Abstract

We report the implementation of an image sensor chip, termed wavefront image sensor chip (WIS), that can measure both intensity/amplitude and phase front variations of a light wave separately and quantitatively. By monitoring the tightly confined transmitted light spots through a circular aperture grid in a high Fresnel number regime, we can measure both intensity and phase front variations with a high sampling density (11 µm) and high sensitivity (the sensitivity of normalized phase gradient measurement is 0.1 mrad under the typical working condition). By using WIS in a standard microscope, we can collect both bright-field (transmitted light intensity) and normalized phase gradient images. Our experiments further demonstrate that the normalized phase gradient images of polystyrene microspheres, unstained and stained starfish embryos, and strongly birefringent potato starch granules are improved versions of their corresponding differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope images in that they are artifact-free and quantitative. Besides phase microscopy, WIS can benefit machine recognition, object ranging, and texture assessment for a variety of applications.

© 2010 OSA

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2009 (1)

2008 (1)

X. Q. Cui, M. Lew, and C. H. Yang, “Quantitative differential interference contrast microscopy based on structured-aperture interference,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. G. Wu, Z. Yaqoob, X. Heng, L. M. Lee, X. Q. Cui, and C. H. Yang, “Full field phase imaging using a harmonically matched diffraction grating pair based homodyne quadrature interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. W. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 775–777 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Sarunic, S. Weinberg, and J. A. Izatt, “Full-field swept-source phase microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(10), 1462–1464 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 7–12 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. C. Albensi, E. V. Ilkanich, G. Dini, and D. Janigro, “Elements of Scientific Visualization in Basic Neuroscience Research,” Bioscience 54(12), 1127–1137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. L. Stanley., “Amoebiasis,” Lancet 361(9362), 1025–1034 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Carmon and E. N. Ribak, “Phase retrieval by demodulation of a Hartmann-Shack sensor,” Opt. Commun. 215(4-6), 285–288 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17(5), S573–S577 (2001).
[PubMed]

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

M. M. Haglund, M. S. Berger, and D. W. Hochman, “Enhanced optical imaging of human gliomas and tumor margins,” Neurosurgery 38(2), 308–317 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

R. J. Sommer and P. W. Sternberg, “Changes of induction and competence during the evolution of vulva development in nematodes,” Science 265(5168), 114–118 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

J. Van Blerkom, H. Bell, and G. Henry, “The occurrence, recognition and developmental fate of pseudo-multipronuclear eggs after in-vitro fertilization of human oocytes,” Hum. Reprod. 2(3), 217–225 (1987).
[PubMed]

1975 (1)

R. Hoffman and L. Gross, “The modulation contrast microscope,” Nature 254(5501), 586–588 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1971 (1)

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, “Production and use of a lenticular hartmann screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

1969 (1)

G. Nomarski, “New theory of image formation in differential interference microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1524 (1969).

1942 (1)

F. Zernike, “Phase contrast, a new method for the microsopic observation of transparent objects,” Physica 9(7), 686–698 (1942).
[CrossRef]

Albensi, B. C.

B. C. Albensi, E. V. Ilkanich, G. Dini, and D. Janigro, “Elements of Scientific Visualization in Basic Neuroscience Research,” Bioscience 54(12), 1127–1137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arnison, M. R.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 7–12 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badizadegan, K.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barty, A.

Bates, M.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. W. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bell, H.

J. Van Blerkom, H. Bell, and G. Henry, “The occurrence, recognition and developmental fate of pseudo-multipronuclear eggs after in-vitro fertilization of human oocytes,” Hum. Reprod. 2(3), 217–225 (1987).
[PubMed]

Berger, M. S.

M. M. Haglund, M. S. Berger, and D. W. Hochman, “Enhanced optical imaging of human gliomas and tumor margins,” Neurosurgery 38(2), 308–317 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonifacino, J. S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Booth, M. J.

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carmon, Y.

Y. Carmon and E. N. Ribak, “Phase retrieval by demodulation of a Hartmann-Shack sensor,” Opt. Commun. 215(4-6), 285–288 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cogswell, C. J.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 7–12 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colomb, T.

Cuche, E.

Cui, X. Q.

X. Q. Cui, M. Lew, and C. H. Yang, “Quantitative differential interference contrast microscopy based on structured-aperture interference,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Wu, Z. Yaqoob, X. Heng, L. M. Lee, X. Q. Cui, and C. H. Yang, “Full field phase imaging using a harmonically matched diffraction grating pair based homodyne quadrature interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 775–777 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davidson, M. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Denk, W.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

Dini, G.

B. C. Albensi, E. V. Ilkanich, G. Dini, and D. Janigro, “Elements of Scientific Visualization in Basic Neuroscience Research,” Bioscience 54(12), 1127–1137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Emery, Y.

Fang-Yen, C.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Popescu, T. Ikeda, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Diffraction phase microscopy for quantifying cell structure and dynamics,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 775–777 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gross, L.

R. Hoffman and L. Gross, “The modulation contrast microscope,” Nature 254(5501), 586–588 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haglund, M. M.

M. M. Haglund, M. S. Berger, and D. W. Hochman, “Enhanced optical imaging of human gliomas and tumor margins,” Neurosurgery 38(2), 308–317 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heng, X.

J. G. Wu, Z. Yaqoob, X. Heng, L. M. Lee, X. Q. Cui, and C. H. Yang, “Full field phase imaging using a harmonically matched diffraction grating pair based homodyne quadrature interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Henry, G.

J. Van Blerkom, H. Bell, and G. Henry, “The occurrence, recognition and developmental fate of pseudo-multipronuclear eggs after in-vitro fertilization of human oocytes,” Hum. Reprod. 2(3), 217–225 (1987).
[PubMed]

Hess, H. F.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hochman, D. W.

M. M. Haglund, M. S. Berger, and D. W. Hochman, “Enhanced optical imaging of human gliomas and tumor margins,” Neurosurgery 38(2), 308–317 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffman, R.

R. Hoffman and L. Gross, “The modulation contrast microscope,” Nature 254(5501), 586–588 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikeda, T.

Ilkanich, E. V.

B. C. Albensi, E. V. Ilkanich, G. Dini, and D. Janigro, “Elements of Scientific Visualization in Basic Neuroscience Research,” Bioscience 54(12), 1127–1137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Izatt, J. A.

Janigro, D.

B. C. Albensi, E. V. Ilkanich, G. Dini, and D. Janigro, “Elements of Scientific Visualization in Basic Neuroscience Research,” Bioscience 54(12), 1127–1137 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Juskaitis, R.

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larkin, K. G.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 7–12 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, L. M.

J. G. Wu, Z. Yaqoob, X. Heng, L. M. Lee, X. Q. Cui, and C. H. Yang, “Full field phase imaging using a harmonically matched diffraction grating pair based homodyne quadrature interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 151123 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lew, M.

X. Q. Cui, M. Lew, and C. H. Yang, “Quantitative differential interference contrast microscopy based on structured-aperture interference,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(9), 091113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lindwasser, O. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippincott-Schwartz, J.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lue, N.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mack-Bucher, J. A.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magistretti, P. J.

Marquet, P.

Mehta, S. B.

Neil, M. A. A.

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nomarski, G.

G. Nomarski, “New theory of image formation in differential interference microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 59, 1524 (1969).

Nugent, K. A.

Oh, S.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Olenych, S.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paganin, D.

Patterson, G. H.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Platt, B. C.

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17(5), S573–S577 (2001).
[PubMed]

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, “Production and use of a lenticular hartmann screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

Popescu, G.

Rappaz, B.

Ribak, E. N.

Y. Carmon and E. N. Ribak, “Phase retrieval by demodulation of a Hartmann-Shack sensor,” Opt. Commun. 215(4-6), 285–288 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, A.

Rueckel, M.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103(46), 17137–17142 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rust, M. J.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. W. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarunic, M. V.

Shack, R.

B. C. Platt and R. Shack, “History and principles of Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing,” J. Refract. Surg. 17(5), S573–S577 (2001).
[PubMed]

Shack, R. V.

R. V. Shack and B. C. Platt, “Production and use of a lenticular hartmann screen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 656 (1971).

Sheppard, C. J. R.

S. B. Mehta and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Quantitative phase-gradient imaging at high resolution with asymmetric illumination-based differential phase contrast,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 1924–1926 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 7–12 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, N. I.

M. R. Arnison, K. G. Larkin, C. J. R. Sheppard, N. I. Smith, and C. J. Cogswell, “Linear phase imaging using differential interference contrast microscopy,” J. Microsc. 214(1), 7–12 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sommer, R. J.

R. J. Sommer and P. W. Sternberg, “Changes of induction and competence during the evolution of vulva development in nematodes,” Science 265(5168), 114–118 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sougrat, R.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science 313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stanley, S. L.

S. L. Stanley., “Amoebiasis,” Lancet 361(9362), 1025–1034 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sternberg, P. W.

R. J. Sommer and P. W. Sternberg, “Changes of induction and competence during the evolution of vulva development in nematodes,” Science 265(5168), 114–118 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Blerkom, J.

J. Van Blerkom, H. Bell, and G. Henry, “The occurrence, recognition and developmental fate of pseudo-multipronuclear eggs after in-vitro fertilization of human oocytes,” Hum. Reprod. 2(3), 217–225 (1987).
[PubMed]

Weinberg, S.

Wilson, T.

M. J. Booth, M. A. A. Neil, R. Juskaitis, and T. Wilson, “Adaptive aberration correction in a confocal microscope,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99(9), 5788–5792 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J. G.

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (13879 KB)     

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