Abstract

We presented an approach to estimate the emission zone (EZ) positions in high efficiency phosphorescent OLEDs with a thin emitting layer. Two devices with different distances between the emitting layer and the cathode (i.e. they are optically different), but exhibiting same current density-voltage characteristics (i.e. they are electrically the same) were used for this purpose. Mean EZ positions in the OLEDs were extracted from the comparison of the experimental luminous intensity ratio vs. the current density with the calculated intensity ratio vs. the EZ position. The validity of the approach was confirmed by the agreement between calculated and experimental spectral changes.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Z. Wu, L. Wang, G. Lei, and Y. Qiu, “Investigation of the spectra of phosphorescent organic light emitting devices in relation to emission zone,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J.-W. Kang, S.-H. Lee, H.-D. Park, W.-I. Jeong, K.-M. Yoo, Y.-S. Park, and J.-J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Griiner, M. Remmers, and D. Neher, “Direct determination of the emission zone in a polymer light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 9(12), 964–968 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. M. V. Wan, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Interference effects in anisotropic optoelectronic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2542 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. A. Granlund, A. Pettersson, and O. Inganäs, “Determination of the emission zone in a single-layer polymer light-emitting diode through optical measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5897 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. C. Gather, M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and K. Meerholz, “Measuring the profile of the emission zone in polymeric organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263301 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Tanaka, H. Sasabe, Y. J. Li, S. J. Su, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Ultra High Efficiency Green Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(1), L10–L12 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-Containing Triphenylbenzene Derivatives with High Electron Mobility for Highly Efficient Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Pfeiffer, S. R. Forrest, K. Leo, and M. E. Thompson, “Electrophosphorescent p-i-n Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Very-High-Efficiency Flat-Panel Displays,” Adv. Mater. 14(22), 1633–1636 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Walzer, B. Maennig, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient organic devices based on electrically doped transport layers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1233–1271 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D.-S. Leem, J.-H. Lee, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Highly efficient tandem p-i-n organic light-emitting diodes adopting a low temperature evaporated rhenium oxide interconnecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103304 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. J. Peng, X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Efficiency improvement of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using semitransparent Ag as anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 033509 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(9), 3610 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E.-I. Aminaka, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Effect of layered structures on the location of emissive regions in organic electroluminescent devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(11), 8808 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. H. Young and M. E. Kondakova, “Optical Measurement of the Emission Zone in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 15, 1669–1672 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular Fluorescence and Energy Transfer Near Interface,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1–65 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. A. E. Wasey and W. L. Barnes, “Efficiency of spontaneous emission from planar microcavities,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 725 (2000).
  19. C. L. Lin, H. C. Chang, K. C. Tien, and C. C. Wu, “Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071111 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W.-I. Jeong, S.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Thickness dependence of PL efficiency of organic thin films,” Chem. Phys. 355(1), 25–30 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Y. Kim and J.-J. Kim, “Outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes and the effect of ITO thickness,” Org. Electron. 11(6), 1010–1015 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, J. Brooks, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% phosphorescence quantum efficiency of Ir(III) complexes in organic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. B. C. Krummacher, S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, M. Klein, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulation,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 478–485 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D.-S. Leem, S.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, M.-H. Chen, and C.-I. Wu, “Rubidium-Carbonate-Doped 4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline Electron Transporting Layer for High-Efficiency p-i-n Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(1), J8 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p‐i‐n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3911 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123508 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

S. Y. Kim and J.-J. Kim, “Outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes and the effect of ITO thickness,” Org. Electron. 11(6), 1010–1015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

B. C. Krummacher, S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, M. Klein, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulation,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 478–485 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-S. Leem, S.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, M.-H. Chen, and C.-I. Wu, “Rubidium-Carbonate-Doped 4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline Electron Transporting Layer for High-Efficiency p-i-n Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(1), J8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W.-I. Jeong, S.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Thickness dependence of PL efficiency of organic thin films,” Chem. Phys. 355(1), 25–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Gather, M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and K. Meerholz, “Measuring the profile of the emission zone in polymeric organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Young and M. E. Kondakova, “Optical Measurement of the Emission Zone in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 15, 1669–1672 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

S. J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-Containing Triphenylbenzene Derivatives with High Electron Mobility for Highly Efficient Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-S. Leem, J.-H. Lee, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Highly efficient tandem p-i-n organic light-emitting diodes adopting a low temperature evaporated rhenium oxide interconnecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

K. Walzer, B. Maennig, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient organic devices based on electrically doped transport layers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1233–1271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Tanaka, H. Sasabe, Y. J. Li, S. J. Su, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Ultra High Efficiency Green Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(1), L10–L12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Kang, S.-H. Lee, H.-D. Park, W.-I. Jeong, K.-M. Yoo, Y.-S. Park, and J.-J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Lin, H. C. Chang, K. C. Tien, and C. C. Wu, “Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

H. J. Peng, X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Efficiency improvement of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using semitransparent Ag as anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 033509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Z. Wu, L. Wang, G. Lei, and Y. Qiu, “Investigation of the spectra of phosphorescent organic light emitting devices in relation to emission zone,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, J. Brooks, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% phosphorescence quantum efficiency of Ir(III) complexes in organic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p‐i‐n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. Pfeiffer, S. R. Forrest, K. Leo, and M. E. Thompson, “Electrophosphorescent p-i-n Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Very-High-Efficiency Flat-Panel Displays,” Adv. Mater. 14(22), 1633–1636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Granlund, A. Pettersson, and O. Inganäs, “Determination of the emission zone in a single-layer polymer light-emitting diode through optical measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

W. M. V. Wan, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Interference effects in anisotropic optoelectronic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. A. E. Wasey and W. L. Barnes, “Efficiency of spontaneous emission from planar microcavities,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 725 (2000).

1997 (1)

J. Griiner, M. Remmers, and D. Neher, “Direct determination of the emission zone in a polymer light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 9(12), 964–968 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

E.-I. Aminaka, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Effect of layered structures on the location of emissive regions in organic electroluminescent devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(11), 8808 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(9), 3610 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular Fluorescence and Energy Transfer Near Interface,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1–65 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, C.

Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, J. Brooks, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% phosphorescence quantum efficiency of Ir(III) complexes in organic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aminaka, E.-I.

E.-I. Aminaka, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Effect of layered structures on the location of emissive regions in organic electroluminescent devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(11), 8808 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baldo, M. A.

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

J. A. E. Wasey and W. L. Barnes, “Efficiency of spontaneous emission from planar microcavities,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 725 (2000).

Birnstock, J.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p‐i‐n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, J.

Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, J. Brooks, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% phosphorescence quantum efficiency of Ir(III) complexes in organic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. J.

Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, J. Brooks, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% phosphorescence quantum efficiency of Ir(III) complexes in organic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brütting, W.

B. C. Krummacher, S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, M. Klein, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulation,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 478–485 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, R. R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular Fluorescence and Energy Transfer Near Interface,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1–65 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H. C.

C. L. Lin, H. C. Chang, K. C. Tien, and C. C. Wu, “Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(9), 3610 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.-H.

D.-S. Leem, S.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, M.-H. Chen, and C.-I. Wu, “Rubidium-Carbonate-Doped 4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline Electron Transporting Layer for High-Efficiency p-i-n Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(1), J8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chiba, T.

S. J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-Containing Triphenylbenzene Derivatives with High Electron Mobility for Highly Efficient Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Danz, N.

M. C. Gather, M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and K. Meerholz, “Measuring the profile of the emission zone in polymeric organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Flämmich, M.

M. C. Gather, M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and K. Meerholz, “Measuring the profile of the emission zone in polymeric organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

M. Pfeiffer, S. R. Forrest, K. Leo, and M. E. Thompson, “Electrophosphorescent p-i-n Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Very-High-Efficiency Flat-Panel Displays,” Adv. Mater. 14(22), 1633–1636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Friend, R. H.

W. M. V. Wan, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Interference effects in anisotropic optoelectronic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Frischeisen, J.

B. C. Krummacher, S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, M. Klein, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulation,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 478–485 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gather, M. C.

M. C. Gather, M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and K. Meerholz, “Measuring the profile of the emission zone in polymeric organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goushi, K.

Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, J. Brooks, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% phosphorescence quantum efficiency of Ir(III) complexes in organic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Granlund, L. A.

L. A. Granlund, A. Pettersson, and O. Inganäs, “Determination of the emission zone in a single-layer polymer light-emitting diode through optical measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Greenham, N. C.

W. M. V. Wan, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Interference effects in anisotropic optoelectronic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Griiner, J.

J. Griiner, M. Remmers, and D. Neher, “Direct determination of the emission zone in a polymer light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 9(12), 964–968 (1997).
[CrossRef]

He, G.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p‐i‐n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, M.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p‐i‐n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Inganäs, O.

L. A. Granlund, A. Pettersson, and O. Inganäs, “Determination of the emission zone in a single-layer polymer light-emitting diode through optical measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, W.-I.

W.-I. Jeong, S.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Thickness dependence of PL efficiency of organic thin films,” Chem. Phys. 355(1), 25–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Kang, S.-H. Lee, H.-D. Park, W.-I. Jeong, K.-M. Yoo, Y.-S. Park, and J.-J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.-W.

W.-I. Jeong, S.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Thickness dependence of PL efficiency of organic thin films,” Chem. Phys. 355(1), 25–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-S. Leem, J.-H. Lee, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Highly efficient tandem p-i-n organic light-emitting diodes adopting a low temperature evaporated rhenium oxide interconnecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Kang, S.-H. Lee, H.-D. Park, W.-I. Jeong, K.-M. Yoo, Y.-S. Park, and J.-J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, Y.

Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, J. Brooks, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% phosphorescence quantum efficiency of Ir(III) complexes in organic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kido, J.

S. J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-Containing Triphenylbenzene Derivatives with High Electron Mobility for Highly Efficient Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanaka, H. Sasabe, Y. J. Li, S. J. Su, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Ultra High Efficiency Green Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(1), L10–L12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-J.

S. Y. Kim and J.-J. Kim, “Outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes and the effect of ITO thickness,” Org. Electron. 11(6), 1010–1015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W.-I. Jeong, S.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Thickness dependence of PL efficiency of organic thin films,” Chem. Phys. 355(1), 25–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-S. Leem, S.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, M.-H. Chen, and C.-I. Wu, “Rubidium-Carbonate-Doped 4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline Electron Transporting Layer for High-Efficiency p-i-n Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(1), J8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-S. Leem, J.-H. Lee, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Highly efficient tandem p-i-n organic light-emitting diodes adopting a low temperature evaporated rhenium oxide interconnecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Kang, S.-H. Lee, H.-D. Park, W.-I. Jeong, K.-M. Yoo, Y.-S. Park, and J.-J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. Y.

S. Y. Kim and J.-J. Kim, “Outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes and the effect of ITO thickness,” Org. Electron. 11(6), 1010–1015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-Y.

W.-I. Jeong, S.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Thickness dependence of PL efficiency of organic thin films,” Chem. Phys. 355(1), 25–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-S. Leem, S.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, M.-H. Chen, and C.-I. Wu, “Rubidium-Carbonate-Doped 4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline Electron Transporting Layer for High-Efficiency p-i-n Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(1), J8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M.

B. C. Krummacher, S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, M. Klein, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulation,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 478–485 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kondakova, M. E.

R. H. Young and M. E. Kondakova, “Optical Measurement of the Emission Zone in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 15, 1669–1672 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krummacher, B. C.

B. C. Krummacher, S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, M. Klein, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulation,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 478–485 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

H. J. Peng, X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Efficiency improvement of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using semitransparent Ag as anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 033509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

D.-S. Leem, J.-H. Lee, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Highly efficient tandem p-i-n organic light-emitting diodes adopting a low temperature evaporated rhenium oxide interconnecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-H.

J.-W. Kang, S.-H. Lee, H.-D. Park, W.-I. Jeong, K.-M. Yoo, Y.-S. Park, and J.-J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leem, D.-S.

D.-S. Leem, S.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, M.-H. Chen, and C.-I. Wu, “Rubidium-Carbonate-Doped 4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline Electron Transporting Layer for High-Efficiency p-i-n Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(1), J8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-S. Leem, J.-H. Lee, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Highly efficient tandem p-i-n organic light-emitting diodes adopting a low temperature evaporated rhenium oxide interconnecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lei, G.

Z. Wu, L. Wang, G. Lei, and Y. Qiu, “Investigation of the spectra of phosphorescent organic light emitting devices in relation to emission zone,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

K. Walzer, B. Maennig, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient organic devices based on electrically doped transport layers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1233–1271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p‐i‐n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Pfeiffer, S. R. Forrest, K. Leo, and M. E. Thompson, “Electrophosphorescent p-i-n Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Very-High-Efficiency Flat-Panel Displays,” Adv. Mater. 14(22), 1633–1636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. J.

D. Tanaka, H. Sasabe, Y. J. Li, S. J. Su, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Ultra High Efficiency Green Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(1), L10–L12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. L.

C. L. Lin, H. C. Chang, K. C. Tien, and C. C. Wu, “Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maennig, B.

K. Walzer, B. Maennig, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient organic devices based on electrically doped transport layers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1233–1271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meerholz, K.

M. C. Gather, M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and K. Meerholz, “Measuring the profile of the emission zone in polymeric organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michaelis, D.

M. C. Gather, M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and K. Meerholz, “Measuring the profile of the emission zone in polymeric organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Neher, D.

J. Griiner, M. Remmers, and D. Neher, “Direct determination of the emission zone in a polymer light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 9(12), 964–968 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nowy, S.

B. C. Krummacher, S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, M. Klein, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulation,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 478–485 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.-D.

J.-W. Kang, S.-H. Lee, H.-D. Park, W.-I. Jeong, K.-M. Yoo, Y.-S. Park, and J.-J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.-S.

J.-W. Kang, S.-H. Lee, H.-D. Park, W.-I. Jeong, K.-M. Yoo, Y.-S. Park, and J.-J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peng, H. J.

H. J. Peng, X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Efficiency improvement of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using semitransparent Ag as anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 033509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pettersson, A.

L. A. Granlund, A. Pettersson, and O. Inganäs, “Determination of the emission zone in a single-layer polymer light-emitting diode through optical measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, M.

K. Walzer, B. Maennig, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient organic devices based on electrically doped transport layers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1233–1271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p‐i‐n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Pfeiffer, S. R. Forrest, K. Leo, and M. E. Thompson, “Electrophosphorescent p-i-n Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Very-High-Efficiency Flat-Panel Displays,” Adv. Mater. 14(22), 1633–1636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Prock, A.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular Fluorescence and Energy Transfer Near Interface,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1–65 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Pudzich, R.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p‐i‐n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

Z. Wu, L. Wang, G. Lei, and Y. Qiu, “Investigation of the spectra of phosphorescent organic light emitting devices in relation to emission zone,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Remmers, M.

J. Griiner, M. Remmers, and D. Neher, “Direct determination of the emission zone in a polymer light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 9(12), 964–968 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

E.-I. Aminaka, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Effect of layered structures on the location of emissive regions in organic electroluminescent devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(11), 8808 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Salbeck, J.

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p‐i‐n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sasabe, H.

D. Tanaka, H. Sasabe, Y. J. Li, S. J. Su, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Ultra High Efficiency Green Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(1), L10–L12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, J. Brooks, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% phosphorescence quantum efficiency of Ir(III) complexes in organic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Silbey, R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular Fluorescence and Energy Transfer Near Interface,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1–65 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Su, S. J.

S. J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-Containing Triphenylbenzene Derivatives with High Electron Mobility for Highly Efficient Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanaka, H. Sasabe, Y. J. Li, S. J. Su, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Ultra High Efficiency Green Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(1), L10–L12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J. X.

H. J. Peng, X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Efficiency improvement of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using semitransparent Ag as anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 033509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, T.

S. J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-Containing Triphenylbenzene Derivatives with High Electron Mobility for Highly Efficient Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanaka, H. Sasabe, Y. J. Li, S. J. Su, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Ultra High Efficiency Green Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(1), L10–L12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, D.

D. Tanaka, H. Sasabe, Y. J. Li, S. J. Su, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Ultra High Efficiency Green Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(1), L10–L12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(9), 3610 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

M. Pfeiffer, S. R. Forrest, K. Leo, and M. E. Thompson, “Electrophosphorescent p-i-n Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Very-High-Efficiency Flat-Panel Displays,” Adv. Mater. 14(22), 1633–1636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tien, K. C.

C. L. Lin, H. C. Chang, K. C. Tien, and C. C. Wu, “Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

E.-I. Aminaka, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Effect of layered structures on the location of emissive regions in organic electroluminescent devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(11), 8808 (1996).
[CrossRef]

VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(9), 3610 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Walzer, K.

K. Walzer, B. Maennig, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient organic devices based on electrically doped transport layers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1233–1271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wan, W. M. V.

W. M. V. Wan, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Interference effects in anisotropic optoelectronic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Z. Wu, L. Wang, G. Lei, and Y. Qiu, “Investigation of the spectra of phosphorescent organic light emitting devices in relation to emission zone,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wasey, J. A. E.

J. A. E. Wasey and W. L. Barnes, “Efficiency of spontaneous emission from planar microcavities,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 725 (2000).

Wong, M.

H. J. Peng, X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Efficiency improvement of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using semitransparent Ag as anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 033509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. C.

C. L. Lin, H. C. Chang, K. C. Tien, and C. C. Wu, “Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-I.

D.-S. Leem, S.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, M.-H. Chen, and C.-I. Wu, “Rubidium-Carbonate-Doped 4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline Electron Transporting Layer for High-Efficiency p-i-n Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(1), J8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z.

Z. Wu, L. Wang, G. Lei, and Y. Qiu, “Investigation of the spectra of phosphorescent organic light emitting devices in relation to emission zone,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, K.-M.

J.-W. Kang, S.-H. Lee, H.-D. Park, W.-I. Jeong, K.-M. Yoo, Y.-S. Park, and J.-J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. H.

R. H. Young and M. E. Kondakova, “Optical Measurement of the Emission Zone in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 15, 1669–1672 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X. M.

H. J. Peng, X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Efficiency improvement of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using semitransparent Ag as anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 033509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X. L.

H. J. Peng, X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Efficiency improvement of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using semitransparent Ag as anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 033509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Molecular Fluorescence and Energy Transfer Near Interface,” Adv. Chem. Phys. 37, 1–65 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (3)

J. Griiner, M. Remmers, and D. Neher, “Direct determination of the emission zone in a polymer light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 9(12), 964–968 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Su, T. Chiba, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Pyridine-Containing Triphenylbenzene Derivatives with High Electron Mobility for Highly Efficient Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 20(11), 2125–2130 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Pfeiffer, S. R. Forrest, K. Leo, and M. E. Thompson, “Electrophosphorescent p-i-n Organic Light-Emitting Devices for Very-High-Efficiency Flat-Panel Displays,” Adv. Mater. 14(22), 1633–1636 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

M. C. Gather, M. Flämmich, N. Danz, D. Michaelis, and K. Meerholz, “Measuring the profile of the emission zone in polymeric organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263301 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Lin, H. C. Chang, K. C. Tien, and C. C. Wu, “Influences of resonant wavelengths on performances of microcavity organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(7), 071111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D.-S. Leem, J.-H. Lee, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Highly efficient tandem p-i-n organic light-emitting diodes adopting a low temperature evaporated rhenium oxide interconnecting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(10), 103304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Peng, X. L. Zhu, J. X. Sun, X. M. Yu, M. Wong, and H. S. Kwok, “Efficiency improvement of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes using semitransparent Ag as anode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 033509 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawamura, K. Goushi, J. Brooks, J. J. Brown, H. Sasabe, and C. Adachi, “100% phosphorescence quantum efficiency of Ir(III) complexes in organic semiconductor films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(7), 071104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Kang, S.-H. Lee, H.-D. Park, W.-I. Jeong, K.-M. Yoo, Y.-S. Park, and J.-J. Kim, “Low roll-off of efficiency at high current density in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 223508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. He, M. Pfeiffer, K. Leo, M. Hofmann, J. Birnstock, R. Pudzich, and J. Salbeck, “High-efficiency and low-voltage p‐i‐n electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with double-emission layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3911 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, K. Walzer, and K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

W.-I. Jeong, S.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, and J.-W. Kang, “Thickness dependence of PL efficiency of organic thin films,” Chem. Phys. 355(1), 25–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

K. Walzer, B. Maennig, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, “Highly efficient organic devices based on electrically doped transport layers,” Chem. Rev. 107(4), 1233–1271 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. (1)

D.-S. Leem, S.-Y. Kim, J.-J. Kim, M.-H. Chen, and C.-I. Wu, “Rubidium-Carbonate-Doped 4,7-Diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline Electron Transporting Layer for High-Efficiency p-i-n Organic Light Emitting Diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(1), J8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

W. M. V. Wan, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, “Interference effects in anisotropic optoelectronic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(5), 2542 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Granlund, A. Pettersson, and O. Inganäs, “Determination of the emission zone in a single-layer polymer light-emitting diode through optical measurements,” J. Appl. Phys. 89(11), 5897 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Adachi, M. A. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wu, L. Wang, G. Lei, and Y. Qiu, “Investigation of the spectra of phosphorescent organic light emitting devices in relation to emission zone,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(10), 103105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Tang, S. A. VanSlyke, and C. H. Chen, “Electroluminescence of doped organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(9), 3610 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E.-I. Aminaka, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Effect of layered structures on the location of emissive regions in organic electroluminescent devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(11), 8808 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. A. E. Wasey and W. L. Barnes, “Efficiency of spontaneous emission from planar microcavities,” J. Mod. Opt. 47, 725 (2000).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Tanaka, H. Sasabe, Y. J. Li, S. J. Su, T. Takeda, and J. Kido, “Ultra High Efficiency Green Organic Light-Emitting Devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(1), L10–L12 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron. (2)

S. Y. Kim and J.-J. Kim, “Outcoupling efficiency of organic light emitting diodes and the effect of ITO thickness,” Org. Electron. 11(6), 1010–1015 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Krummacher, S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, M. Klein, and W. Brütting, “Efficiency analysis of organic light-emitting diodes based on optical simulation,” Org. Electron. 10(3), 478–485 (2009).
[CrossRef]

SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers (1)

R. H. Young and M. E. Kondakova, “Optical Measurement of the Emission Zone in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 15, 1669–1672 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The current efficiency-voltage-current density characteristics of the OLEDs with different n-ETL thicknesses. The inset shows the schematic energy level diagrams of the OLEDs used.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental (symbol) and calculated (line) EL spectra of OLEDs with the different n-ETL thicknesses at the current density of (a) 0.2 mA/cm2, (b) 2.46 mA/cm2, (c) 9.5 mA/cm2, and (d) 22 mA/cm2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The calculated luminous intensity of the OLEDs with 25 nm and 15 nm-thick n-ETLs depending on the position of the emission zone when q = 1. The inset shows the relative ratios of the calculated luminous intensity (line) of two devices depending on the emission zone positions. For comparison, the relative ratios of the current efficiency (symbol) of two devices are also plotted. The values in the inset are the current densities corresponding to the relative ratios of current efficiencies of the two devices.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The mean position of the emission zone of the OLEDs with applied current density at various internal quantum efficiencies (square: 1.0, circle: 0.75, and triangle: 0.65). (The lines are for a guide to the eye only).

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