Abstract

We present a direct slope-based correction algorithm to simultaneously control two deformable mirrors (DMs) in a woofer-tweeter adaptive optics system. A global response matrix was derived from the response matrices of each deformable mirror and the voltages for both deformable mirrors were calculated simultaneously. This control algorithm was tested and compared with a 2-step sequential control method in five normal human eyes using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope. The mean residual total root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront errors across subjects after adaptive optics (AO) correction were 0.128 ± 0.025 μm and 0.107 ± 0.033 μm for simultaneous and 2-step control, respectively (7.75-mm pupil). The mean intensity of reflectance images acquired after AO convergence was slightly higher for 2-step control. Radially-averaged power spectra calculated from registered reflectance images were nearly identical for all subjects using simultaneous or 2-step control. The correction performance of our new simultaneous dual DM control algorithm is comparable to 2-step control, but is more efficient. This method can be applied to any woofer-tweeter AO system.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, A. R. Fuller, J. W. Evans, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4084–4094 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, E. Koperda, J. M. Brown, O. P. Kocaoglu, W. Gao, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Volumetric retinal imaging with ultrahigh-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics using two broadband light sources,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4095–4111 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “Error budget analysis for an adaptive optics optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13768–13784 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Fernández, P. M. Prieto, and P. Artal, “Binocular adaptive optics visual simulator,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2628–2630 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Torti, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, A. Unterhuber, J. Carroll, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 120,000 depth scans/s for non-invasive cellular phenotyping of the living human retina,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19382–19400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zou and S. A. Burns, “High-accuracy wavefront control for retinal imaging with Adaptive-Influence-Matrix Adaptive Optics,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20167–20177 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gambra, L. Sawides, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, “Accommodative lag and fluctuations when optical aberrations are manipulated,” J. Vis. 9(6), 4 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

2006

2002

2001

1999

X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xian, X. Wu, and W. Jiang, “Zernike modal compensation analysis for an adaptive optics system using direct-gradient wavefront reconstruction algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 3762, 116–124 (1999).

1998

1997

1993

R. A. Applegate and H. C. Howland, “Magnification and visual acuity in refractive surgery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111(10), 1335–1342 (1993).
[PubMed]

Ahamd, K.

Ahnelt, P. K.

Applegate, R. A.

R. A. Applegate and H. C. Howland, “Magnification and visual acuity in refractive surgery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111(10), 1335–1342 (1993).
[PubMed]

Artal, P.

Besecker, J. R.

Blain, C.

Bradley, C.

Brown, J. M.

Burns, S. A.

Campbell, M. C. W.

Carroll, J.

Cense, B.

Chen, D. C.

Chen, L.

Choi, S. S.

Chui, T. Y.

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: variations with refractive error,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4679–4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Conan, R.

Delori, F. C.

Derby, J. C.

Donnelly Iii, W.

Dorronsoro, C.

E. Gambra, L. Sawides, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, “Accommodative lag and fluctuations when optical aberrations are manipulated,” J. Vis. 9(6), 4 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drexler, W.

Dubra, A.

Evans, J. W.

Fernández, E. J.

Fuller, A. R.

Gambra, E.

E. Gambra, L. Sawides, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, “Accommodative lag and fluctuations when optical aberrations are manipulated,” J. Vis. 9(6), 4 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, W.

Gee, B. P.

Gray, D. C.

Hamann, B.

Hampton, P.

Hebert, T. J.

Hilton, A.

Hofer, B.

Hofer, H.

Hou, J.

Howland, H. C.

R. A. Applegate and H. C. Howland, “Magnification and visual acuity in refractive surgery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111(10), 1335–1342 (1993).
[PubMed]

Hu, S.

Jiang, W.

Jones, S. M.

Jonnal, R. S.

Keskin, O.

Kocaoglu, O. P.

Koperda, E.

Lee, D. J.

Li, X.

X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xian, X. Wu, and W. Jiang, “Zernike modal compensation analysis for an adaptive optics system using direct-gradient wavefront reconstruction algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 3762, 116–124 (1999).

Liang, J.

Liu, G.

Marcos, S.

E. Gambra, L. Sawides, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, “Accommodative lag and fluctuations when optical aberrations are manipulated,” J. Vis. 9(6), 4 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merigan, W.

Miller, D. T.

Oliver, S. S.

Olivier, S. S.

Petrig, B. L.

Porter, J.

Povazay, B.

Prieto, P. M.

Qi, X.

Queener, H.

Rao, C.

Reinholz, F.

Roggemann, M. C.

Romero-Borja, F.

Roorda, A.

E. A. Rossi, P. Weiser, J. Tarrant, and A. Roorda, “Visual performance in emmetropia and low myopia after correction of high-order aberrations,” J. Vis. 7(8), 14 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly Iii, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(9), 405–412 (2002).
[PubMed]

Rossi, E. A.

E. A. Rossi, P. Weiser, J. Tarrant, and A. Roorda, “Visual performance in emmetropia and low myopia after correction of high-order aberrations,” J. Vis. 7(8), 14 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sawides, L.

E. Gambra, L. Sawides, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, “Accommodative lag and fluctuations when optical aberrations are manipulated,” J. Vis. 9(6), 4 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silva, D. A.

Singer, B.

Sliney, D. H.

Song, H.

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: variations with refractive error,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4679–4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tarrant, J.

E. A. Rossi, P. Weiser, J. Tarrant, and A. Roorda, “Visual performance in emmetropia and low myopia after correction of high-order aberrations,” J. Vis. 7(8), 14 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torti, C.

Tumbar, R.

Twietmeyer, T. H.

Unterhuber, A.

Wang, C.

X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xian, X. Wu, and W. Jiang, “Zernike modal compensation analysis for an adaptive optics system using direct-gradient wavefront reconstruction algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 3762, 116–124 (1999).

Wang, Q.

Webb, R. H.

Weiser, P.

E. A. Rossi, P. Weiser, J. Tarrant, and A. Roorda, “Visual performance in emmetropia and low myopia after correction of high-order aberrations,” J. Vis. 7(8), 14 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Werner, J. S.

Williams, D. R.

Wolfing, J. I.

Wu, J.

Wu, X.

X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xian, X. Wu, and W. Jiang, “Zernike modal compensation analysis for an adaptive optics system using direct-gradient wavefront reconstruction algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 3762, 116–124 (1999).

Xian, H.

X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xian, X. Wu, and W. Jiang, “Zernike modal compensation analysis for an adaptive optics system using direct-gradient wavefront reconstruction algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 3762, 116–124 (1999).

Xu, B.

Yamauchi, Y.

Yang, H.

Yoon, G. Y.

Zawadzki, R. J.

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

Zhong, Z.

Zou, W.

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Ophthalmol.

R. A. Applegate and H. C. Howland, “Magnification and visual acuity in refractive surgery,” Arch. Ophthalmol. 111(10), 1335–1342 (1993).
[PubMed]

Chin. Opt. Lett.

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.

T. Y. Chui, H. Song, and S. A. Burns, “Individual variations in human cone photoreceptor packing density: variations with refractive error,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 49(10), 4679–4687 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

J. Vis.

E. A. Rossi, P. Weiser, J. Tarrant, and A. Roorda, “Visual performance in emmetropia and low myopia after correction of high-order aberrations,” J. Vis. 7(8), 14 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gambra, L. Sawides, C. Dorronsoro, and S. Marcos, “Accommodative lag and fluctuations when optical aberrations are manipulated,” J. Vis. 9(6), 4 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

A. Roorda, F. Romero-Borja, W. Donnelly Iii, H. Queener, T. J. Hebert, and M. C. W. Campbell, “Adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 10(9), 405–412 (2002).
[PubMed]

H. Hofer, L. Chen, G. Y. Yoon, B. Singer, Y. Yamauchi, and D. R. Williams, “Improvement in retinal image quality with dynamic correction of the eye’s aberrations,” Opt. Express 8(11), 631–643 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Gray, W. Merigan, J. I. Wolfing, B. P. Gee, J. Porter, A. Dubra, T. H. Twietmeyer, K. Ahamd, R. Tumbar, F. Reinholz, and D. R. Williams, “In vivo fluorescence imaging of primate retinal ganglion cells and retinal pigment epithelial cells,” Opt. Express 14(16), 7144–7158 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Torti, B. Povazay, B. Hofer, A. Unterhuber, J. Carroll, P. K. Ahnelt, and W. Drexler, “Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography at 120,000 depth scans/s for non-invasive cellular phenotyping of the living human retina,” Opt. Express 17(22), 19382–19400 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zou and S. A. Burns, “High-accuracy wavefront control for retinal imaging with Adaptive-Influence-Matrix Adaptive Optics,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20167–20177 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Jonnal, J. R. Besecker, J. C. Derby, O. P. Kocaoglu, B. Cense, W. Gao, Q. Wang, and D. T. Miller, “Imaging outer segment renewal in living human cone photoreceptors,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5257–5270 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, B. Cense, Y. Zhang, S. S. Choi, D. T. Miller, and J. S. Werner, “Ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography with monochromatic and chromatic aberration correction,” Opt. Express 16(11), 8126–8143 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zhong, B. L. Petrig, X. Qi, and S. A. Burns, “In vivo measurement of erythrocyte velocity and retinal blood flow using adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy,” Opt. Express 16(17), 12746–12756 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Zawadzki, S. S. Choi, A. R. Fuller, J. W. Evans, B. Hamann, and J. S. Werner, “Cellular resolution volumetric in vivo retinal imaging with adaptive optics-optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4084–4094 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Cense, E. Koperda, J. M. Brown, O. P. Kocaoglu, W. Gao, R. S. Jonnal, and D. T. Miller, “Volumetric retinal imaging with ultrahigh-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and adaptive optics using two broadband light sources,” Opt. Express 17(5), 4095–4111 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Evans, R. J. Zawadzki, S. M. Jones, S. S. Olivier, and J. S. Werner, “Error budget analysis for an adaptive optics optical coherence tomography system,” Opt. Express 17(16), 13768–13784 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

X. Li, C. Wang, H. Xian, X. Wu, and W. Jiang, “Zernike modal compensation analysis for an adaptive optics system using direct-gradient wavefront reconstruction algorithm,” Proc. SPIE 3762, 116–124 (1999).

Other

W. Jiang, Y. Zhang, H. Xian, C. Guan, and N. Ling, “A wavefront correction system for inertial confinement fusion,” Proc. of the Second International Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine pages 8–15, (2000).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, and B. P. Flannery, Numerical recipes in C: The art of scientific computing (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2nd edition, 1992).

ANSI, American National Standard for safe use of lasers (ANSI 136.1–2000) (The Laser Institute of America, 2000).

ANSI, American National Standard for ophthalmics-Methods for reporting optical aberrations of eyes (ANSI Z80.28–2004) (American National Standards Institute, Inc., 2004).

W. Jiang, and H. Li, “Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing and wavefront control” Proc. SPIE 1271, 82:93 (1990).

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