Abstract

We report on an order of magnitude enhanced nonlinear response of vanadium dioxide thin film patterned with nanoresonators – nano slot antennas fabricated on the gold film. Transmission of terahertz radiation, little affected by an optical pumping for the case of bulk thin film, can now be completely switched-off: ΔT/T≈-0.9999 by the same optical pumping power. This unprecedentedly large optical pump-terahertz probe nonlinearity originates from the insulator-to-metal phase transition drastically reducing the antenna cross sections of the nanoresonators. Our scheme enables nanoscale-thin film technology to be used for all-optical switching of long wavelength light.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, L. C. Feldman, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, “Optical nonlinearities in VO[sub 2] nanoparticles and thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5191–5193 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. F. MacDonald, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical nonlinearity resulting from a light-induced structural transition in gallium nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1087–1089 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Femtosecond Charge Transport in Polar Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(25), 5140–5143 (1999).
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  9. S. Lysenko, A. J. Rua, V. Vikhnin, J. Jimenez, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Light-induced ultrafast phase transitions in VO2 thin film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(15), 5512–5515 (2006).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. N. N. Lepeshkin, A. Schweinsberg, G. Piredda, R. S. Bennink, and R. W. Boyd, “Enhanced nonlinear optical response of one-dimensional metal-dielectric photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(12), 123902 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  14. E. Hendry, M. J. Lockyear, J. G. Rivas, L. Kuipers, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast optical switching of the THz transmission through metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235305 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, S. R. Bank, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland superlattices,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1620–1622 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 161102 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, D.-H. Youn, S.-L. Maeng, G. Kim, K.-Y. Kang, and Y.-S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” N. J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. S. J. Yun, J. W. Lim, B.-G. Chae, B. J. Kim, and H.-T. Kim, “Characteristics of vanadium dioxide films deposited by RF-magnetron sputter deposition technique using V-metal target,” Physica B 403, 1381–1383 (2008).
  30. B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, and S. J. Yun, “Characteristics of W- and Ti-Doped VO2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method,” Electrochem. Solid State 11(6), D53–D55 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  31. P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  32. R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414(6861), 286–289 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125205 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  34. D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. Vanexter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-Infrared Time-Domain Spectroscopy with Terahertz Beams of Dielectrics and Semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(10), 2006–2015 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  35. Z. Jiang, M. Li, and X. C. Zhang, “Dielectric constant measurement of thin films by differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(22), 3221–3223 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. Lee, M. Seo, D. Park, D. Kim, S. Jeoung, Ch. Lienau, Q. H. Park, and P. Planken, “Shape resonance omni-directional terahertz filters with near-unity transmittance,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1253–1259 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. G. Gallot and D. Grischkowsky, “Electro-optic detection of terahertz radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(8), 1204–1212 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  38. M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  39. M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, S. C. Jeoung, Q. H. Park, Ch. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz transparency at Fabry-Perot resonances of periodic slit arrays in a metal plate: experiment and theory,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12637–12643 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, J. Y. Sohn, Y. H. Ahn, D. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, Ch. Lienau, and Q. H. Park, “Invisible plasmonic meta-materials through impedance matching to vacuum,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10681–10687 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, I. B. Sohn, C. Kang, M. S. Jeong, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz near-field enhancement in narrow rectangular apertures on metal film,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12493–12501 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, K. J. Ahn, Q. H. Park, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, “Near field imaging of terahertz focusing onto rectangular apertures,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20484–20489 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, Y. H. Ahn, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Theoretical Study of Terahertz Near-Field Enhancement Assisted by Shape Resonance in Rectangular Hole Arrays in Metal Films,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 54(1), 64–70 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  47. N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  48. T. I. Jeon, J. H. Son, K. H. An, Y. H. Lee, and Y. S. Lee, “Terahertz absorption and dispersion of fluorine-doped single-walled carbon nanotube,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(3), 034316 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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2010

H. R. Park, Y. M. Park, H. S. Kim, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz nanoresonators: Giant field enhancement and ultrabroadband performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, I. B. Sohn, C. Kang, M. S. Jeong, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz near-field enhancement in narrow rectangular apertures on metal film,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12493–12501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, Y. H. Ahn, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Theoretical Study of Terahertz Near-Field Enhancement Assisted by Shape Resonance in Rectangular Hole Arrays in Metal Films,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 54(1), 64–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Jacobs and A. J. Landahl, “Engineering giant nonlinearities in quantum nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(6), 067201 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Kang, J.-H. Choe, D. S. Kim, and Q. H. Park, “Substrate effect on aperture resonances in a thin metal film,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15652–15658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

X. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Picosecond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 185–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, M. L. Moravec, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “Terahertz imaging with compressed sensing and phase retrieval,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 974–976 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shin, J. Moon, H. Ju, and C. Park, “Growth and electrical properties of vanadium-dioxide thin films fabricated by magnetron sputtering,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 52(6), 1828–1831 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Yun, J. W. Lim, B.-G. Chae, B. J. Kim, and H.-T. Kim, “Characteristics of vanadium dioxide films deposited by RF-magnetron sputter deposition technique using V-metal target,” Physica B 403, 1381–1383 (2008).

B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, and S. J. Yun, “Characteristics of W- and Ti-Doped VO2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method,” Electrochem. Solid State 11(6), D53–D55 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, K. J. Ahn, Q. H. Park, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, “Near field imaging of terahertz focusing onto rectangular apertures,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20484–20489 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Hendry, M. J. Lockyear, J. G. Rivas, L. Kuipers, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast optical switching of the THz transmission through metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, S. R. Bank, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland superlattices,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1620–1622 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. G. Cooke, F. A. Hegmann, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Electron mobility in dilute GaAs bismide and nitride alloys measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 122103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Lysenko, A. J. Rua, V. Vikhnin, J. Jimenez, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Light-induced ultrafast phase transitions in VO2 thin film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(15), 5512–5515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, M. Seo, D. Park, D. Kim, S. Jeoung, Ch. Lienau, Q. H. Park, and P. Planken, “Shape resonance omni-directional terahertz filters with near-unity transmittance,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1253–1259 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, S. C. Jeoung, Q. H. Park, Ch. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz transparency at Fabry-Perot resonances of periodic slit arrays in a metal plate: experiment and theory,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12637–12643 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, J. Y. Sohn, Y. H. Ahn, D. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, Ch. Lienau, and Q. H. Park, “Invisible plasmonic meta-materials through impedance matching to vacuum,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10681–10687 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. García-Vidal, E. Moreno, J. A. Porto, and L. Martín-Moreno, “Transmission of light through a single rectangular hole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(10), 103901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. I. Jeon, J. H. Son, K. H. An, Y. H. Lee, and Y. S. Lee, “Terahertz absorption and dispersion of fluorine-doped single-walled carbon nanotube,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(3), 034316 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, D.-H. Youn, S.-L. Maeng, G. Kim, K.-Y. Kang, and Y.-S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” N. J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, L. C. Feldman, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, “Optical nonlinearities in VO[sub 2] nanoparticles and thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5191–5193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Lepeshkin, A. Schweinsberg, G. Piredda, R. S. Bennink, and R. W. Boyd, “Enhanced nonlinear optical response of one-dimensional metal-dielectric photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(12), 123902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

K. F. MacDonald, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical nonlinearity resulting from a light-induced structural transition in gallium nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1087–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

N. I. Zheludev, “Nonlinear optics on the nanoscale,” Contemp. Phys. 43(5), 365–377 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414(6861), 286–289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond Structural Dynamics in VO2 during an Ultrafast Solid-Solid Phase Transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgartner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(20), 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jiang, M. Li, and X. C. Zhang, “Dielectric constant measurement of thin films by differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(22), 3221–3223 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. L. Nelson and R. W. Boyd, “Enhanced electro-optic response of layered composite materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(17), 2417–2419 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Femtosecond Charge Transport in Polar Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(25), 5140–5143 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Gallot and D. Grischkowsky, “Electro-optic detection of terahertz radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(8), 1204–1212 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995

G. L. Fischer, R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehr, S. A. Jenekhe, J. A. Osaheni, J. E. Sipe, and L. A. Weller-Brophy, “Enhanced nonlinear optical response of composite materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(10), 1871–1874 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. Vanexter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-Infrared Time-Domain Spectroscopy with Terahertz Beams of Dielectrics and Semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(10), 2006–2015 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1959

F. J. Morin, “Oxides Which Show a Metal-to-Insulator Transition at the Neel Temperature,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 3(1), 34–36 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Abstreiter, G.

R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414(6861), 286–289 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adam, A. J. L.

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H. R. Park, Y. M. Park, H. S. Kim, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz nanoresonators: Giant field enhancement and ultrabroadband performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121106 (2010).
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M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
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H. R. Park, Y. M. Park, H. S. Kim, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz nanoresonators: Giant field enhancement and ultrabroadband performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121106 (2010).
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D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, Y. H. Ahn, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Theoretical Study of Terahertz Near-Field Enhancement Assisted by Shape Resonance in Rectangular Hole Arrays in Metal Films,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 54(1), 64–70 (2009).
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D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, I. B. Sohn, C. Kang, M. S. Jeong, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz near-field enhancement in narrow rectangular apertures on metal film,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12493–12501 (2009).
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J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, J. Y. Sohn, Y. H. Ahn, D. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, Ch. Lienau, and Q. H. Park, “Invisible plasmonic meta-materials through impedance matching to vacuum,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10681–10687 (2005).
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D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
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H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, S. R. Bank, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland superlattices,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1620–1622 (2007).
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W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
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H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, S. R. Bank, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland superlattices,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1620–1622 (2007).
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W. L. Chan, M. L. Moravec, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “Terahertz imaging with compressed sensing and phase retrieval,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 974–976 (2008).
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I. H. Libon, S. Baumgartner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(20), 2821–2823 (2000).
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R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414(6861), 286–289 (2001).
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R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, L. C. Feldman, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, “Optical nonlinearities in VO[sub 2] nanoparticles and thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5191–5193 (2004).
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E. Hendry, M. J. Lockyear, J. G. Rivas, L. Kuipers, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast optical switching of the THz transmission through metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235305 (2007).
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N. N. Lepeshkin, A. Schweinsberg, G. Piredda, R. S. Bennink, and R. W. Boyd, “Enhanced nonlinear optical response of one-dimensional metal-dielectric photonic crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(12), 123902 (2004).
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G. L. Fischer, R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehr, S. A. Jenekhe, J. A. Osaheni, J. E. Sipe, and L. A. Weller-Brophy, “Enhanced nonlinear optical response of composite materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(10), 1871–1874 (1995).
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D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
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W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
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R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414(6861), 286–289 (2001).
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D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 161102 (2004).
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A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond Structural Dynamics in VO2 during an Ultrafast Solid-Solid Phase Transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
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B. G. Chae, H. T. Kim, and S. J. Yun, “Characteristics of W- and Ti-Doped VO2 Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method,” Electrochem. Solid State 11(6), D53–D55 (2008).
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S. J. Yun, J. W. Lim, B.-G. Chae, B. J. Kim, and H.-T. Kim, “Characteristics of vanadium dioxide films deposited by RF-magnetron sputter deposition technique using V-metal target,” Physica B 403, 1381–1383 (2008).

H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, D.-H. Youn, S.-L. Maeng, G. Kim, K.-Y. Kang, and Y.-S. Lim, “Mechanism and observation of Mott transition in VO2-based two- and three-terminal devices,” N. J. Phys. 6, 52 (2004).
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W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, M. L. Moravec, R. G. Baraniuk, and D. M. Mittleman, “Terahertz imaging with compressed sensing and phase retrieval,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 974–976 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, S. R. Bank, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland superlattices,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1620–1622 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. H. Kang, J.-H. Choe, D. S. Kim, and Q. H. Park, “Substrate effect on aperture resonances in a thin metal film,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15652–15658 (2009).
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D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, Y. H. Ahn, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Theoretical Study of Terahertz Near-Field Enhancement Assisted by Shape Resonance in Rectangular Hole Arrays in Metal Films,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 54(1), 64–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, I. B. Sohn, C. Kang, M. S. Jeong, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz near-field enhancement in narrow rectangular apertures on metal film,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12493–12501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
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A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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W. L. Chan, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, I. Brener, M. J. Cich, and D. M. Mittleman, “A spatial light modulator for terahertz beams,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(21), 213511 (2009).
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D. G. Cooke, F. A. Hegmann, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Electron mobility in dilute GaAs bismide and nitride alloys measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 122103 (2006).
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P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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I. H. Libon, S. Baumgartner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(20), 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. H. W. Chong, J. C. Kieffer, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B 70, 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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X. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Picosecond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 185–189 (2008).
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G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125205 (2002).
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D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. Vanexter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-Infrared Time-Domain Spectroscopy with Terahertz Beams of Dielectrics and Semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(10), 2006–2015 (1990).
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K. F. MacDonald, V. A. Fedotov, and N. I. Zheludev, “Optical nonlinearity resulting from a light-induced structural transition in gallium nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1087–1089 (2003).
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R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, L. C. Feldman, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, “Optical nonlinearities in VO[sub 2] nanoparticles and thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5191–5193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgartner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(20), 2821–2823 (2000).
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S. Lysenko, A. J. Rua, V. Vikhnin, J. Jimenez, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Light-induced ultrafast phase transitions in VO2 thin film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(15), 5512–5515 (2006).
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P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205103 (2006).
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G. L. Fischer, R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehr, S. A. Jenekhe, J. A. Osaheni, J. E. Sipe, and L. A. Weller-Brophy, “Enhanced nonlinear optical response of composite materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(10), 1871–1874 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond Structural Dynamics in VO2 during an Ultrafast Solid-Solid Phase Transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
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G. Gallot and D. Grischkowsky, “Electro-optic detection of terahertz radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(8), 1204–1212 (1999).
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G. L. Fischer, R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehr, S. A. Jenekhe, J. A. Osaheni, J. E. Sipe, and L. A. Weller-Brophy, “Enhanced nonlinear optical response of composite materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(10), 1871–1874 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

X. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Picosecond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 185–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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H.-T. Chen, W. J. Padilla, J. M. O. Zide, S. R. Bank, A. C. Gossard, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Ultrafast optical switching of terahertz metamaterials fabricated on ErAs/GaAs nanoisland superlattices,” Opt. Lett. 32(12), 1620–1622 (2007).
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N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051105 (2008).
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G. Gallot and D. Grischkowsky, “Electro-optic detection of terahertz radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16(8), 1204–1212 (1999).
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D. Grischkowsky, S. Keiding, M. Vanexter, and C. Fattinger, “Far-Infrared Time-Domain Spectroscopy with Terahertz Beams of Dielectrics and Semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7(10), 2006–2015 (1990).
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P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, L. C. Feldman, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, “Optical nonlinearities in VO[sub 2] nanoparticles and thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5191–5193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, T. E.

R. Lopez, R. F. Haglund, L. C. Feldman, L. A. Boatner, and T. E. Haynes, “Optical nonlinearities in VO[sub 2] nanoparticles and thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5191–5193 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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I. H. Libon, S. Baumgartner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(20), 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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D. G. Cooke, F. A. Hegmann, E. C. Young, and T. Tiedje, “Electron mobility in dilute GaAs bismide and nitride alloys measured by time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(12), 122103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Helm, H.

P. U. Jepsen, B. M. Fischer, A. Thoman, H. Helm, J. Y. Suh, R. Lopez, and R. F. Haglund, “Metal-insulator phase transition in a VO2 thin film observed with terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 74(20), 205103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hempel, M.

I. H. Libon, S. Baumgartner, M. Hempel, N. E. Hecker, J. Feldmann, M. Koch, and P. Dawson, “An optically controllable terahertz filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(20), 2821–2823 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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E. Hendry, M. J. Lockyear, J. G. Rivas, L. Kuipers, and M. Bonn, “Ultrafast optical switching of the THz transmission through metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. B 75(23), 235305 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Highstrete, C.

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilton, D. J.

D. J. Hilton, R. P. Prasankumar, S. Fourmaux, A. Cavalleri, D. Brassard, M. A. El Khakani, J. C. Kieffer, A. J. Taylor, and R. D. Averitt, “Enhanced photosusceptibility near Tc for the light-induced insulator-to-metal phase transition in vanadium dioxide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(22), 226401 (2007).
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X. Hu, P. Jiang, C. Ding, H. Yang, and Q. Gong, “Picosecond and low-power all-optical switching based on an organic photonic-bandgap microcavity,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 185–189 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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R. Huber, F. Tauser, A. Brodschelm, M. Bichler, G. Abstreiter, and A. Leitenstorfer, “How many-particle interactions develop after ultrafast excitation of an electron-hole plasma,” Nature 414(6861), 286–289 (2001).
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A. Leitenstorfer, S. Hunsche, J. Shah, M. C. Nuss, and W. H. Knox, “Femtosecond Charge Transport in Polar Semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(25), 5140–5143 (1999).
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G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125205 (2002).
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K. Jacobs and A. J. Landahl, “Engineering giant nonlinearities in quantum nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(6), 067201 (2009).
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G. L. Fischer, R. W. Boyd, R. J. Gehr, S. A. Jenekhe, J. A. Osaheni, J. E. Sipe, and L. A. Weller-Brophy, “Enhanced nonlinear optical response of composite materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74(10), 1871–1874 (1995).
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T. I. Jeon, J. H. Son, K. H. An, Y. H. Lee, and Y. S. Lee, “Terahertz absorption and dispersion of fluorine-doped single-walled carbon nanotube,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(3), 034316 (2005).
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J. Lee, M. Seo, D. Park, D. Kim, S. Jeoung, Ch. Lienau, Q. H. Park, and P. Planken, “Shape resonance omni-directional terahertz filters with near-unity transmittance,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1253–1259 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
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J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, S. C. Jeoung, Q. H. Park, Ch. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz transparency at Fabry-Perot resonances of periodic slit arrays in a metal plate: experiment and theory,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12637–12643 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, J. Y. Sohn, Y. H. Ahn, D. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, Ch. Lienau, and Q. H. Park, “Invisible plasmonic meta-materials through impedance matching to vacuum,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10681–10687 (2005).
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S. Lysenko, A. J. Rua, V. Vikhnin, J. Jimenez, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Light-induced ultrafast phase transitions in VO2 thin film,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(15), 5512–5515 (2006).
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Y. Shin, J. Moon, H. Ju, and C. Park, “Growth and electrical properties of vanadium-dioxide thin films fabricated by magnetron sputtering,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 52(6), 1828–1831 (2008).
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D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, I. B. Sohn, C. Kang, M. S. Jeong, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz near-field enhancement in narrow rectangular apertures on metal film,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12493–12501 (2009).
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J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
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M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, K. J. Ahn, Q. H. Park, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, “Near field imaging of terahertz focusing onto rectangular apertures,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20484–20489 (2008).
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M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
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S. J. Yun, J. W. Lim, B.-G. Chae, B. J. Kim, and H.-T. Kim, “Characteristics of vanadium dioxide films deposited by RF-magnetron sputter deposition technique using V-metal target,” Physica B 403, 1381–1383 (2008).

Kim, D.

J. Lee, M. Seo, D. Park, D. Kim, S. Jeoung, Ch. Lienau, Q. H. Park, and P. Planken, “Shape resonance omni-directional terahertz filters with near-unity transmittance,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1253–1259 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, J.-H. Choe, D. S. Kim, and Q. H. Park, “Substrate effect on aperture resonances in a thin metal film,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15652–15658 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, K. J. Ahn, Q. H. Park, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, “Near field imaging of terahertz focusing onto rectangular apertures,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20484–20489 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. H. Kang, K. S. Khim, S. C. Jeoung, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz electromagnetic wave transmission through random arrays of single rectangular holes and slits in thin metallic sheets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 137401 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, S. C. Jeoung, Q. H. Park, Ch. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz transparency at Fabry-Perot resonances of periodic slit arrays in a metal plate: experiment and theory,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12637–12643 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, J. Y. Sohn, Y. H. Ahn, D. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, Ch. Lienau, and Q. H. Park, “Invisible plasmonic meta-materials through impedance matching to vacuum,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10681–10687 (2005).
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T. I. Jeon, J. H. Son, K. H. An, Y. H. Lee, and Y. S. Lee, “Terahertz absorption and dispersion of fluorine-doped single-walled carbon nanotube,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(3), 034316 (2005).
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J. Lee, M. Seo, D. Park, D. Kim, S. Jeoung, Ch. Lienau, Q. H. Park, and P. Planken, “Shape resonance omni-directional terahertz filters with near-unity transmittance,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1253–1259 (2006).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Padilla, A. J. Taylor, C. Highstrete, M. Lee, and R. D. Averitt, “Dynamical electric and magnetic metamaterial response at terahertz frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(10), 107401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Shin, J. Moon, H. Ju, and C. Park, “Growth and electrical properties of vanadium-dioxide thin films fabricated by magnetron sputtering,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 52(6), 1828–1831 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, D.

J. Lee, M. Seo, D. Park, D. Kim, S. Jeoung, Ch. Lienau, Q. H. Park, and P. Planken, “Shape resonance omni-directional terahertz filters with near-unity transmittance,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1253–1259 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. R. Park, Y. M. Park, H. S. Kim, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz nanoresonators: Giant field enhancement and ultrabroadband performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, Y. H. Ahn, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Theoretical Study of Terahertz Near-Field Enhancement Assisted by Shape Resonance in Rectangular Hole Arrays in Metal Films,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 54(1), 64–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, Y. H. Ahn, F. Rotermund, I. B. Sohn, C. Kang, M. S. Jeong, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz near-field enhancement in narrow rectangular apertures on metal film,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12493–12501 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, S. C. Jeoung, Q. H. Park, Ch. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz transparency at Fabry-Perot resonances of periodic slit arrays in a metal plate: experiment and theory,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12637–12643 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. R. Park, Y. M. Park, H. S. Kim, J. S. Kyoung, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, Y. H. Ahn, K. J. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz nanoresonators: Giant field enhancement and ultrabroadband performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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M. Seo, J. Kyoung, H. Park, S. Koo, H. S. Kim, H. Bernien, B. J. Kim, J. H. Choe, Y. H. Ahn, H.-T. Kim, N. Park, Q. H. Park, K. Ahn, and D. S. Kim, “Active terahertz nanoantennas based on VO2 phase transition,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2064–2068 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Park, S. B. Choi, Y. H. Ahn, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Theoretical Study of Terahertz Near-Field Enhancement Assisted by Shape Resonance in Rectangular Hole Arrays in Metal Films,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 54(1), 64–70 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kang, J.-H. Choe, D. S. Kim, and Q. H. Park, “Substrate effect on aperture resonances in a thin metal film,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15652–15658 (2009).
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M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, K. J. Ahn, Q. H. Park, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, “Near field imaging of terahertz focusing onto rectangular apertures,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20484–20489 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, S. C. Jeoung, Q. H. Park, Ch. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz transparency at Fabry-Perot resonances of periodic slit arrays in a metal plate: experiment and theory,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12637–12643 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lee, M. Seo, D. Park, D. Kim, S. Jeoung, Ch. Lienau, Q. H. Park, and P. Planken, “Shape resonance omni-directional terahertz filters with near-unity transmittance,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1253–1259 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, J. Y. Sohn, Y. H. Ahn, D. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, Ch. Lienau, and Q. H. Park, “Invisible plasmonic meta-materials through impedance matching to vacuum,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10681–10687 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, K. J. Ahn, Q. H. Park, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, “Near field imaging of terahertz focusing onto rectangular apertures,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20484–20489 (2008).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lee, M. Seo, D. Park, D. Kim, S. Jeoung, Ch. Lienau, Q. H. Park, and P. Planken, “Shape resonance omni-directional terahertz filters with near-unity transmittance,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1253–1259 (2006).
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M. A. Seo, H. R. Park, S. M. Koo, D. J. Park, J. H. Kang, O. K. Suwal, S. S. Choi, P. C. M. Planken, G. S. Park, N. K. Park, Q. H. Park, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz field enhancement by a metallic nano slit operating beyond the skin-depth limit,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 152–156 (2009).
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M. A. Seo, A. J. L. Adam, J. H. Kang, J. W. Lee, K. J. Ahn, Q. H. Park, P. C. M. Planken, and D. S. Kim, “Near field imaging of terahertz focusing onto rectangular apertures,” Opt. Express 16(25), 20484–20489 (2008).
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J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, D. J. Park, S. C. Jeoung, Q. H. Park, Ch. Lienau, and D. S. Kim, “Terahertz transparency at Fabry-Perot resonances of periodic slit arrays in a metal plate: experiment and theory,” Opt. Express 14(26), 12637–12643 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Lee, M. A. Seo, J. Y. Sohn, Y. H. Ahn, D. S. Kim, S. C. Jeoung, Ch. Lienau, and Q. H. Park, “Invisible plasmonic meta-materials through impedance matching to vacuum,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10681–10687 (2005).
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P. A. George, J. Strait, J. Dawlaty, S. Shivaraman, M. Chandrashekhar, F. Rana, and M. G. Spencer, “Ultrafast optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy of the carrier relaxation and recombination dynamics in epitaxial graphene,” Nano Lett. 8(12), 4248–4251 (2008).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic description of the two crystal structures of VO2: the insulator (monoclinic) phase below the critical temperature Tc = 340 K and the metal (rutile) phase above Tc. Only vanadium atoms are visualized in the figure and each atom is surrounded by an oxygen octahedron. (b) The temperature-dependent hysteresis of the THz transmittance through an un-patterned 100-nm-thick VO2 thin film at 0.4 THz (raising (lowering) temperature: filled (empty) circle). Hysteresis curve shows that the critical temperature Tc of our sample is about 345 K.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image of our sample patterned with 350-nm-width resonators on 100-nm-thick VO2 film using electron beam lithography. The thickness of the gold layer is 100 nm and the horizontal period of the rectangle hole array is 100 μm and the vertical 130 μm. (b) Schematic of our photo excitation experiments. Single cycle THz pulse impinges on the gold surface first and passes through the VO2 side. The pump laser at 532 nm wavelength, illuminates the back side of the sample and induces phase transition of the VO2 thin film. (c) Time traces for bare (top) and nanoresonator patterned (bottom) samples with zero (blue lines) and 500 mW (red lines) absorbed pumping power. For the bare film, the difference between the signals with and without pumping is hardly recognizable while quasi-periodic feature, due to the fundamental half wavelength resonance, completely disappears with the same pumping power for the nanoresonator patterned sample. (d) Fast Fourier transform of the measured THz pulse for 350-nm-width rectangle hole array patterned sample exhibit strong resonance characteristic at the zero pumping power. The transmission at the resonance frequency is completely extinct when the pumping power reaches 550 mW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The differential transmission signals of a bare VO2 film (filled gray triangle), 27 μm (filled blue square) and 350 nm (filled red circle) width antenna arrays on VO2 films at the resonance frequency (0.375 THz) as a function of the pumping power. Only small changes in transmission are seen for the bare sample, while perfect extinction is clearly visible for the 350-nm-width resonators patterned sample above 450 mW of absorbed power. (b) Nonlinear response of the bare and nanoresonator patterned sample. Nonlinear response suddenly increases at some critical pumping power, 300 mW, as the VO2 thin film undergoes insulator-to-metal phase transition.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The differential transmissions for the 25-nm-thick bare VO2 film (filled gray triangle) and 200-nm-width slot antenna patterned sample (filled red circle) are measured at 0.42 THz. For the bare film, no changes are seen due to optical pumping while near perfect switching performance is observed with the patterned sample.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Averaged horizontal electric field for λ = 34.48 μm calculated by finite difference time domain (FDTD) method to investigate the physical origin of enhanced nonlinear response of nanoresonators. The incident wave comes from the left to the right. (a) patterned sample with insulating state of VO2 (b) patterned sample with metal state of VO2. For the patterned film case, nanoresonators attract surrounding waves and funnel them to the other side making enhanced transmission at the insulating state of VO2 while most of the beam reflects back at the surface when the VO2 film is in the metallic state.

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