Abstract

The pretilt angles of liquid crystal molecules can be controlled by using conventional polyimide (PI) alignment material doped with different concentrations of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsequioxanes (POSS) nanoparticles, which have been observed to spontaneously induce vertical alignment. The addition of POSS in the homogenous PI changes the surface energy of the alignment layer and generates a variable pretilt angle. Experimental results demonstrate that the pretilt angle θp is a function of the POSS concentration, and can be tuned continuously over the range of 0°<θp<90°. The polar anchoring energy of POSS/PI alignment layer is almost constant regardless of the POSS concentration. This technique is very simple and is compatible with methods familiar in the current LCD industry.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. F. S. Yeung and H.-S. Kwok, “Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 063505 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. J. Yu and H.-S. Kwok, “Bistable bend-splay liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3711 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. J. Acosta, M. J. Towler, and H. G. Walton, “The role of surface tilt in the operation of pi-cell liquid crystal devices,” Liq. Cryst. 27(7), 977–984 (2000).
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  4. J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Uchida, M. Ohgawara, and M. Wada, “SiO2 liquid crystal orientation on the surface of obliquely-evaporated silicon monoxide with homeotropic surface treatment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(11), 2127–2136 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. J. Chen and K. L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. Komitov, “Nano-engineering of the anchoring of liquid crystals on solid surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 516(9), 2639–2644 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Komitov, “Tuning the alignment of liquid crystals by means of nano-structured surfaces,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(9), 919 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, “Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 194102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W.-Y. Wu, C.-C. Wang, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Controlling pre-tilt angles of liquid crystal using mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Opt. Express 16(21), 17131–17137 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Ahn, Y.-C. Jeong, S. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Heo, and J.-K. Park, “Control of liquid crystal pretilt angles by using organic/inorganic hybrid interpenetrating networks,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16603–16612 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. Nishikawa, “Design of polyimides for liquid crystal alignment films,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 11(8-12), 404–412 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. J. Lee, J. G. Choi, I.-K. Song, J. M. Oh, and M. H. Yi, “Effect of side chain structure of polyimides on a pretilt angle of liquid crystal cells,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(5), 1555–1562 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S.-J. Hwang, S.-C. Jeng, C.-Y. Yang, C.-W. Kuo, and C.-C. Liao,“Characteristics of nanoparticle-doped homeotropic liquid crystal devices,” J Phys. D 42, 025102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S.-C. Jeng, S.-J. Hwang, and C.-Y. Yang, “Tunable pretilt angles based on nanoparticles-doped planar liquid-crystal cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 455–457 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. Yu. A. Nastishin, R. D. Polak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, V. H. Bodnar, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Nematic polar anchoring strength measured by electric field techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(8), 4199 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S.-H. Paek, C. J. Durning, K.-W. Lee, and A. Lien, “A mechanistic picture of the effects of rubbing on polyimide surfaces and liquid crystal pretilt angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(3), 1270 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. S. Ban and Y. B. Kim, “Surface free energy and pretilt angle on rubbed polyimide surfaces,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 74(2), 267–271 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H.-Y. Wu, C.-Y. Wang, C.-J. Lin, R.-P. Pan, S.-S. Lin, C.-D. Lee, and C.-S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D 42(15), 155303 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. J. Hwang, “Precise optical retardation measurement of nematic liquid crystal display using the phase-sensitive technique,” J. Display Technol. 1(1), 77 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D.-S. Seo and S. Kobayashi, “Effect of high pretilt angle for anchoring strength in nematic liquid crystal on rubbed polyimide surface containing trifluoromethyl moieties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(10), 1202 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

2009

D. Ahn, Y.-C. Jeong, S. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Heo, and J.-K. Park, “Control of liquid crystal pretilt angles by using organic/inorganic hybrid interpenetrating networks,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16603–16612 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-J. Hwang, S.-C. Jeng, C.-Y. Yang, C.-W. Kuo, and C.-C. Liao,“Characteristics of nanoparticle-doped homeotropic liquid crystal devices,” J Phys. D 42, 025102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Jeng, S.-J. Hwang, and C.-Y. Yang, “Tunable pretilt angles based on nanoparticles-doped planar liquid-crystal cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 455–457 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-Y. Wu, C.-Y. Wang, C.-J. Lin, R.-P. Pan, S.-S. Lin, C.-D. Lee, and C.-S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D 42(15), 155303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. W. Li, J. Y. L. Ho, F. S. Y. Yeung, and H. S. Kwok, “Simultaneous determination of large pretilt angles and cell gap in liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 4(1), 13–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W.-Y. Wu, C.-C. Wang, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Controlling pre-tilt angles of liquid crystal using mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Opt. Express 16(21), 17131–17137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Chen and K. L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Komitov, “Nano-engineering of the anchoring of liquid crystals on solid surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 516(9), 2639–2644 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Komitov, “Tuning the alignment of liquid crystals by means of nano-structured surfaces,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(9), 919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, “Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 194102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y. J. Lee, J. G. Choi, I.-K. Song, J. M. Oh, and M. H. Yi, “Effect of side chain structure of polyimides on a pretilt angle of liquid crystal cells,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(5), 1555–1562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yeung and H.-S. Kwok, “Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 063505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

S. J. Hwang, “Precise optical retardation measurement of nematic liquid crystal display using the phase-sensitive technique,” J. Display Technol. 1(1), 77 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

X. J. Yu and H.-S. Kwok, “Bistable bend-splay liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3711 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

E. J. Acosta, M. J. Towler, and H. G. Walton, “The role of surface tilt in the operation of pi-cell liquid crystal devices,” Liq. Cryst. 27(7), 977–984 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Nishikawa, “Design of polyimides for liquid crystal alignment films,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 11(8-12), 404–412 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

Yu. A. Nastishin, R. D. Polak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, V. H. Bodnar, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Nematic polar anchoring strength measured by electric field techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(8), 4199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Ban and Y. B. Kim, “Surface free energy and pretilt angle on rubbed polyimide surfaces,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 74(2), 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S.-H. Paek, C. J. Durning, K.-W. Lee, and A. Lien, “A mechanistic picture of the effects of rubbing on polyimide surfaces and liquid crystal pretilt angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(3), 1270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995

D.-S. Seo and S. Kobayashi, “Effect of high pretilt angle for anchoring strength in nematic liquid crystal on rubbed polyimide surface containing trifluoromethyl moieties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(10), 1202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1980

T. Uchida, M. Ohgawara, and M. Wada, “SiO2 liquid crystal orientation on the surface of obliquely-evaporated silicon monoxide with homeotropic surface treatment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(11), 2127–2136 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1972

J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Acosta, E. J.

E. J. Acosta, M. J. Towler, and H. G. Walton, “The role of surface tilt in the operation of pi-cell liquid crystal devices,” Liq. Cryst. 27(7), 977–984 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

D. Ahn, Y.-C. Jeong, S. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Heo, and J.-K. Park, “Control of liquid crystal pretilt angles by using organic/inorganic hybrid interpenetrating networks,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16603–16612 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ban, B. S.

B. S. Ban and Y. B. Kim, “Surface free energy and pretilt angle on rubbed polyimide surfaces,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 74(2), 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bodnar, V. H.

Yu. A. Nastishin, R. D. Polak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, V. H. Bodnar, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Nematic polar anchoring strength measured by electric field techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(8), 4199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. J.

T. J. Chen and K. L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. G.

Y. J. Lee, J. G. Choi, I.-K. Song, J. M. Oh, and M. H. Yi, “Effect of side chain structure of polyimides on a pretilt angle of liquid crystal cells,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(5), 1555–1562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, K. L.

T. J. Chen and K. L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Durning, C. J.

S.-H. Paek, C. J. Durning, K.-W. Lee, and A. Lien, “A mechanistic picture of the effects of rubbing on polyimide surfaces and liquid crystal pretilt angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(3), 1270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

W.-Y. Wu, C.-C. Wang, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Controlling pre-tilt angles of liquid crystal using mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Opt. Express 16(21), 17131–17137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heo, Y.

D. Ahn, Y.-C. Jeong, S. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Heo, and J.-K. Park, “Control of liquid crystal pretilt angles by using organic/inorganic hybrid interpenetrating networks,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16603–16612 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, J. Y.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J. Y. L.

Y. W. Li, J. Y. L. Ho, F. S. Y. Yeung, and H. S. Kwok, “Simultaneous determination of large pretilt angles and cell gap in liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 4(1), 13–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S. J.

S. J. Hwang, “Precise optical retardation measurement of nematic liquid crystal display using the phase-sensitive technique,” J. Display Technol. 1(1), 77 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, S.-J.

S.-J. Hwang, S.-C. Jeng, C.-Y. Yang, C.-W. Kuo, and C.-C. Liao,“Characteristics of nanoparticle-doped homeotropic liquid crystal devices,” J Phys. D 42, 025102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Jeng, S.-J. Hwang, and C.-Y. Yang, “Tunable pretilt angles based on nanoparticles-doped planar liquid-crystal cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 455–457 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janning, J. L.

J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jeng, S.-C.

S.-C. Jeng, S.-J. Hwang, and C.-Y. Yang, “Tunable pretilt angles based on nanoparticles-doped planar liquid-crystal cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 455–457 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-J. Hwang, S.-C. Jeng, C.-Y. Yang, C.-W. Kuo, and C.-C. Liao,“Characteristics of nanoparticle-doped homeotropic liquid crystal devices,” J Phys. D 42, 025102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, Y.-C.

D. Ahn, Y.-C. Jeong, S. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Heo, and J.-K. Park, “Control of liquid crystal pretilt angles by using organic/inorganic hybrid interpenetrating networks,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16603–16612 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, D.

K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, “Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 194102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. B.

B. S. Ban and Y. B. Kim, “Surface free energy and pretilt angle on rubbed polyimide surfaces,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 74(2), 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, S.

D.-S. Seo and S. Kobayashi, “Effect of high pretilt angle for anchoring strength in nematic liquid crystal on rubbed polyimide surface containing trifluoromethyl moieties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(10), 1202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Komitov, L.

L. Komitov, “Nano-engineering of the anchoring of liquid crystals on solid surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 516(9), 2639–2644 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Komitov, “Tuning the alignment of liquid crystals by means of nano-structured surfaces,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(9), 919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kou, C.-S.

H.-Y. Wu, C.-Y. Wang, C.-J. Lin, R.-P. Pan, S.-S. Lin, C.-D. Lee, and C.-S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D 42(15), 155303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.-W.

S.-J. Hwang, S.-C. Jeng, C.-Y. Yang, C.-W. Kuo, and C.-C. Liao,“Characteristics of nanoparticle-doped homeotropic liquid crystal devices,” J Phys. D 42, 025102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H. S.

Y. W. Li, J. Y. L. Ho, F. S. Y. Yeung, and H. S. Kwok, “Simultaneous determination of large pretilt angles and cell gap in liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 4(1), 13–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, H.-S.

F. S. Yeung and H.-S. Kwok, “Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 063505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Yu and H.-S. Kwok, “Bistable bend-splay liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3711 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lavrentovich, O. D.

Yu. A. Nastishin, R. D. Polak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, V. H. Bodnar, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Nematic polar anchoring strength measured by electric field techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(8), 4199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-D.

H.-Y. Wu, C.-Y. Wang, C.-J. Lin, R.-P. Pan, S.-S. Lin, C.-D. Lee, and C.-S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D 42(15), 155303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

D. Ahn, Y.-C. Jeong, S. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Heo, and J.-K. Park, “Control of liquid crystal pretilt angles by using organic/inorganic hybrid interpenetrating networks,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16603–16612 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.-W.

S.-H. Paek, C. J. Durning, K.-W. Lee, and A. Lien, “A mechanistic picture of the effects of rubbing on polyimide surfaces and liquid crystal pretilt angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(3), 1270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

D. Ahn, Y.-C. Jeong, S. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Heo, and J.-K. Park, “Control of liquid crystal pretilt angles by using organic/inorganic hybrid interpenetrating networks,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16603–16612 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, J. G. Choi, I.-K. Song, J. M. Oh, and M. H. Yi, “Effect of side chain structure of polyimides on a pretilt angle of liquid crystal cells,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(5), 1555–1562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. W.

Y. W. Li, J. Y. L. Ho, F. S. Y. Yeung, and H. S. Kwok, “Simultaneous determination of large pretilt angles and cell gap in liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 4(1), 13–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.-C.

S.-J. Hwang, S.-C. Jeng, C.-Y. Yang, C.-W. Kuo, and C.-C. Liao,“Characteristics of nanoparticle-doped homeotropic liquid crystal devices,” J Phys. D 42, 025102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lien, A.

S.-H. Paek, C. J. Durning, K.-W. Lee, and A. Lien, “A mechanistic picture of the effects of rubbing on polyimide surfaces and liquid crystal pretilt angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(3), 1270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-J.

H.-Y. Wu, C.-Y. Wang, C.-J. Lin, R.-P. Pan, S.-S. Lin, C.-D. Lee, and C.-S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D 42(15), 155303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, S.-S.

H.-Y. Wu, C.-Y. Wang, C.-J. Lin, R.-P. Pan, S.-S. Lin, C.-D. Lee, and C.-S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D 42(15), 155303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nastishin, Yu. A.

Yu. A. Nastishin, R. D. Polak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, V. H. Bodnar, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Nematic polar anchoring strength measured by electric field techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(8), 4199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nishikawa, M.

M. Nishikawa, “Design of polyimides for liquid crystal alignment films,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 11(8-12), 404–412 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Oh, J. M.

Y. J. Lee, J. G. Choi, I.-K. Song, J. M. Oh, and M. H. Yi, “Effect of side chain structure of polyimides on a pretilt angle of liquid crystal cells,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(5), 1555–1562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohgawara, M.

T. Uchida, M. Ohgawara, and M. Wada, “SiO2 liquid crystal orientation on the surface of obliquely-evaporated silicon monoxide with homeotropic surface treatment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(11), 2127–2136 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Paek, S.-H.

S.-H. Paek, C. J. Durning, K.-W. Lee, and A. Lien, “A mechanistic picture of the effects of rubbing on polyimide surfaces and liquid crystal pretilt angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(3), 1270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pan, R.-P.

H.-Y. Wu, C.-Y. Wang, C.-J. Lin, R.-P. Pan, S.-S. Lin, C.-D. Lee, and C.-S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D 42(15), 155303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-K.

D. Ahn, Y.-C. Jeong, S. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Heo, and J.-K. Park, “Control of liquid crystal pretilt angles by using organic/inorganic hybrid interpenetrating networks,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16603–16612 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polak, R. D.

Yu. A. Nastishin, R. D. Polak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, V. H. Bodnar, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Nematic polar anchoring strength measured by electric field techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(8), 4199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosenblatt, C.

K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, “Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 194102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Seo, D.-S.

D.-S. Seo and S. Kobayashi, “Effect of high pretilt angle for anchoring strength in nematic liquid crystal on rubbed polyimide surface containing trifluoromethyl moieties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(10), 1202 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, P.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shiyanovskii, S. V.

Yu. A. Nastishin, R. D. Polak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, V. H. Bodnar, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Nematic polar anchoring strength measured by electric field techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(8), 4199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Song, I.-K.

Y. J. Lee, J. G. Choi, I.-K. Song, J. M. Oh, and M. H. Yi, “Effect of side chain structure of polyimides on a pretilt angle of liquid crystal cells,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(5), 1555–1562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sousa, M.

K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, “Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 194102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Towler, M. J.

E. J. Acosta, M. J. Towler, and H. G. Walton, “The role of surface tilt in the operation of pi-cell liquid crystal devices,” Liq. Cryst. 27(7), 977–984 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsui, O. K.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

T. Uchida, M. Ohgawara, and M. Wada, “SiO2 liquid crystal orientation on the surface of obliquely-evaporated silicon monoxide with homeotropic surface treatment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(11), 2127–2136 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Vaughn, K. E.

K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, “Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 194102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wada, M.

T. Uchida, M. Ohgawara, and M. Wada, “SiO2 liquid crystal orientation on the surface of obliquely-evaporated silicon monoxide with homeotropic surface treatment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(11), 2127–2136 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Walton, H. G.

E. J. Acosta, M. J. Towler, and H. G. Walton, “The role of surface tilt in the operation of pi-cell liquid crystal devices,” Liq. Cryst. 27(7), 977–984 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.-C.

W.-Y. Wu, C.-C. Wang, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Controlling pre-tilt angles of liquid crystal using mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Opt. Express 16(21), 17131–17137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.-Y.

H.-Y. Wu, C.-Y. Wang, C.-J. Lin, R.-P. Pan, S.-S. Lin, C.-D. Lee, and C.-S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D 42(15), 155303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.-L.

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Wu, C.-Y. Wang, C.-J. Lin, R.-P. Pan, S.-S. Lin, C.-D. Lee, and C.-S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D 42(15), 155303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.-Y.

W.-Y. Wu, C.-C. Wang, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Controlling pre-tilt angles of liquid crystal using mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Opt. Express 16(21), 17131–17137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, F. C.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.-Y.

S.-J. Hwang, S.-C. Jeng, C.-Y. Yang, C.-W. Kuo, and C.-C. Liao,“Characteristics of nanoparticle-doped homeotropic liquid crystal devices,” J Phys. D 42, 025102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Jeng, S.-J. Hwang, and C.-Y. Yang, “Tunable pretilt angles based on nanoparticles-doped planar liquid-crystal cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 455–457 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeung, F. S.

F. S. Yeung and H.-S. Kwok, “Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 063505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeung, F. S. Y.

Y. W. Li, J. Y. L. Ho, F. S. Y. Yeung, and H. S. Kwok, “Simultaneous determination of large pretilt angles and cell gap in liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 4(1), 13–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yi, M. H.

Y. J. Lee, J. G. Choi, I.-K. Song, J. M. Oh, and M. H. Yi, “Effect of side chain structure of polyimides on a pretilt angle of liquid crystal cells,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(5), 1555–1562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X. J.

X. J. Yu and H.-S. Kwok, “Bistable bend-splay liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3711 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. S. Yeung and H.-S. Kwok, “Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 063505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Yu and H.-S. Kwok, “Bistable bend-splay liquid crystal display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(17), 3711 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. E. Vaughn, M. Sousa, D. Kang, and C. Rosenblatt, “Continuous control of liquid crystal pretilt angle from homeotropic to planar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(19), 194102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Chen and K. L. Chu, “Pretilt angle control for single-cell-gap transflective liquid crystal cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 091102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J Phys. D

S.-J. Hwang, S.-C. Jeng, C.-Y. Yang, C.-W. Kuo, and C.-C. Liao,“Characteristics of nanoparticle-doped homeotropic liquid crystal devices,” J Phys. D 42, 025102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Yu. A. Nastishin, R. D. Polak, S. V. Shiyanovskii, V. H. Bodnar, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Nematic polar anchoring strength measured by electric field techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(8), 4199 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Paek, C. J. Durning, K.-W. Lee, and A. Lien, “A mechanistic picture of the effects of rubbing on polyimide surfaces and liquid crystal pretilt angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(3), 1270 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci.

B. S. Ban and Y. B. Kim, “Surface free energy and pretilt angle on rubbed polyimide surfaces,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 74(2), 267–271 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol.

S. J. Hwang, “Precise optical retardation measurement of nematic liquid crystal display using the phase-sensitive technique,” J. Display Technol. 1(1), 77 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Li, J. Y. L. Ho, F. S. Y. Yeung, and H. S. Kwok, “Simultaneous determination of large pretilt angles and cell gap in liquid crystal displays,” J. Display Technol. 4(1), 13–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

H.-Y. Wu, C.-Y. Wang, C.-J. Lin, R.-P. Pan, S.-S. Lin, C.-D. Lee, and C.-S. Kou, “Mechanism in determining pretilt angle of liquid crystals aligned on fluorinated copolymer films,” J. Phys. D 42(15), 155303 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp.

L. Komitov, “Tuning the alignment of liquid crystals by means of nano-structured surfaces,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 16(9), 919 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Uchida, M. Ohgawara, and M. Wada, “SiO2 liquid crystal orientation on the surface of obliquely-evaporated silicon monoxide with homeotropic surface treatment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 19(11), 2127–2136 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst.

E. J. Acosta, M. J. Towler, and H. G. Walton, “The role of surface tilt in the operation of pi-cell liquid crystal devices,” Liq. Cryst. 27(7), 977–984 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

W.-Y. Wu, C.-C. Wang, and A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Controlling pre-tilt angles of liquid crystal using mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Opt. Express 16(21), 17131–17137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ahn, Y.-C. Jeong, S. Lee, J. Lee, Y. Heo, and J.-K. Park, “Control of liquid crystal pretilt angles by using organic/inorganic hybrid interpenetrating networks,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16603–16612 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

S.-C. Jeng, S.-J. Hwang, and C.-Y. Yang, “Tunable pretilt angles based on nanoparticles-doped planar liquid-crystal cells,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 455–457 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polym. Adv. Technol.

M. Nishikawa, “Design of polyimides for liquid crystal alignment films,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 11(8-12), 404–412 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Polymer (Guildf.)

Y. J. Lee, J. G. Choi, I.-K. Song, J. M. Oh, and M. H. Yi, “Effect of side chain structure of polyimides on a pretilt angle of liquid crystal cells,” Polymer (Guildf.) 47(5), 1555–1562 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

L. Komitov, “Nano-engineering of the anchoring of liquid crystals on solid surfaces,” Thin Solid Films 516(9), 2639–2644 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Contact angle of distilled water drop on POSS/PI alignment layer and surface energy of POSS/PI alignment layer as a function of POSS concentration in PI.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photographs of antiparallel LC cells observed by POM with various POSS concentration doped in PI: (a) 0.05%, (b) 0.08%, (c) 0.10%, (d) 0.11%, (e) 0.12%, and (f) 0.14%.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of pretilt angle on POSS concentration in PI for two different rubbing depth.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Voltage dependent phase retardation curves of antiparallel LC cells with different POSS concentration doped in PI.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polar anchoring energy (PAE) as a function of POSS concentration doped in PI.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Voltage dependent transmission curves of traditional and proposed OCB LC cells by applying forward (0 V to 10 V) and backward (10 V to 0V) voltages.

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