Abstract

Several methods are now available for single-shot measurement of the complex field (amplitude and phase profiles) of optical waveforms with resolutions down to the sub-picosecond range. As a main critical limitation, all these techniques exhibit measurement update rates typically slower than a few Hz. It would be very challenging to directly upgrade the update rate of any of these available methods beyond a few kHz. By combining spectral interferometry with dispersion-induced real-time optical Fourier transformation, here we demonstrate single-shot complex-field measurements of optical waveforms with a resolution of ~400 fs over a record length as long as ~350 ps, corresponding to a large record-length-to-resolution ratio of ~900. This performance is achieved at a measurement update rate of ~17 MHz, i.e. at least one thousand times faster than with any previous single-shot complex-field THz-bandwidth optical signal characterization method.

© 2010 OSA

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  28. http://www.thorlabs.com/NewGroupPage9_PF.cfm?Guide=10&Category_ID=219&ObjectGroup_ID=2005
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

H. Xia, C. Wang, S. Blais, and J. Yao, “Ultrafast and precise interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensor based on wavelength-to-time mapping incorporating higher order dispersion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(3), 254–261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (7)

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4324–4329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Supradeepa, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Single shot amplitude and phase characterization of optical arbitrary waveforms,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14434–14443 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Near quantum-limited, single-shot coherent arbitrary optical waveform measurements,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12332–12344 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Walmsley and C. Dorrer, “Characterization of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(2), 308–437 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, T. J. Ahn, and J. Azaña, “Real-time complex temporal response measurements of ultrahigh-speed optical modulators,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1734–1745 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Schermer, F. Bucholtz, C. A. Villarruel, J. Gil Gil, T. D. Andreadis, and K. J. Williams, “Investigation of electrooptic modulator disruption by microwave-induced transients,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22586–22602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456(7218), 81–84 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Anderson, A. Monmayrant, S. P. Gorza, P. Wasylczyk, and I. A. Walmsley, “SPIDER: A decade of measuring ultrashort pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(4), 259–266 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Solli, J. Chou, and B. Jalali, “Amplified wavelength-time transformation for real-time spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 48–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Ahn, Y. Park, and J. Azaña, “Improved optical pulse characterization based on feedback-controlled Hilbert transformation temporal interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(7), 475–477 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

Y. Park, T. J. Ahn, J. C. Kieffer, and J. Azaña, “Optical frequency domain reflectometry based on real-time Fourier transformation,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4597–4616 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Moon and D. Y. Kim, “Normalization detection scheme for high-speed optical frequency-domain imaging and reflectometry,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15129–15146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Ahn, Y. Park, and J. Azaña, “Fast and accurate group delay ripple measurement technique for ultralong chirped fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2674–2676 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

J. Bromage, C. Dorrer, I. A. Begishev, N. G. Usechak, and J. D. Zuegel, “Highly sensitive, single-shot characterization for pulse widths from 0.4 to 85 ps using electro-optic shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3523–3525 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, A. Shreenath, K. McGresham, R. Trebino, and S. Akturk, “Crossed-beam spectral interferometry: a simple, high-spectral-resolution method for completely characterizing complex ultrashort pulses in real time,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11892–11900 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Dorrer, “High-speed measurements for optical telecommunication systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 843–858 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer, “Single-shot measurement of the electric field of optical waveforms by use of time magnification and heterodyning,” Opt. Lett. 31(4), 540–542 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. Dorrer, “Chromatic dispersion characterization by direct instantaneous frequency measurement,” Opt. Lett. 29(2), 204–206 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

C. Dorrer and I. Kang, “Highly sensitive direct characterization of femtosecond pulses by electro-optic spectral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 28(6), 477–479 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. Azaña and M. A. Muriel, “Real-time optical spectrum analysis based on the time-space duality in chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 517–526 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. C. Tong, L. Y. Chan, and H. K. Tsang, “Fibre dispersion or pulse spectrum measurement using a sampling oscilloscope,” Electron. Lett. 33(11), 983–985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

L. Lepetit, G. Chériaux, and M. Joffre, “Linear technique of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(12), 2467–2474 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 18(10), 823–825 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, T. J.

Y. Park, T. J. Ahn, and J. Azaña, “Real-time complex temporal response measurements of ultrahigh-speed optical modulators,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1734–1745 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Ahn, Y. Park, and J. Azaña, “Improved optical pulse characterization based on feedback-controlled Hilbert transformation temporal interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(7), 475–477 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Ahn, Y. Park, and J. Azaña, “Fast and accurate group delay ripple measurement technique for ultralong chirped fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2674–2676 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, T. J. Ahn, J. C. Kieffer, and J. Azaña, “Optical frequency domain reflectometry based on real-time Fourier transformation,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4597–4616 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akturk, S.

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, A. Shreenath, K. McGresham, R. Trebino, and S. Akturk, “Crossed-beam spectral interferometry: a simple, high-spectral-resolution method for completely characterizing complex ultrashort pulses in real time,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11892–11900 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, M. E.

M. E. Anderson, A. Monmayrant, S. P. Gorza, P. Wasylczyk, and I. A. Walmsley, “SPIDER: A decade of measuring ultrashort pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(4), 259–266 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andreadis, T. D.

R. T. Schermer, F. Bucholtz, C. A. Villarruel, J. Gil Gil, T. D. Andreadis, and K. J. Williams, “Investigation of electrooptic modulator disruption by microwave-induced transients,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22586–22602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azaña, J.

Y. Park, T. J. Ahn, and J. Azaña, “Real-time complex temporal response measurements of ultrahigh-speed optical modulators,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1734–1745 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Ahn, Y. Park, and J. Azaña, “Improved optical pulse characterization based on feedback-controlled Hilbert transformation temporal interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(7), 475–477 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Ahn, Y. Park, and J. Azaña, “Fast and accurate group delay ripple measurement technique for ultralong chirped fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2674–2676 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, T. J. Ahn, J. C. Kieffer, and J. Azaña, “Optical frequency domain reflectometry based on real-time Fourier transformation,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4597–4616 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Azaña and M. A. Muriel, “Real-time optical spectrum analysis based on the time-space duality in chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 517–526 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Begishev, I. A.

J. Bromage, C. Dorrer, I. A. Begishev, N. G. Usechak, and J. D. Zuegel, “Highly sensitive, single-shot characterization for pulse widths from 0.4 to 85 ps using electro-optic shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3523–3525 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blais, S.

H. Xia, C. Wang, S. Blais, and J. Yao, “Ultrafast and precise interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensor based on wavelength-to-time mapping incorporating higher order dispersion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(3), 254–261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bowlan, P.

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, A. Shreenath, K. McGresham, R. Trebino, and S. Akturk, “Crossed-beam spectral interferometry: a simple, high-spectral-resolution method for completely characterizing complex ultrashort pulses in real time,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11892–11900 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bromage, J.

J. Bromage, C. Dorrer, I. A. Begishev, N. G. Usechak, and J. D. Zuegel, “Highly sensitive, single-shot characterization for pulse widths from 0.4 to 85 ps using electro-optic shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3523–3525 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucholtz, F.

R. T. Schermer, F. Bucholtz, C. A. Villarruel, J. Gil Gil, T. D. Andreadis, and K. J. Williams, “Investigation of electrooptic modulator disruption by microwave-induced transients,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22586–22602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, L. Y.

Y. C. Tong, L. Y. Chan, and H. K. Tsang, “Fibre dispersion or pulse spectrum measurement using a sampling oscilloscope,” Electron. Lett. 33(11), 983–985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chériaux, G.

L. Lepetit, G. Chériaux, and M. Joffre, “Linear technique of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(12), 2467–2474 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chou, J.

D. R. Solli, J. Chou, and B. Jalali, “Amplified wavelength-time transformation for real-time spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 48–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dorrer, C.

I. Walmsley and C. Dorrer, “Characterization of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(2), 308–437 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer, “Single-shot measurement of the electric field of optical waveforms by use of time magnification and heterodyning,” Opt. Lett. 31(4), 540–542 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bromage, C. Dorrer, I. A. Begishev, N. G. Usechak, and J. D. Zuegel, “Highly sensitive, single-shot characterization for pulse widths from 0.4 to 85 ps using electro-optic shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3523–3525 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Dorrer, “High-speed measurements for optical telecommunication systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 843–858 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer, “Chromatic dispersion characterization by direct instantaneous frequency measurement,” Opt. Lett. 29(2), 204–206 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Dorrer and I. Kang, “Highly sensitive direct characterization of femtosecond pulses by electro-optic spectral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 28(6), 477–479 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fontaine, N. K.

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Near quantum-limited, single-shot coherent arbitrary optical waveform measurements,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12332–12344 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, M. A.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4324–4329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456(7218), 81–84 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabolde, P.

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, A. Shreenath, K. McGresham, R. Trebino, and S. Akturk, “Crossed-beam spectral interferometry: a simple, high-spectral-resolution method for completely characterizing complex ultrashort pulses in real time,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11892–11900 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4324–4329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456(7218), 81–84 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geraghty, D. F.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4324–4329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456(7218), 81–84 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gil Gil, J.

R. T. Schermer, F. Bucholtz, C. A. Villarruel, J. Gil Gil, T. D. Andreadis, and K. J. Williams, “Investigation of electrooptic modulator disruption by microwave-induced transients,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22586–22602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goda, K.

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorza, S. P.

M. E. Anderson, A. Monmayrant, S. P. Gorza, P. Wasylczyk, and I. A. Walmsley, “SPIDER: A decade of measuring ultrashort pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(4), 259–266 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Near quantum-limited, single-shot coherent arbitrary optical waveform measurements,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12332–12344 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jalali, B.

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Solli, J. Chou, and B. Jalali, “Amplified wavelength-time transformation for real-time spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 48–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joffre, M.

L. Lepetit, G. Chériaux, and M. Joffre, “Linear technique of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(12), 2467–2474 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kane, D. J.

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 18(10), 823–825 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, I.

C. Dorrer and I. Kang, “Highly sensitive direct characterization of femtosecond pulses by electro-optic spectral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 28(6), 477–479 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kieffer, J. C.

Y. Park, T. J. Ahn, J. C. Kieffer, and J. Azaña, “Optical frequency domain reflectometry based on real-time Fourier transformation,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4597–4616 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. Y.

S. Moon and D. Y. Kim, “Normalization detection scheme for high-speed optical frequency-domain imaging and reflectometry,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15129–15146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koonath, P.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leaird, D. E.

V. R. Supradeepa, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Single shot amplitude and phase characterization of optical arbitrary waveforms,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14434–14443 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lepetit, L.

L. Lepetit, G. Chériaux, and M. Joffre, “Linear technique of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(12), 2467–2474 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4324–4329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456(7218), 81–84 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGresham, K.

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, A. Shreenath, K. McGresham, R. Trebino, and S. Akturk, “Crossed-beam spectral interferometry: a simple, high-spectral-resolution method for completely characterizing complex ultrashort pulses in real time,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11892–11900 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monmayrant, A.

M. E. Anderson, A. Monmayrant, S. P. Gorza, P. Wasylczyk, and I. A. Walmsley, “SPIDER: A decade of measuring ultrashort pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(4), 259–266 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S.

S. Moon and D. Y. Kim, “Normalization detection scheme for high-speed optical frequency-domain imaging and reflectometry,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15129–15146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muriel, M. A.

J. Azaña and M. A. Muriel, “Real-time optical spectrum analysis based on the time-space duality in chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 517–526 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Y. Park, T. J. Ahn, and J. Azaña, “Real-time complex temporal response measurements of ultrahigh-speed optical modulators,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1734–1745 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Ahn, Y. Park, and J. Azaña, “Improved optical pulse characterization based on feedback-controlled Hilbert transformation temporal interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(7), 475–477 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, T. J. Ahn, J. C. Kieffer, and J. Azaña, “Optical frequency domain reflectometry based on real-time Fourier transformation,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4597–4616 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Ahn, Y. Park, and J. Azaña, “Fast and accurate group delay ripple measurement technique for ultralong chirped fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2674–2676 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ropers, C.

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salem, R.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4324–4329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456(7218), 81–84 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schermer, R. T.

R. T. Schermer, F. Bucholtz, C. A. Villarruel, J. Gil Gil, T. D. Andreadis, and K. J. Williams, “Investigation of electrooptic modulator disruption by microwave-induced transients,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22586–22602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scott, R. P.

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Near quantum-limited, single-shot coherent arbitrary optical waveform measurements,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12332–12344 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shreenath, A.

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, A. Shreenath, K. McGresham, R. Trebino, and S. Akturk, “Crossed-beam spectral interferometry: a simple, high-spectral-resolution method for completely characterizing complex ultrashort pulses in real time,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11892–11900 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soares, F. M.

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Solli, D. R.

D. R. Solli, J. Chou, and B. Jalali, “Amplified wavelength-time transformation for real-time spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 48–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supradeepa, V. R.

V. R. Supradeepa, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Single shot amplitude and phase characterization of optical arbitrary waveforms,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14434–14443 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, Y. C.

Y. C. Tong, L. Y. Chan, and H. K. Tsang, “Fibre dispersion or pulse spectrum measurement using a sampling oscilloscope,” Electron. Lett. 33(11), 983–985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, A. Shreenath, K. McGresham, R. Trebino, and S. Akturk, “Crossed-beam spectral interferometry: a simple, high-spectral-resolution method for completely characterizing complex ultrashort pulses in real time,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11892–11900 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 18(10), 823–825 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsang, H. K.

Y. C. Tong, L. Y. Chan, and H. K. Tsang, “Fibre dispersion or pulse spectrum measurement using a sampling oscilloscope,” Electron. Lett. 33(11), 983–985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsia, K. K.

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turner-Foster, A. C.

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4324–4329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456(7218), 81–84 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Usechak, N. G.

J. Bromage, C. Dorrer, I. A. Begishev, N. G. Usechak, and J. D. Zuegel, “Highly sensitive, single-shot characterization for pulse widths from 0.4 to 85 ps using electro-optic shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3523–3525 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villarruel, C. A.

R. T. Schermer, F. Bucholtz, C. A. Villarruel, J. Gil Gil, T. D. Andreadis, and K. J. Williams, “Investigation of electrooptic modulator disruption by microwave-induced transients,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22586–22602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I.

I. Walmsley and C. Dorrer, “Characterization of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(2), 308–437 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

M. E. Anderson, A. Monmayrant, S. P. Gorza, P. Wasylczyk, and I. A. Walmsley, “SPIDER: A decade of measuring ultrashort pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(4), 259–266 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

H. Xia, C. Wang, S. Blais, and J. Yao, “Ultrafast and precise interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensor based on wavelength-to-time mapping incorporating higher order dispersion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(3), 254–261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wasylczyk, P.

M. E. Anderson, A. Monmayrant, S. P. Gorza, P. Wasylczyk, and I. A. Walmsley, “SPIDER: A decade of measuring ultrashort pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(4), 259–266 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

V. R. Supradeepa, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Single shot amplitude and phase characterization of optical arbitrary waveforms,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14434–14443 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, K. J.

R. T. Schermer, F. Bucholtz, C. A. Villarruel, J. Gil Gil, T. D. Andreadis, and K. J. Williams, “Investigation of electrooptic modulator disruption by microwave-induced transients,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22586–22602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, H.

H. Xia, C. Wang, S. Blais, and J. Yao, “Ultrafast and precise interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensor based on wavelength-to-time mapping incorporating higher order dispersion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(3), 254–261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

H. Xia, C. Wang, S. Blais, and J. Yao, “Ultrafast and precise interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensor based on wavelength-to-time mapping incorporating higher order dispersion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(3), 254–261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Near quantum-limited, single-shot coherent arbitrary optical waveform measurements,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12332–12344 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, L.

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zuegel, J. D.

J. Bromage, C. Dorrer, I. A. Begishev, N. G. Usechak, and J. D. Zuegel, “Highly sensitive, single-shot characterization for pulse widths from 0.4 to 85 ps using electro-optic shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3523–3525 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

I. Walmsley and C. Dorrer, “Characterization of ultrashort electromagnetic pulses,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(2), 308–437 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. C. Tong, L. Y. Chan, and H. K. Tsang, “Fibre dispersion or pulse spectrum measurement using a sampling oscilloscope,” Electron. Lett. 33(11), 983–985 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. Azaña and M. A. Muriel, “Real-time optical spectrum analysis based on the time-space duality in chirped fiber gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36(5), 517–526 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Dorrer, “High-speed measurements for optical telecommunication systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 12(4), 843–858 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

T. J. Ahn, Y. Park, and J. Azaña, “Improved optical pulse characterization based on feedback-controlled Hilbert transformation temporal interferometry,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(7), 475–477 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

H. Xia, C. Wang, S. Blais, and J. Yao, “Ultrafast and precise interrogation of fiber Bragg grating sensor based on wavelength-to-time mapping incorporating higher order dispersion,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(3), 254–261 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

L. Lepetit, G. Chériaux, and M. Joffre, “Linear technique of phase measurement by femtosecond spectral interferometry for applications in spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12(12), 2467–2474 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

M. E. Anderson, A. Monmayrant, S. P. Gorza, P. Wasylczyk, and I. A. Walmsley, “SPIDER: A decade of measuring ultrashort pulses,” Laser Phys. Lett. 5(4), 259–266 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, L. Zhou, F. M. Soares, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Real-time full-field arbitrary optical waveform measurement,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 248–254 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Solli, J. Chou, and B. Jalali, “Amplified wavelength-time transformation for real-time spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 2(1), 48–51 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (3)

M. A. Foster, R. Salem, D. F. Geraghty, A. C. Turner-Foster, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Silicon-chip-based ultrafast optical oscilloscope,” Nature 456(7218), 81–84 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Solli, C. Ropers, P. Koonath, and B. Jalali, “Optical rogue waves,” Nature 450(7172), 1054–1057 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (8)

Y. Park, T. J. Ahn, J. C. Kieffer, and J. Azaña, “Optical frequency domain reflectometry based on real-time Fourier transformation,” Opt. Express 15(8), 4597–4616 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bowlan, P. Gabolde, A. Shreenath, K. McGresham, R. Trebino, and S. Akturk, “Crossed-beam spectral interferometry: a simple, high-spectral-resolution method for completely characterizing complex ultrashort pulses in real time,” Opt. Express 14(24), 11892–11900 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Supradeepa, D. E. Leaird, and A. M. Weiner, “Single shot amplitude and phase characterization of optical arbitrary waveforms,” Opt. Express 17(16), 14434–14443 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. K. Fontaine, R. P. Scott, J. P. Heritage, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Near quantum-limited, single-shot coherent arbitrary optical waveform measurements,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12332–12344 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Park, T. J. Ahn, and J. Azaña, “Real-time complex temporal response measurements of ultrahigh-speed optical modulators,” Opt. Express 17(3), 1734–1745 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. T. Schermer, F. Bucholtz, C. A. Villarruel, J. Gil Gil, T. D. Andreadis, and K. J. Williams, “Investigation of electrooptic modulator disruption by microwave-induced transients,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22586–22602 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Salem, M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner-Foster, D. F. Geraghty, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “High-speed optical sampling using a silicon-chip temporal magnifier,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4324–4329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Moon and D. Y. Kim, “Normalization detection scheme for high-speed optical frequency-domain imaging and reflectometry,” Opt. Express 15(23), 15129–15146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (6)

C. Dorrer, “Single-shot measurement of the electric field of optical waveforms by use of time magnification and heterodyning,” Opt. Lett. 31(4), 540–542 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Dorrer, “Chromatic dispersion characterization by direct instantaneous frequency measurement,” Opt. Lett. 29(2), 204–206 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 18(10), 823–825 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Ahn, Y. Park, and J. Azaña, “Fast and accurate group delay ripple measurement technique for ultralong chirped fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2674–2676 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Dorrer and I. Kang, “Highly sensitive direct characterization of femtosecond pulses by electro-optic spectral shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 28(6), 477–479 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bromage, C. Dorrer, I. A. Begishev, N. G. Usechak, and J. D. Zuegel, “Highly sensitive, single-shot characterization for pulse widths from 0.4 to 85 ps using electro-optic shearing interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 31(23), 3523–3525 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

R. M. Fortenberry, W. V. Sorin, H. Lin, and S. A. Newton, “Low-power ultrashort optical pulse characterization using linear dispersion,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication, 290-291 (1997).

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