Abstract

We present a high-sensitivity photoreceiver based on a vertical- illumination-type 100% Ge-on-Si photodetector. The fabricated p-i-n photodetector with a 90 μm-diameter mesa shows the −3 dB bandwidth of 7.7 GHz, and the responsivity of 0.9 A/W at λ~1.55 μm, corresponding to the external quantum efficiency of 72%. A TO-can packaged Ge photoreceiver exhibits the sensitivity of −18.5 dBm for a BER of 10−12 at data rate of 10 Gbps. This result proves the capability of a cost-effective 100% Ge-on-Si photoreceiver which can readily replace the III-V counterparts for optical communications.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Preston, L. Chen, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Silicon Photonic Interconnect with Micrometer-Scale Devices” 6th International conference on Group IV photonics, WA2, pp.1–3 (2009).
  3. A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic Networks-on- Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on Silicon for Near-Infrared Light Sensing,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(2), 69–79 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 112–114 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si.001. for 1.3–1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5913 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 1161–1163 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Suh, S. Kim, J. Joo, and G. Kim, “36-GHz High-Responsivity Ge Photodetectors Grown by RPCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 672–674 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Ishikawa, J. Osaka and K. Wada, “Germanium Photodetectors in Silicon Photonics” IEEE Laser & Electro-Optics Society conf., pp.367–368 (2009).
  19. T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Kim, I. Kim, J. Baek, and O. Kwon, “Enhanced frequency response associated with negative photoconductance in an InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1249–1251 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J.-W. Shi, Y.-S. Wu, Z.-R. Li, and P.-S. Chen, “Impact-ionization-induced bandwidth enhancement of a Si-SiGe-based avalanche photodiode operating at a wavelength of 830 nm with a gain-bandwidth product of 428 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(7), 474–476 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (3)

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Suh, S. Kim, J. Joo, and G. Kim, “36-GHz High-Responsivity Ge Photodetectors Grown by RPCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 672–674 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on Silicon for Near-Infrared Light Sensing,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(2), 69–79 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic Networks-on- Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Shi, Y.-S. Wu, Z.-R. Li, and P.-S. Chen, “Impact-ionization-induced bandwidth enhancement of a Si-SiGe-based avalanche photodiode operating at a wavelength of 830 nm with a gain-bandwidth product of 428 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(7), 474–476 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si.001. for 1.3–1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Kim, I. Kim, J. Baek, and O. Kwon, “Enhanced frequency response associated with negative photoconductance in an InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Abbadie, A.

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si.001. for 1.3–1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Albonesi, D. H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alon, E.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assanto, G.

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on Silicon for Near-Infrared Light Sensing,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(2), 69–79 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baek, J.

G. Kim, I. Kim, J. Baek, and O. Kwon, “Enhanced frequency response associated with negative photoconductance in an InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Balasubramanian, N.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beling, A.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic Networks-on- Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Berroth, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Billon, T.

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si.001. for 1.3–1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bolle, C. A.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. C.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, D. D.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carloni, L. P.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic Networks-on- Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-W.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.-S.

J.-W. Shi, Y.-S. Wu, Z.-R. Li, and P.-S. Chen, “Impact-ionization-induced bandwidth enhancement of a Si-SiGe-based avalanche photodiode operating at a wavelength of 830 nm with a gain-bandwidth product of 428 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(7), 474–476 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-K.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. O.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Colace, L.

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on Silicon for Near-Infrared Light Sensing,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(2), 69–79 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J. E.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Damlencourt, J. F.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danielson, D. T.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dehlinger, G.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Doerr, C. R.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dosunmu, O.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Earnshaw, M. P.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J. M.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fédéli, J.-M.

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si.001. for 1.3–1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Friedman, E. G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ginsburg, E.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grill, A.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J.-M.

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si.001. for 1.3–1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haurylau, M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ho, R.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holliger, P.

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si.001. for 1.3–1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, Y.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jongthammanurak, S.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joo, J.

D. Suh, S. Kim, J. Joo, and G. Kim, “36-GHz High-Responsivity Ge Photodetectors Grown by RPCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 672–674 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jung, W. S.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jutzi, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, Y.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, E.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.

D. Suh, S. Kim, J. Joo, and G. Kim, “36-GHz High-Responsivity Ge Photodetectors Grown by RPCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 672–674 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Kim, I. Kim, J. Baek, and O. Kwon, “Enhanced frequency response associated with negative photoconductance in an InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, I.

G. Kim, I. Kim, J. Baek, and O. Kwon, “Enhanced frequency response associated with negative photoconductance in an InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

D. Suh, S. Kim, J. Joo, and G. Kim, “36-GHz High-Responsivity Ge Photodetectors Grown by RPCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 672–674 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koester, S. J.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, Y.-H.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, O.

G. Kim, I. Kim, J. Baek, and O. Kwon, “Enhanced frequency response associated with negative photoconductance in an InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si.001. for 1.3–1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lecunff, Y.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. J.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lexau, J.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Z.-R.

J.-W. Shi, Y.-S. Wu, Z.-R. Li, and P.-S. Chen, “Impact-ionization-induced bandwidth enhancement of a Si-SiGe-based avalanche photodiode operating at a wavelength of 830 nm with a gain-bandwidth product of 428 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(7), 474–476 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Litski, S.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, F.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H. D.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.-D.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loh, T. H.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Loh, W. Y.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Luan, H.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marris-Morini, D.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McIntosh, D. C.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mekis, A.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michel, J.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Murthy, R.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, N. A.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. S.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oehme, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okyay, A. K.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Osmond, J.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ouyang, Q. C.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Papon, A. M.

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si.001. for 1.3–1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Patil, D.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pauchard, A.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pinguet, T.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raj, K.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasras, M. S.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ren, S.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, G.

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si.001. for 1.3–1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rouvière, M.

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si.001. for 1.3–1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saraswat, K. C.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sarid, G.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schaub, J. D.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shacham, A.

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic Networks-on- Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, J.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, J.-W.

J.-W. Shi, Y.-S. Wu, Z.-R. Li, and P.-S. Chen, “Impact-ionization-induced bandwidth enhancement of a Si-SiGe-based avalanche photodiode operating at a wavelength of 830 nm with a gain-bandwidth product of 428 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(7), 474–476 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Suh, D.

D. Suh, S. Kim, J. Joo, and G. Kim, “36-GHz High-Responsivity Ge Photodetectors Grown by RPCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 672–674 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thacker, H.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si.001. for 1.3–1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wada, K.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wöhl, G.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.-S.

J.-W. Shi, Y.-S. Wu, Z.-R. Li, and P.-S. Chen, “Impact-ionization-induced bandwidth enhancement of a Si-SiGe-based avalanche photodiode operating at a wavelength of 830 nm with a gain-bandwidth product of 428 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(7), 474–476 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, T.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M. B.

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zadka, M.

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zaoui, W. S.

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, J. Liu, H. Luan, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced band gap shrinkage in Ge grown on Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(13), 2044–2046 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Loh, H. S. Nguyen, R. Murthy, M. B. Yu, W. Y. Loh, G. Q. Lo, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, J. Wang, and S. J. Lee, “Selective epitaxial germanium on silicon-on-insulator high speed photodetectors using low-temperature ultrathin Si0.8Ge0.2 buffer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 073503 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Kim, I. Kim, J. Baek, and O. Kwon, “Enhanced frequency response associated with negative photoconductance in an InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodetector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(6), 1249–1251 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

H. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-Efficiency p-i-n Photodetectors on Selective-Area-Grown Ge for Monolithic Integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 30, 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-Chip Optical Interconnect Roadmap: Challenges and Critical Directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

L. Colace and G. Assanto, “Germanium on Silicon for Near-Infrared Light Sensing,” IEEE Photon. J. 1(2), 69–79 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (5)

M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, M. P. Earnshaw, C. R. Doerr, J. S. Weiner, C. A. Bolle, and Y.-K. Chen, “CMOS Silicon Receiver Integrated With Ge Detector and Reconfigurable Optical Filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(2), 112–114 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Suh, S. Kim, J. Joo, and G. Kim, “36-GHz High-Responsivity Ge Photodetectors Grown by RPCVD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(10), 672–674 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si Vertical Incidence Photodiodes with 39-GHz Bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-W. Shi, Y.-S. Wu, Z.-R. Li, and P.-S. Chen, “Impact-ionization-induced bandwidth enhancement of a Si-SiGe-based avalanche photodiode operating at a wavelength of 830 nm with a gain-bandwidth product of 428 GHz,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(7), 474–476 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed Germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Comput. (1)

A. Shacham, K. Bergman, and L. P. Carloni, “Photonic Networks-on- Chip for Future Generations of Chip Multiprocessors,” IEEE Trans. Comput. 57(9), 1246–1260 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J.-M. Hartmann, A. Abbadie, A. M. Papon, P. Holliger, G. Rolland, T. Billon, J.-M. Fédéli, M. Rouvière, L. Vivien, and S. Laval, “Reduced pressure–chemical vapor deposition of Ge thick layers on Si.001. for 1.3–1.55-μm photodetection,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(10), 5905–5913 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Kang, H.-D. Liu, M. Morse, M. J. Paniccia, M. Zadka, S. Litski, G. Sarid, A. Pauchard, Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, W. S. Zaoui, J. E. Bowers, A. Beling, D. C. McIntosh, X. Zheng, and J. C. Campbell, “Monolithic germanium/silicon avalanche photodiodes with 340 GHz gain–bandwidth product,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 59–63 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature 464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

X. Zheng, F. Liu, D. Patil, H. Thacker, Y. Luo, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, J. Yao, G. Li, J. Shi, K. Raj, J. Lexau, E. Alon, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “A sub-picojoule-per-bit CMOS photonic receiver for densely integrated systems,” Opt. Express 18(1), 204–211 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, J. Osmond, J. M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, P. Crozat, J. F. Damlencourt, E. Cassan, Y. Lecunff, and S. Laval, “42 GHz p.i.n Germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 17(8), 6252–6257 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica E (1)

M. Morse, O. Dosunmu, T. Yin, Y. Kang, H. D. Liu, G. Sarid, E. Ginsburg, R. Cohen, S. Litski, and M. Zadka, “Performance of Ge/Si receivers at 1310 nm,” Physica E 41(6), 1076–1081 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Y. Ishikawa, J. Osaka and K. Wada, “Germanium Photodetectors in Silicon Photonics” IEEE Laser & Electro-Optics Society conf., pp.367–368 (2009).

K. Preston, L. Chen, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Silicon Photonic Interconnect with Micrometer-Scale Devices” 6th International conference on Group IV photonics, WA2, pp.1–3 (2009).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) High resolution ω-2θ x-ray-diffraction profiles around the (004) order for the Ge epilayers grown on silicon wafers. (b) AFM and TEM mages of the 3 μm-thick Ge epilayer on silicon.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Cross-sectional scheme of the fabricated Ge-on-Si PD, (b) top-view SEM image of the fabricated 90 μm-diameter device with 4 μm-thick Ge absorption layer, and (c) 52 degree-tilted cross sectional SEM image of the device prepared by FIB milling.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The measured current-voltage characteristic of a 90 μm-diameter device with a 4 μm-thick Ge layer. The solid line indicates the dark current. The photocurrent is measured under illumination of λ~1.55 μm. (b) The measured responsivity spectra of 160 μm-diameter devices with 1.2 μm- to 4 μm-thick Ge layers in the wavelength ranges of 1.25 μm–1.35 μm, and 1.52 μm–1.66 μm. Inset shows the spectral responsivity-ratio normalized with respect to the value at λ = 1.52 μm for the wavelength range of 1.52 μm–1.66 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The on-chip measurement of the frequency response for various diameter devices with a 4 μm-thick Ge absorption layer. The −3 dB bandwidth (f-3dB) of the device is 13.4 GHz to 3.5 GHz, as the diameter of the device increases from 40 to 160 μm at −3 V. (b) The dependency of the f-3dB (black line, left axis) and the responsivity (blue line, right axis) on the device diameter at λ ~1.55 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Sensitivity curves of Ge photoreceivers with a 60 μm-diameter PD with a 3 μm-thick Ge layer (black line) and a 90 μm-diameter PD with a 4 μm-thick Ge layer (red line), for a BER of 10−12 at data rate of 10 Gbps at λ ~1.55 μm. Inset shows a 90 μm-diameter PD wire-bonded with a TIA in a TO can. The measured sensitivity is −18.4 dBm and −18.54 dBm, respectively. (b) Measured 10 Gb/s eye diagram at λ ~1.55 μm of the photoreceiver based on a 90 μm-diameter Ge PD, with the optical input power of −18.5 dBm at −3.3 V bias.

Metrics