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 668–670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

M. Haraguchi, D. F. P. Pile, T. Okamoto, M. Fukui, and D. K. Gramotnev, “New Plasmon Waveguides Composed of Twin Metal Wedges with a Nano Gap,” Opt. Rev. 13(4), 228–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, D. K. Gramotnev, M. Haraguchi, T. Okamoto, and M. Fukui, “Numerical analysis of coupled wedge plasmons in a structure of two metal wedges separated by a gap,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 013101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Oxborrow, M.

M. Oxborrow, “Traceable 2-D Finite-Element Simulation of the Whispering-Gallery Modes of Axisymmetric Electromagnetic Resonators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(6), 1209–1218 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

H. Choi, D. F. P. Pile, S. Nam, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Compressing surface plasmons for nano-scale optical focusing,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7519–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. P. Pile, D. K. Gramotnev, M. Haraguchi, T. Okamoto, and M. Fukui, “Numerical analysis of coupled wedge plasmons in a structure of two metal wedges separated by a gap,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 013101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Haraguchi, D. F. P. Pile, T. Okamoto, M. Fukui, and D. K. Gramotnev, “New Plasmon Waveguides Composed of Twin Metal Wedges with a Nano Gap,” Opt. Rev. 13(4), 228–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

E. J. R. Vesseur, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “Modal decomposition of surface--plasmon whispering gallery resonators,” Nano Lett. 9(9), 3147–3150 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Requicha, A. A. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodrigo, S. G.

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, F. J. García-Vidal, S. G. Rodrigo, L. Martín-Moreno, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Channel plasmon-polaritons: modal shape, dispersion, and losses,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3447–3449 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salakhutdinov, I.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 668–670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salerno, M.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schider, G.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Selker, M. D.

Skovgaard, P. M. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3008–3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(8), 1158–1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(8), 1158–1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vesseur, E. J. R.

E. J. R. Vesseur, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “Modal decomposition of surface--plasmon whispering gallery resonators,” Nano Lett. 9(9), 3147–3150 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vial, A.

A. Vial, A.-S. Grimault, D. Macias, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Wavelength selective nanophotonic components utilizing channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 880–884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weeber, J. C.

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

H. Choi, D. F. P. Pile, S. Nam, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Compressing surface plasmons for nano-scale optical focusing,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7519–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zia, R.

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, P. B. Catrysse, and M. L. Brongersma, “Geometries and materials for subwavelength surface plasmon modes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(12), 2442–2446 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

K. Tanaka and M. Tanaka, “Simulations of nanometric optical circuits based on surface plasmon polariton gap waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(8), 1158–1160 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, I. Salakhutdinov, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polymer-based surface-plasmon-polariton stripe waveguides at telecommunication wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(5), 668–670 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. Lamprecht, J. R. Krenn, G. Schider, H. Ditlbacher, M. Salerno, N. Felidj, A. Leitner, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon propagation in microscale metal stripes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(1), 51–53 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

M. Oxborrow, “Traceable 2-D Finite-Element Simulation of the Whispering-Gallery Modes of Axisymmetric Electromagnetic Resonators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(6), 1209–1218 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. F. P. Pile, D. K. Gramotnev, M. Haraguchi, T. Okamoto, and M. Fukui, “Numerical analysis of coupled wedge plasmons in a structure of two metal wedges separated by a gap,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(1), 013101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Mater. Today (1)

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, A. Chandran, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics: the next chip-scale technology,” Mater. Today 9(7-8), 20–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (4)

V. S. Volkov, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Wavelength selective nanophotonic components utilizing channel plasmon polaritons,” Nano Lett. 7(4), 880–884 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Manjavacas and F. J. García de Abajo, “Robust plasmon waveguides in strongly interacting nanowire arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1285–1289 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. J. R. Vesseur, F. J. García de Abajo, and A. Polman, “Modal decomposition of surface--plasmon whispering gallery resonators,” Nano Lett. 9(9), 3147–3150 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, H. J. Lezec, and H. A. Atwater, “Highly confined photon transport in subwavelength metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 6(9), 1928–1932 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. G. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater. 2(4), 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature 455(7211), 376–379 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

M. Haraguchi, D. F. P. Pile, T. Okamoto, M. Fukui, and D. K. Gramotnev, “New Plasmon Waveguides Composed of Twin Metal Wedges with a Nano Gap,” Opt. Rev. 13(4), 228–230 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Vial, A.-S. Grimault, D. Macias, D. Barchiesi, and M. L. de la Chapelle, “Improved analytical fit of gold dispersion: Application to the modeling of extinction spectra with a finite-difference time-domain method,” Phys. Rev. B 71(8), 085416 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon-polariton guiding by subwavelength metal grooves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(4), 046802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Moreno, S. G. Rodrigo, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Martín-Moreno, and F. J. García-Vidal, “Guiding and focusing of electromagnetic fields with wedge plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing visible light waves into a 3-nm-thick and 55-nm-long plasmon cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(9), 097401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Erland, K. Leosson, P. M. W. Skovgaard, and J. M. Hvam, “Waveguiding in surface plasmon polariton band gap structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3008–3011 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44–50 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. Raether, Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, 1st ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

COMSOL Multiphysics 3.3a.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic cross sections of a SGW structure (a) and a conventional VGW structure (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Dispersion relations (a) and propagation lengths (b) for the fundamental guiding modes of a conventional VGW (orange) and SGWs having three different gaps g = 50 nm (red), 100 nm (green) and 200 nm (blue). For both waveguide structures, the groove depth d = 1.172 μm and the wedge angles θ 1 = θ 2 = 77.5°. The dash-dotted line in (a) indicates the SPP dispersion curve on a flat gold/air interface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Modal field distributions for the conventional VGWs at exciting wavelengths λ = 1.0 μm (a) and 1.4 μm (b), and for SGWs at λ = 1.4 μm (c) and 3.0 μm (d) with g = 50 nm, at λ = 1.4 μm (e) and 3.0 μm (f) with g = 100 nm. All field panels have a lateral size of 1.55 μm × 2 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Colour online) (a) Dispersion relations for SGWs with three different curvature radiuses r = 10 nm (red, hollow circle), 50 nm (dark yellow line) and 100 nm (blue, triangle) at the corners. The dash-dotted line represents SPP curve on a gold/air interfaces; (b) and (c) Modal field distributions for SGWs with curvature radiuses r = 50 nm (b) and r = 100 nm (c) at exciting wavelength λ = 1.4 μm. All field panels have a lateral size of 1.55 μm × 2 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Colour online) Dispersion relations for SGWs on glass substrate having two different wedge angles: θ 1 = θ 2 = 52.5° (red, square) and 77.5° (blue, circle). The dotted line represents SPP curves on a gold/glass interfaces.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) (a) Dependence of modal effective index (red) and propagation length (blue) on the wedge angle (θ 1 = θ 2) for g = 50 nm SGW at 1.4 μm, the groove depth d is set to be 1.172 μm; (b)-(e) Modal field distribution for wedge angles (θ 1 = θ 2) being: 90° (b), 88° (c), 86° (d), and 4° (e). All field panels have a lateral size of 0.75 μm × 1.6 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) (a) Dependence of modal effective index (red) and propagation length (blue) on the right wedge angle (θ 2) for g = 50 nm SGW at 1.4 μm when the left wedge angles are fixed at 90° (circle), 77.5° (triangle), and 65° (diamond), respectively. The groove depth d is set to be 1.172 μm; (b) and (c) Modal field distributions for asymmetric SGWs with two different wedge angles: θ 1 = 90° and θ 2 = 20° (b), and θ 1 = 65° and θ 2 = 45°.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(Color online) (a) The effective indexes (red symbol lines) and propagation lengths (blue symbol lines) as functions of the groove depth d at a wavelength λ = 1.4 μm for conventional VGW (square), and g = 50 nm SGWs with two different wedge angles: θ 1 = θ 2 = 77.5° (circle) and 65° (triangle). The red dotted line indicates the effective index of a SPP on a flat metal/air interface at λ = 1.4 μm; (b) The variation of the cutoff wavelengths of the second-order guiding mode with the groove depth d for θ 1 = θ 2 = 77.5° (circle) and 65° (triangle) SGW structures (circle and triangle).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(Color online) (a) Relations between the fundamental CWPP dispersion (red) and whispering-gallery resonances in an annular SGW. The black dash-dotted line indicates the SPP dispersion curve on a flat metal/air interface. The vertical dashed lines (navy blue) indicate the locations of the resonant wave vectors according to the whispering-gallery resonance condition for different azimuthal momentum numbers m = 1, 2, and 3. The symbols on the vertical lines show the wavelength eigenvalues of the whispering-gallery modes calculated by FEM analysis. Inset: the top view (upper panel) and the medial cross section (bottom panel) of the proposed ring resonator. (b)-(c) The corresponding field (|E|) distribution for m = 1 (b) and m = 2 (c) whispering-gallery resonant modes along the medial cross section of the ring resonator. All field panels have a lateral size of 1.50 μm × 0.93 μm

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