Abstract

We observe the angular radiation pattern of single carbon nanotubes' photoluminescence in the back focal plane of a microscope objective and show that the emitting nanotube can be described by a single in-plane point dipole. The near-field interaction between a nanotube and an optical antenna modifies the radiation pattern that is now dominated by the antenna characteristics. We quantify the antenna induced excitation and radiation enhancement and show that the radiative rate enhancement is connected to a directional redistribution of the emission.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Jorio, M. S. Dresselhaus, and G. Dresselhaus, eds., Carbon Nanotubes, vol. 111 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg, 2008).
  2. J. Lefebvre, S. Maruyama, and P. Finnie, “Photoluminescence: Science and Applications“ in Carbon Nanotubes, vol. 111 of Topics in Applied Physics, A. Jorio, M. S. Dresselhaus, and G. Dresselhaus, eds. (Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg, 2008).
    [PubMed]
  3. P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Xia, M. Steiner, Y. M. Lin, and P. Avouris, “A microcavity-controlled, current-driven, on-chip nanotube emitter at infrared wavelengths,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(10), 609–613 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical Antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(3), 438–483 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. E. Fort and S. Grésillon, “Surface enhanced fluorescence,” J. Phys. D 41(1), 013001 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Hartschuh, “Tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(43), 8178–8191 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. V. Deckert, “Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(10), 1336–1337 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Bharadwaj and L. Novotny, “Spectral dependence of single molecule fluorescence enhancement,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14266–14274 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. G. Cançado, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanotubes,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(10), 1420–1426 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Ruppin, “Decay of an excited molecule near a small metal sphere,” J. Chem. Phys. 76(4), 1681–1684 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. Gersen, M. F. García-Parajó, L. Novotny, J. A. Veerman, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Influencing the angular emission of a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(25), 5312–5315 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Kühn, G. Mori, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence close to a nanostructure: radiation pattern, spontaneous emission and quenching,” Mol. Phys. 106(7), 893–908 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105005 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 234–237 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Huang, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bruyant, A. Guenot, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Gain, detuning, and radiation patterns of nanoparticle optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 155407 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 113002 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Qian, P. T. Araujo, C. Georgi, T. Gokus, N. Hartmann, A. A. Green, A. Jorio, M. C. Hersam, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Visualizing the local optical response of semiconducting carbon nanotubes to DNA-wrapping,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2706–2711 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. S. Arnold, A. A. Green, J. F. Hulvat, S. I. Stupp, and M. C. Hersam, “Sorting carbon nanotubes by electronic structure using density differentiation,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(1), 60–65 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. Stürzl, F. Hennrich, S. Lebedkin, and M. M. Kappes, “Near Monochiral Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Dispersions in Organic Solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(33), 14628–14632 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. A. Lieb, J. M. Zavislan, and L. Novotny, “Single-molecule orientations determined by direct emission pattern imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(6), 1210–1215 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Georgi, N. Hartmann, T. Gokus, A. A. Green, M. C. Hersam, and A. Hartschuh, “Photoinduced luminescence blinking and bleaching in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” ChemPhysChem 9(10), 1460–1464 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. L. Cognet, D. A. Tsyboulski, J. D. R. Rocha, C. D. Doyle, J. M. Tour, and R. B. Weisman, “Stepwise quenching of exciton fluorescence in carbon nanotubes by single-molecule reactions,” Science 316(5830), 1465–1468 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. G. Y. Slepyan, M. V. Shuba, S. A. Maksimenko, and A. Lakhtakia, “Theory of optical scattering by achiral carbon nanotubes and their potential as optical nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 73(19), 195416 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Hagen, M. Steiner, M. B. Raschke, C. Lienau, T. Hertel, H. Qian, A. J. Meixner, and A. Hartschuh, “Exponential decay lifetimes of excitons in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(19), 197401 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. A. J. Siitonen, D. A. Tsyboulski, S. M. Bachilo, and R. B. Weisman, “Surfactant-dependent exciton mobility in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied by single-molecule reactions,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1595–1599 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. C. Georgi, M. Böhmler, H. Qian, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Probing exciton propagation and quenching in carbon nanotubes with near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 246(11-12), 2683–2688 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  32. L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, A. Ismach, E. Joselevich, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Mechanism of near-field Raman enhancement in one-dimensional systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 186101 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. L. Novotny, and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge, 2006).
  34. L. Novotny, E. J. Sánchez, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field optical imaging using metal tips illuminated by higher-order Hermite–Gaussian beams,” Ultramicroscopy 71(1-4), 21–29 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. R. Beversluis, L. Novotny, and S. J. Stranick, “Programmable vector point-spread function engineering,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2650–2656 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Siitonen, D. A. Tsyboulski, S. M. Bachilo, and R. B. Weisman, “Surfactant-dependent exciton mobility in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied by single-molecule reactions,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1595–1599 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (6)

C. Georgi, M. Böhmler, H. Qian, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Probing exciton propagation and quenching in carbon nanotubes with near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 246(11-12), 2683–2688 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Stürzl, F. Hennrich, S. Lebedkin, and M. M. Kappes, “Near Monochiral Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Dispersions in Organic Solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(33), 14628–14632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, A. Ismach, E. Joselevich, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Mechanism of near-field Raman enhancement in one-dimensional systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 186101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical Antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(3), 438–483 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Deckert, “Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(10), 1336–1337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Cançado, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanotubes,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(10), 1420–1426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (11)

H. Qian, P. T. Araujo, C. Georgi, T. Gokus, N. Hartmann, A. A. Green, A. Jorio, M. C. Hersam, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Visualizing the local optical response of semiconducting carbon nanotubes to DNA-wrapping,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2706–2711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kühn, G. Mori, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence close to a nanostructure: radiation pattern, spontaneous emission and quenching,” Mol. Phys. 106(7), 893–908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Huang, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bruyant, A. Guenot, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Gain, detuning, and radiation patterns of nanoparticle optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 155407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Fort and S. Grésillon, “Surface enhanced fluorescence,” J. Phys. D 41(1), 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Hartschuh, “Tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(43), 8178–8191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, M. Steiner, Y. M. Lin, and P. Avouris, “A microcavity-controlled, current-driven, on-chip nanotube emitter at infrared wavelengths,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(10), 609–613 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Georgi, N. Hartmann, T. Gokus, A. A. Green, M. C. Hersam, and A. Hartschuh, “Photoinduced luminescence blinking and bleaching in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” ChemPhysChem 9(10), 1460–1464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

L. Cognet, D. A. Tsyboulski, J. D. R. Rocha, C. D. Doyle, J. M. Tour, and R. B. Weisman, “Stepwise quenching of exciton fluorescence in carbon nanotubes by single-molecule reactions,” Science 316(5830), 1465–1468 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bharadwaj and L. Novotny, “Spectral dependence of single molecule fluorescence enhancement,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14266–14274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Arnold, A. A. Green, J. F. Hulvat, S. I. Stupp, and M. C. Hersam, “Sorting carbon nanotubes by electronic structure using density differentiation,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(1), 60–65 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Y. Slepyan, M. V. Shuba, S. A. Maksimenko, and A. Lakhtakia, “Theory of optical scattering by achiral carbon nanotubes and their potential as optical nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 73(19), 195416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Beversluis, L. Novotny, and S. J. Stranick, “Programmable vector point-spread function engineering,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2650–2656 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

A. Hagen, M. Steiner, M. B. Raschke, C. Lienau, T. Hertel, H. Qian, A. J. Meixner, and A. Hartschuh, “Exponential decay lifetimes of excitons in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. A. Lieb, J. M. Zavislan, and L. Novotny, “Single-molecule orientations determined by direct emission pattern imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(6), 1210–1215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Gersen, M. F. García-Parajó, L. Novotny, J. A. Veerman, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Influencing the angular emission of a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(25), 5312–5315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. Novotny, E. J. Sánchez, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field optical imaging using metal tips illuminated by higher-order Hermite–Gaussian beams,” Ultramicroscopy 71(1-4), 21–29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

R. Ruppin, “Decay of an excited molecule near a small metal sphere,” J. Chem. Phys. 76(4), 1681–1684 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Agio, M.

S. Kühn, G. Mori, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence close to a nanostructure: radiation pattern, spontaneous emission and quenching,” Mol. Phys. 106(7), 893–908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anger, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Araujo, P. T.

H. Qian, P. T. Araujo, C. Georgi, T. Gokus, N. Hartmann, A. A. Green, A. Jorio, M. C. Hersam, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Visualizing the local optical response of semiconducting carbon nanotubes to DNA-wrapping,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2706–2711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, M. S.

M. S. Arnold, A. A. Green, J. F. Hulvat, S. I. Stupp, and M. C. Hersam, “Sorting carbon nanotubes by electronic structure using density differentiation,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(1), 60–65 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Avouris, P.

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Xia, M. Steiner, Y. M. Lin, and P. Avouris, “A microcavity-controlled, current-driven, on-chip nanotube emitter at infrared wavelengths,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(10), 609–613 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachelot, R.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bachilo, S. M.

A. J. Siitonen, D. A. Tsyboulski, S. M. Bachilo, and R. B. Weisman, “Surfactant-dependent exciton mobility in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied by single-molecule reactions,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1595–1599 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beversluis, M. R.

M. R. Beversluis, L. Novotny, and S. J. Stranick, “Programmable vector point-spread function engineering,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2650–2656 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bharadwaj, P.

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical Antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(3), 438–483 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Bharadwaj and L. Novotny, “Spectral dependence of single molecule fluorescence enhancement,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14266–14274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Böhmler, M.

C. Georgi, M. Böhmler, H. Qian, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Probing exciton propagation and quenching in carbon nanotubes with near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 246(11-12), 2683–2688 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

C. Huang, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bruyant, A. Guenot, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Gain, detuning, and radiation patterns of nanoparticle optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 155407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruyant, A.

C. Huang, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bruyant, A. Guenot, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Gain, detuning, and radiation patterns of nanoparticle optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 155407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cançado, L. G.

L. G. Cançado, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanotubes,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(10), 1420–1426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, A. Ismach, E. Joselevich, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Mechanism of near-field Raman enhancement in one-dimensional systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 186101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cognet, L.

L. Cognet, D. A. Tsyboulski, J. D. R. Rocha, C. D. Doyle, J. M. Tour, and R. B. Weisman, “Stepwise quenching of exciton fluorescence in carbon nanotubes by single-molecule reactions,” Science 316(5830), 1465–1468 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colas des Francs, G.

C. Huang, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bruyant, A. Guenot, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Gain, detuning, and radiation patterns of nanoparticle optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 155407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deckert, V.

V. Deckert, “Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(10), 1336–1337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

C. Huang, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bruyant, A. Guenot, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Gain, detuning, and radiation patterns of nanoparticle optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 155407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deutsch, B.

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical Antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(3), 438–483 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, C. D.

L. Cognet, D. A. Tsyboulski, J. D. R. Rocha, C. D. Doyle, J. M. Tour, and R. B. Weisman, “Stepwise quenching of exciton fluorescence in carbon nanotubes by single-molecule reactions,” Science 316(5830), 1465–1468 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisler, H.-J.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farahani, J. N.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finot, E.

C. Huang, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bruyant, A. Guenot, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Gain, detuning, and radiation patterns of nanoparticle optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 155407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fort, E.

E. Fort and S. Grésillon, “Surface enhanced fluorescence,” J. Phys. D 41(1), 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Freitag, M.

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

García-Parajó, M. F.

H. Gersen, M. F. García-Parajó, L. Novotny, J. A. Veerman, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Influencing the angular emission of a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(25), 5312–5315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Georgi, C.

C. Georgi, M. Böhmler, H. Qian, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Probing exciton propagation and quenching in carbon nanotubes with near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 246(11-12), 2683–2688 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Georgi, N. Hartmann, T. Gokus, A. A. Green, M. C. Hersam, and A. Hartschuh, “Photoinduced luminescence blinking and bleaching in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” ChemPhysChem 9(10), 1460–1464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Qian, P. T. Araujo, C. Georgi, T. Gokus, N. Hartmann, A. A. Green, A. Jorio, M. C. Hersam, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Visualizing the local optical response of semiconducting carbon nanotubes to DNA-wrapping,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2706–2711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gersen, H.

H. Gersen, M. F. García-Parajó, L. Novotny, J. A. Veerman, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Influencing the angular emission of a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(25), 5312–5315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gokus, T.

C. Georgi, N. Hartmann, T. Gokus, A. A. Green, M. C. Hersam, and A. Hartschuh, “Photoinduced luminescence blinking and bleaching in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” ChemPhysChem 9(10), 1460–1464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Qian, P. T. Araujo, C. Georgi, T. Gokus, N. Hartmann, A. A. Green, A. Jorio, M. C. Hersam, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Visualizing the local optical response of semiconducting carbon nanotubes to DNA-wrapping,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2706–2711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, A. A.

H. Qian, P. T. Araujo, C. Georgi, T. Gokus, N. Hartmann, A. A. Green, A. Jorio, M. C. Hersam, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Visualizing the local optical response of semiconducting carbon nanotubes to DNA-wrapping,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2706–2711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Georgi, N. Hartmann, T. Gokus, A. A. Green, M. C. Hersam, and A. Hartschuh, “Photoinduced luminescence blinking and bleaching in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” ChemPhysChem 9(10), 1460–1464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Arnold, A. A. Green, J. F. Hulvat, S. I. Stupp, and M. C. Hersam, “Sorting carbon nanotubes by electronic structure using density differentiation,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(1), 60–65 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grésillon, S.

E. Fort and S. Grésillon, “Surface enhanced fluorescence,” J. Phys. D 41(1), 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guenot, A.

C. Huang, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bruyant, A. Guenot, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Gain, detuning, and radiation patterns of nanoparticle optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 155407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, A.

A. Hagen, M. Steiner, M. B. Raschke, C. Lienau, T. Hertel, H. Qian, A. J. Meixner, and A. Hartschuh, “Exponential decay lifetimes of excitons in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartmann, N.

H. Qian, P. T. Araujo, C. Georgi, T. Gokus, N. Hartmann, A. A. Green, A. Jorio, M. C. Hersam, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Visualizing the local optical response of semiconducting carbon nanotubes to DNA-wrapping,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2706–2711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Georgi, N. Hartmann, T. Gokus, A. A. Green, M. C. Hersam, and A. Hartschuh, “Photoinduced luminescence blinking and bleaching in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” ChemPhysChem 9(10), 1460–1464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartschuh, A.

L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, A. Ismach, E. Joselevich, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Mechanism of near-field Raman enhancement in one-dimensional systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 186101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. G. Cançado, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanotubes,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(10), 1420–1426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Georgi, M. Böhmler, H. Qian, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Probing exciton propagation and quenching in carbon nanotubes with near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 246(11-12), 2683–2688 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Georgi, N. Hartmann, T. Gokus, A. A. Green, M. C. Hersam, and A. Hartschuh, “Photoinduced luminescence blinking and bleaching in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” ChemPhysChem 9(10), 1460–1464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Qian, P. T. Araujo, C. Georgi, T. Gokus, N. Hartmann, A. A. Green, A. Jorio, M. C. Hersam, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Visualizing the local optical response of semiconducting carbon nanotubes to DNA-wrapping,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2706–2711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hartschuh, “Tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(43), 8178–8191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hagen, M. Steiner, M. B. Raschke, C. Lienau, T. Hertel, H. Qian, A. J. Meixner, and A. Hartschuh, “Exponential decay lifetimes of excitons in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hennrich, F.

N. Stürzl, F. Hennrich, S. Lebedkin, and M. M. Kappes, “Near Monochiral Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Dispersions in Organic Solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(33), 14628–14632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hersam, M. C.

H. Qian, P. T. Araujo, C. Georgi, T. Gokus, N. Hartmann, A. A. Green, A. Jorio, M. C. Hersam, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Visualizing the local optical response of semiconducting carbon nanotubes to DNA-wrapping,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2706–2711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Georgi, N. Hartmann, T. Gokus, A. A. Green, M. C. Hersam, and A. Hartschuh, “Photoinduced luminescence blinking and bleaching in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” ChemPhysChem 9(10), 1460–1464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Arnold, A. A. Green, J. F. Hulvat, S. I. Stupp, and M. C. Hersam, “Sorting carbon nanotubes by electronic structure using density differentiation,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(1), 60–65 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, T.

A. Hagen, M. Steiner, M. B. Raschke, C. Lienau, T. Hertel, H. Qian, A. J. Meixner, and A. Hartschuh, “Exponential decay lifetimes of excitons in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, C.

C. Huang, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bruyant, A. Guenot, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Gain, detuning, and radiation patterns of nanoparticle optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 155407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hulvat, J. F.

M. S. Arnold, A. A. Green, J. F. Hulvat, S. I. Stupp, and M. C. Hersam, “Sorting carbon nanotubes by electronic structure using density differentiation,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(1), 60–65 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ismach, A.

L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, A. Ismach, E. Joselevich, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Mechanism of near-field Raman enhancement in one-dimensional systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 186101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jorio, A.

L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, A. Ismach, E. Joselevich, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Mechanism of near-field Raman enhancement in one-dimensional systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 186101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Qian, P. T. Araujo, C. Georgi, T. Gokus, N. Hartmann, A. A. Green, A. Jorio, M. C. Hersam, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Visualizing the local optical response of semiconducting carbon nanotubes to DNA-wrapping,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2706–2711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joselevich, E.

L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, A. Ismach, E. Joselevich, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Mechanism of near-field Raman enhancement in one-dimensional systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 186101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kappes, M. M.

N. Stürzl, F. Hennrich, S. Lebedkin, and M. M. Kappes, “Near Monochiral Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Dispersions in Organic Solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(33), 14628–14632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kostcheev, S.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kühn, S.

S. Kühn, G. Mori, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence close to a nanostructure: radiation pattern, spontaneous emission and quenching,” Mol. Phys. 106(7), 893–908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

H. Gersen, M. F. García-Parajó, L. Novotny, J. A. Veerman, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Influencing the angular emission of a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(25), 5312–5315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lakhtakia, A.

G. Y. Slepyan, M. V. Shuba, S. A. Maksimenko, and A. Lakhtakia, “Theory of optical scattering by achiral carbon nanotubes and their potential as optical nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 73(19), 195416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lebedkin, S.

N. Stürzl, F. Hennrich, S. Lebedkin, and M. M. Kappes, “Near Monochiral Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Dispersions in Organic Solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(33), 14628–14632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lerondel, G.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lieb, M. A.

M. A. Lieb, J. M. Zavislan, and L. Novotny, “Single-molecule orientations determined by direct emission pattern imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(6), 1210–1215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lienau, C.

A. Hagen, M. Steiner, M. B. Raschke, C. Lienau, T. Hertel, H. Qian, A. J. Meixner, and A. Hartschuh, “Exponential decay lifetimes of excitons in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y. M.

F. Xia, M. Steiner, Y. M. Lin, and P. Avouris, “A microcavity-controlled, current-driven, on-chip nanotube emitter at infrared wavelengths,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(10), 609–613 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maksimenko, S. A.

G. Y. Slepyan, M. V. Shuba, S. A. Maksimenko, and A. Lakhtakia, “Theory of optical scattering by achiral carbon nanotubes and their potential as optical nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 73(19), 195416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meixner, A. J.

A. Hagen, M. Steiner, M. B. Raschke, C. Lienau, T. Hertel, H. Qian, A. J. Meixner, and A. Hartschuh, “Exponential decay lifetimes of excitons in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mori, G.

S. Kühn, G. Mori, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence close to a nanostructure: radiation pattern, spontaneous emission and quenching,” Mol. Phys. 106(7), 893–908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

L. G. Cançado, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanotubes,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(10), 1420–1426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Georgi, M. Böhmler, H. Qian, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Probing exciton propagation and quenching in carbon nanotubes with near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 246(11-12), 2683–2688 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical Antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(3), 438–483 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, A. Ismach, E. Joselevich, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Mechanism of near-field Raman enhancement in one-dimensional systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 186101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Qian, P. T. Araujo, C. Georgi, T. Gokus, N. Hartmann, A. A. Green, A. Jorio, M. C. Hersam, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Visualizing the local optical response of semiconducting carbon nanotubes to DNA-wrapping,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2706–2711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bharadwaj and L. Novotny, “Spectral dependence of single molecule fluorescence enhancement,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14266–14274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Beversluis, L. Novotny, and S. J. Stranick, “Programmable vector point-spread function engineering,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2650–2656 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Lieb, J. M. Zavislan, and L. Novotny, “Single-molecule orientations determined by direct emission pattern imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(6), 1210–1215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Gersen, M. F. García-Parajó, L. Novotny, J. A. Veerman, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Influencing the angular emission of a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(25), 5312–5315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Novotny, E. J. Sánchez, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field optical imaging using metal tips illuminated by higher-order Hermite–Gaussian beams,” Ultramicroscopy 71(1-4), 21–29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Perebeinos, V.

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, H.

C. Georgi, M. Böhmler, H. Qian, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Probing exciton propagation and quenching in carbon nanotubes with near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 246(11-12), 2683–2688 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Qian, P. T. Araujo, C. Georgi, T. Gokus, N. Hartmann, A. A. Green, A. Jorio, M. C. Hersam, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Visualizing the local optical response of semiconducting carbon nanotubes to DNA-wrapping,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2706–2711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hagen, M. Steiner, M. B. Raschke, C. Lienau, T. Hertel, H. Qian, A. J. Meixner, and A. Hartschuh, “Exponential decay lifetimes of excitons in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raschke, M. B.

A. Hagen, M. Steiner, M. B. Raschke, C. Lienau, T. Hertel, H. Qian, A. J. Meixner, and A. Hartschuh, “Exponential decay lifetimes of excitons in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rocha, J. D. R.

L. Cognet, D. A. Tsyboulski, J. D. R. Rocha, C. D. Doyle, J. M. Tour, and R. B. Weisman, “Stepwise quenching of exciton fluorescence in carbon nanotubes by single-molecule reactions,” Science 316(5830), 1465–1468 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Royer, P.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ruppin, R.

R. Ruppin, “Decay of an excited molecule near a small metal sphere,” J. Chem. Phys. 76(4), 1681–1684 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sánchez, E. J.

L. Novotny, E. J. Sánchez, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field optical imaging using metal tips illuminated by higher-order Hermite–Gaussian beams,” Ultramicroscopy 71(1-4), 21–29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sandoghdar, V.

S. Kühn, G. Mori, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence close to a nanostructure: radiation pattern, spontaneous emission and quenching,” Mol. Phys. 106(7), 893–908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segerink, F. B.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shuba, M. V.

G. Y. Slepyan, M. V. Shuba, S. A. Maksimenko, and A. Lakhtakia, “Theory of optical scattering by achiral carbon nanotubes and their potential as optical nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 73(19), 195416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Siitonen, A. J.

A. J. Siitonen, D. A. Tsyboulski, S. M. Bachilo, and R. B. Weisman, “Surfactant-dependent exciton mobility in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied by single-molecule reactions,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1595–1599 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slepyan, G. Y.

G. Y. Slepyan, M. V. Shuba, S. A. Maksimenko, and A. Lakhtakia, “Theory of optical scattering by achiral carbon nanotubes and their potential as optical nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 73(19), 195416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stefani, F. D.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steiner, M.

F. Xia, M. Steiner, Y. M. Lin, and P. Avouris, “A microcavity-controlled, current-driven, on-chip nanotube emitter at infrared wavelengths,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(10), 609–613 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hagen, M. Steiner, M. B. Raschke, C. Lienau, T. Hertel, H. Qian, A. J. Meixner, and A. Hartschuh, “Exponential decay lifetimes of excitons in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stranick, S. J.

M. R. Beversluis, L. Novotny, and S. J. Stranick, “Programmable vector point-spread function engineering,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2650–2656 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stupp, S. I.

M. S. Arnold, A. A. Green, J. F. Hulvat, S. I. Stupp, and M. C. Hersam, “Sorting carbon nanotubes by electronic structure using density differentiation,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(1), 60–65 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stürzl, N.

N. Stürzl, F. Hennrich, S. Lebedkin, and M. M. Kappes, “Near Monochiral Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Dispersions in Organic Solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(33), 14628–14632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taminiau, T. H.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tour, J. M.

L. Cognet, D. A. Tsyboulski, J. D. R. Rocha, C. D. Doyle, J. M. Tour, and R. B. Weisman, “Stepwise quenching of exciton fluorescence in carbon nanotubes by single-molecule reactions,” Science 316(5830), 1465–1468 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsyboulski, D. A.

A. J. Siitonen, D. A. Tsyboulski, S. M. Bachilo, and R. B. Weisman, “Surfactant-dependent exciton mobility in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied by single-molecule reactions,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1595–1599 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cognet, D. A. Tsyboulski, J. D. R. Rocha, C. D. Doyle, J. M. Tour, and R. B. Weisman, “Stepwise quenching of exciton fluorescence in carbon nanotubes by single-molecule reactions,” Science 316(5830), 1465–1468 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Gersen, M. F. García-Parajó, L. Novotny, J. A. Veerman, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Influencing the angular emission of a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(25), 5312–5315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Veerman, J. A.

H. Gersen, M. F. García-Parajó, L. Novotny, J. A. Veerman, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Influencing the angular emission of a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(25), 5312–5315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weeber, J.-C.

C. Huang, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bruyant, A. Guenot, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Gain, detuning, and radiation patterns of nanoparticle optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 155407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weisman, R. B.

A. J. Siitonen, D. A. Tsyboulski, S. M. Bachilo, and R. B. Weisman, “Surfactant-dependent exciton mobility in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied by single-molecule reactions,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1595–1599 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Cognet, D. A. Tsyboulski, J. D. R. Rocha, C. D. Doyle, J. M. Tour, and R. B. Weisman, “Stepwise quenching of exciton fluorescence in carbon nanotubes by single-molecule reactions,” Science 316(5830), 1465–1468 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, M. Steiner, Y. M. Lin, and P. Avouris, “A microcavity-controlled, current-driven, on-chip nanotube emitter at infrared wavelengths,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(10), 609–613 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

L. Novotny, E. J. Sánchez, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field optical imaging using metal tips illuminated by higher-order Hermite–Gaussian beams,” Ultramicroscopy 71(1-4), 21–29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zavislan, J. M.

M. A. Lieb, J. M. Zavislan, and L. Novotny, “Single-molecule orientations determined by direct emission pattern imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(6), 1210–1215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical Antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(3), 438–483 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

A. Hartschuh, “Tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 47(43), 8178–8191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ChemPhysChem (1)

C. Georgi, N. Hartmann, T. Gokus, A. A. Green, M. C. Hersam, and A. Hartschuh, “Photoinduced luminescence blinking and bleaching in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” ChemPhysChem 9(10), 1460–1464 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. Ruppin, “Decay of an excited molecule near a small metal sphere,” J. Chem. Phys. 76(4), 1681–1684 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

M. A. Lieb, J. M. Zavislan, and L. Novotny, “Single-molecule orientations determined by direct emission pattern imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(6), 1210–1215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

N. Stürzl, F. Hennrich, S. Lebedkin, and M. M. Kappes, “Near Monochiral Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Dispersions in Organic Solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(33), 14628–14632 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

E. Fort and S. Grésillon, “Surface enhanced fluorescence,” J. Phys. D 41(1), 013001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (2)

L. G. Cançado, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanotubes,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(10), 1420–1426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Deckert, “Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 40(10), 1336–1337 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Phys. (1)

S. Kühn, G. Mori, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Modification of single molecule fluorescence close to a nanostructure: radiation pattern, spontaneous emission and quenching,” Mol. Phys. 106(7), 893–908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys. (1)

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, and N. F. van Hulst, “Single emitters coupled to plasmonic nano-antennas: angular emission and collection efficiency,” N. J. Phys. 10(10), 105005 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

H. Qian, P. T. Araujo, C. Georgi, T. Gokus, N. Hartmann, A. A. Green, A. Jorio, M. C. Hersam, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Visualizing the local optical response of semiconducting carbon nanotubes to DNA-wrapping,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2706–2711 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Siitonen, D. A. Tsyboulski, S. M. Bachilo, and R. B. Weisman, “Surfactant-dependent exciton mobility in single-walled carbon nanotubes studied by single-molecule reactions,” Nano Lett. 10(5), 1595–1599 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

F. Xia, M. Steiner, Y. M. Lin, and P. Avouris, “A microcavity-controlled, current-driven, on-chip nanotube emitter at infrared wavelengths,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(10), 609–613 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Arnold, A. A. Green, J. F. Hulvat, S. I. Stupp, and M. C. Hersam, “Sorting carbon nanotubes by electronic structure using density differentiation,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 1(1), 60–65 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

P. Avouris, M. Freitag, and V. Perebeinos, “Carbon-nanotube photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 2(6), 341–350 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, and N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

P. Bharadwaj and L. Novotny, “Spectral dependence of single molecule fluorescence enhancement,” Opt. Express 15(21), 14266–14274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. R. Beversluis, L. Novotny, and S. J. Stranick, “Programmable vector point-spread function engineering,” Opt. Express 14(7), 2650–2656 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

G. Y. Slepyan, M. V. Shuba, S. A. Maksimenko, and A. Lakhtakia, “Theory of optical scattering by achiral carbon nanotubes and their potential as optical nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B 73(19), 195416 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Huang, A. Bouhelier, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bruyant, A. Guenot, E. Finot, J.-C. Weeber, and A. Dereux, “Gain, detuning, and radiation patterns of nanoparticle optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. B 78(15), 155407 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: a tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Hagen, M. Steiner, M. B. Raschke, C. Lienau, T. Hertel, H. Qian, A. J. Meixner, and A. Hartschuh, “Exponential decay lifetimes of excitons in individual single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Bouhelier, R. Bachelot, G. Lerondel, S. Kostcheev, P. Royer, and G. P. Wiederrecht, “Surface plasmon characteristics of tunable photoluminescence in single gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(26), 267405 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Cançado, A. Jorio, A. Ismach, E. Joselevich, A. Hartschuh, and L. Novotny, “Mechanism of near-field Raman enhancement in one-dimensional systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(18), 186101 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Gersen, M. F. García-Parajó, L. Novotny, J. A. Veerman, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Influencing the angular emission of a single molecule,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(25), 5312–5315 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Solidi B (1)

C. Georgi, M. Böhmler, H. Qian, L. Novotny, and A. Hartschuh, “Probing exciton propagation and quenching in carbon nanotubes with near-field optical microscopy,” Phys. Stat. Solidi B 246(11-12), 2683–2688 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

L. Cognet, D. A. Tsyboulski, J. D. R. Rocha, C. D. Doyle, J. M. Tour, and R. B. Weisman, “Stepwise quenching of exciton fluorescence in carbon nanotubes by single-molecule reactions,” Science 316(5830), 1465–1468 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

L. Novotny, E. J. Sánchez, and X. S. Xie, “Near-field optical imaging using metal tips illuminated by higher-order Hermite–Gaussian beams,” Ultramicroscopy 71(1-4), 21–29 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

L. Novotny, and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge, 2006).

A. Jorio, M. S. Dresselhaus, and G. Dresselhaus, eds., Carbon Nanotubes, vol. 111 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg, 2008).

J. Lefebvre, S. Maruyama, and P. Finnie, “Photoluminescence: Science and Applications“ in Carbon Nanotubes, vol. 111 of Topics in Applied Physics, A. Jorio, M. S. Dresselhaus, and G. Dresselhaus, eds. (Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg, 2008).
[PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of (a) the experimental setup and (b) the detection beam path including the parameters used in the simulations. Radiation patterns are recorded by imaging the back focal plane of the objective onto the CCD camera using the Bertrand lens. Simulated radiation patterns for point dipoles orientated horizontally (θ = 90°) and vertically (θ = 0°) are shown in (c) [24]. In (a) the orientation of SWNT dipole pSWNT and metal tip dipole ptip as determined experimentally are indicated.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Confocal PL image of single SWNTs. The scale bar represents 2 µm. For three SWNTs marked in (a) the emission patterns are displayed (b-d) together with the corresponding simulated dipolar patterns (e-g). The angle Φ describing the in-plane dipole orientation has been varied to reproduce the corresponding experimental patterns.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Near-field PL image of a SWNT with corresponding topography as inset. The scale bars represent 100 nm. (a-d) show emission patterns of the same SWNT in the vicinity of a gold tip (b) and without tip (c) and (d) measured at the position marked in (a). The intensity-scale in (d) is identical to that in (b) for better comparison.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Detected fraction γ of the total power radiated by a dipole oriented parallel (solid line) or perpendicular (dashed line) with respect to the substrate, depending on the collection angle of the microscope objective θmax. The dotted line marks the maximum collection angle θmax = 78.98° for the microscope objective with NA = 1.49. The gray area corresponds to the θmax range for the inner part of the radiation patterns which was used to estimate Fex. In this range the contribution of the vertical dipole is negligible.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P L t i p = η γ Q t i p k e x V
P L S W N T = η γ | | Q S W N T k e x V + P L S W N T 0 ( 1 1 V )
F r a d = P L t i p γ | | ( P L S W N T P L S W N T 0 ( 1 1 / V ) ) γ + 1.
F e x = k e x k e x ( P L S W N T * P L S W N T 0 ) V P L S W N T 0 + 1.

Metrics