Abstract

Nanostructure of β-Ga2O3 is wide-band-gap material with white-light-emission function because of its abundance in gap states. In this study, the gap states and near-band-edge transitions in β-Ga2O3 nanostrips have been characterized using temperature-dependent thermoreflectance (TR) measurements in the temperature range between 30 and 320 K. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were carried to identify the gap-state transitions in the β-Ga2O3 nanostrips. Experimental analysis of the TR spectra revealed that the direct gap (E0) of β-Ga2O3 is 4.656 eV at 300 K. There are a lot of gap-state and near-band-edge (GSNBE) transitions denoted as ED3, EW1, EW2, EW3, ED2, EDBex, EDB, ED1, E0, and E0′ can be detected in the TR and PL spectra at 30 K. Transition origins for the GSNBE features in the β-Ga2O3 nanostrips are respectively evaluated. Temperature dependences of transition energies of the GSNBE transitions in the β-Ga2O3 nanostrips are analyzed. The probable band scheme for the GSNBE transitions in the β-Ga2O3 nanostrips is constructed.

© 2010 OSA

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  7. Y. P. Song, H. Z. Zhang, C. Lin, Y. W. Zhu, G. H. Li, F. H. Yang, and D. P. Yu, “Luminescence emission originating from nitrogen doping of β-Ga2O3 nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 69(7), 075304 (2004).
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2010 (1)

C. H. Ho, “Thermoreflectance characterization of band-edge excitonic transitions in CuAlS2 ultraviolet solar-cell material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

S. C. Vanithakumari and K. K. Nanda, “A one-step method for the growth of Ga2O3-Nanorod-based white-light-emitting phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 21(35), 3581–3584 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Sinha and A. Patra, “Generation of green, red and white light from rare-earth doped Ga2O3 nanoparticles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 473(1-3), 151–154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Ho and J. W. Lee, “Optical investigation of band-edge structure and built-in electric field of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures by means of thermoreflectance, photoluminescence, and contactless electroreflectance spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3604–3606 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

M. Caglar, S. Ilican, and Y. Caglar, “Structural, morphological and optical properties of CuAlS2 films deposited by spray pyrolysis method,” Opt. Commun. 281(6), 1615–1624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Hsieh, L. J. Chou, G. R. Lin, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Nanophotonic switch: gold-in-Ga2O3 peapod nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3081–3085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Shimamura, E. G. Villora, T. Ujiie, and K. Aoki, “Excitation and photoluminescence of pure and Si-doped β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Ho, M. C. Tsai, and M. S. Wong, “Characterization of indirect and direct interband transitions of anatase TiO2 by thermoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

C. H. Ho, Y. J. Chen, H. W. Jhou, and J. H. Du, “Optical anisotropy of ZnO nanocrystals on sapphire by thermoreflectance spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2765–2767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

E. Nogales, B. Méndez, and J. Piqueras, “Cathodoluminescence from β-Ga2O3 nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 113112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Rao, A. M. Rao, B. Xu, J. Dong, S. Sharma, and M. K. Sunkara, “Blushifted Raman scattering and its correlation with the [110] growth direction in gallium oxide nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 094312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

K. Yamaguchi, “First principles study on electronic structure of β-Ga2O3,” Solid State Commun. 131(12), 739–744 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Song, H. Z. Zhang, C. Lin, Y. W. Zhu, G. H. Li, F. H. Yang, and D. P. Yu, “Luminescence emission originating from nitrogen doping of β-Ga2O3 nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 69(7), 075304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Ho, H. W. Lee, and Z. H. Cheng, “Practical thermoreflectance design for optical characterization of layer semiconductors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 1098–1102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

E. G. Víllora, Y. Marukami, T. Sugawara, T. Atou, M. Kikuchi, D. Shindo, and T. Fukuda, “Electron microscopy studies of microstructures in β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Mater. Res. Bull. 37(4), 769–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Dai, X. L. Chen, X. N. Zhang, A. Z. Jin, T. Zhou, B. Q. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Growth and optical characterization of Ga2O3 nanobelts and nanosheets,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 1062–1064 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Gao, Y. Bando, T. Sato, Y. F. Zhang, and X. Q. Gao, “Synthesis, Raman scattering and defects of β-Ga2O3 nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(12), 2267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

L. Binet and D. Gourier, “Optical evidence of intrinsic quantum wells in the transparent conducting oxide β-Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(8), 1138–1140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

B. Monemar, “Luminescences in III-nitrides,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 122–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

L. Binet and D. Gourier, “Origin of the blue luminescence of β-Ga2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 59(8), 1241–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

F. H. Pollak and H. Shen, “Modulation spectroscopy of semiconductors: bulk/thin film, microstructures, surfaces/interfaces and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 10(7-8), 275–374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

D. Dohy, G. Lucazeau, and A. Revcolevschi, “Raman spectra and valence force field of single-crystalline β Ga2O3,” J. Solid State Chem. 45(2), 180–192 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

H. H. Tippins, “Optical absorption and photoconductivity in the band edge of β-Ga2O3,” Phys. Rev. 140(1A), A316–A319 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

R. S. Wagner and W. C. Ellis, “Vapor-liquid-solid mechanism of single crystal growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(5), 89–90 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Aoki, K.

K. Shimamura, E. G. Villora, T. Ujiie, and K. Aoki, “Excitation and photoluminescence of pure and Si-doped β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Atou, T.

E. G. Víllora, Y. Marukami, T. Sugawara, T. Atou, M. Kikuchi, D. Shindo, and T. Fukuda, “Electron microscopy studies of microstructures in β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Mater. Res. Bull. 37(4), 769–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bando, Y.

C. H. Hsieh, L. J. Chou, G. R. Lin, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Nanophotonic switch: gold-in-Ga2O3 peapod nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3081–3085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Gao, Y. Bando, T. Sato, Y. F. Zhang, and X. Q. Gao, “Synthesis, Raman scattering and defects of β-Ga2O3 nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(12), 2267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Binet, L.

L. Binet and D. Gourier, “Optical evidence of intrinsic quantum wells in the transparent conducting oxide β-Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(8), 1138–1140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Binet and D. Gourier, “Origin of the blue luminescence of β-Ga2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 59(8), 1241–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Caglar, M.

M. Caglar, S. Ilican, and Y. Caglar, “Structural, morphological and optical properties of CuAlS2 films deposited by spray pyrolysis method,” Opt. Commun. 281(6), 1615–1624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Caglar, Y.

M. Caglar, S. Ilican, and Y. Caglar, “Structural, morphological and optical properties of CuAlS2 films deposited by spray pyrolysis method,” Opt. Commun. 281(6), 1615–1624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. L.

L. Dai, X. L. Chen, X. N. Zhang, A. Z. Jin, T. Zhou, B. Q. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Growth and optical characterization of Ga2O3 nanobelts and nanosheets,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 1062–1064 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. J.

C. H. Ho, Y. J. Chen, H. W. Jhou, and J. H. Du, “Optical anisotropy of ZnO nanocrystals on sapphire by thermoreflectance spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2765–2767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Z. H.

C. H. Ho, H. W. Lee, and Z. H. Cheng, “Practical thermoreflectance design for optical characterization of layer semiconductors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 1098–1102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chou, L. J.

C. H. Hsieh, L. J. Chou, G. R. Lin, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Nanophotonic switch: gold-in-Ga2O3 peapod nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3081–3085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, L.

L. Dai, X. L. Chen, X. N. Zhang, A. Z. Jin, T. Zhou, B. Q. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Growth and optical characterization of Ga2O3 nanobelts and nanosheets,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 1062–1064 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dohy, D.

D. Dohy, G. Lucazeau, and A. Revcolevschi, “Raman spectra and valence force field of single-crystalline β Ga2O3,” J. Solid State Chem. 45(2), 180–192 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Dong, J.

R. Rao, A. M. Rao, B. Xu, J. Dong, S. Sharma, and M. K. Sunkara, “Blushifted Raman scattering and its correlation with the [110] growth direction in gallium oxide nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 094312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Du, J. H.

C. H. Ho, Y. J. Chen, H. W. Jhou, and J. H. Du, “Optical anisotropy of ZnO nanocrystals on sapphire by thermoreflectance spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2765–2767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ellis, W. C.

R. S. Wagner and W. C. Ellis, “Vapor-liquid-solid mechanism of single crystal growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(5), 89–90 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, T.

E. G. Víllora, Y. Marukami, T. Sugawara, T. Atou, M. Kikuchi, D. Shindo, and T. Fukuda, “Electron microscopy studies of microstructures in β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Mater. Res. Bull. 37(4), 769–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gao, X. Q.

Y. H. Gao, Y. Bando, T. Sato, Y. F. Zhang, and X. Q. Gao, “Synthesis, Raman scattering and defects of β-Ga2O3 nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(12), 2267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y. H.

Y. H. Gao, Y. Bando, T. Sato, Y. F. Zhang, and X. Q. Gao, “Synthesis, Raman scattering and defects of β-Ga2O3 nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(12), 2267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Golberg, D.

C. H. Hsieh, L. J. Chou, G. R. Lin, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Nanophotonic switch: gold-in-Ga2O3 peapod nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3081–3085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gourier, D.

L. Binet and D. Gourier, “Optical evidence of intrinsic quantum wells in the transparent conducting oxide β-Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(8), 1138–1140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Binet and D. Gourier, “Origin of the blue luminescence of β-Ga2O3,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 59(8), 1241–1249 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ho, C. H.

C. H. Ho, “Thermoreflectance characterization of band-edge excitonic transitions in CuAlS2 ultraviolet solar-cell material,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(6), 061902 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Ho and J. W. Lee, “Optical investigation of band-edge structure and built-in electric field of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures by means of thermoreflectance, photoluminescence, and contactless electroreflectance spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3604–3606 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Ho, M. C. Tsai, and M. S. Wong, “Characterization of indirect and direct interband transitions of anatase TiO2 by thermoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Ho, Y. J. Chen, H. W. Jhou, and J. H. Du, “Optical anisotropy of ZnO nanocrystals on sapphire by thermoreflectance spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2765–2767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Ho, H. W. Lee, and Z. H. Cheng, “Practical thermoreflectance design for optical characterization of layer semiconductors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 1098–1102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C. H.

C. H. Hsieh, L. J. Chou, G. R. Lin, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Nanophotonic switch: gold-in-Ga2O3 peapod nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3081–3085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, B. Q.

L. Dai, X. L. Chen, X. N. Zhang, A. Z. Jin, T. Zhou, B. Q. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Growth and optical characterization of Ga2O3 nanobelts and nanosheets,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 1062–1064 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ilican, S.

M. Caglar, S. Ilican, and Y. Caglar, “Structural, morphological and optical properties of CuAlS2 films deposited by spray pyrolysis method,” Opt. Commun. 281(6), 1615–1624 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jhou, H. W.

C. H. Ho, Y. J. Chen, H. W. Jhou, and J. H. Du, “Optical anisotropy of ZnO nanocrystals on sapphire by thermoreflectance spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(18), 2765–2767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, A. Z.

L. Dai, X. L. Chen, X. N. Zhang, A. Z. Jin, T. Zhou, B. Q. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Growth and optical characterization of Ga2O3 nanobelts and nanosheets,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 1062–1064 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, M.

E. G. Víllora, Y. Marukami, T. Sugawara, T. Atou, M. Kikuchi, D. Shindo, and T. Fukuda, “Electron microscopy studies of microstructures in β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Mater. Res. Bull. 37(4), 769–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. W.

C. H. Ho, H. W. Lee, and Z. H. Cheng, “Practical thermoreflectance design for optical characterization of layer semiconductors,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 1098–1102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

C. H. Ho and J. W. Lee, “Optical investigation of band-edge structure and built-in electric field of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures by means of thermoreflectance, photoluminescence, and contactless electroreflectance spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3604–3606 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G. H.

Y. P. Song, H. Z. Zhang, C. Lin, Y. W. Zhu, G. H. Li, F. H. Yang, and D. P. Yu, “Luminescence emission originating from nitrogen doping of β-Ga2O3 nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 69(7), 075304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

Y. P. Song, H. Z. Zhang, C. Lin, Y. W. Zhu, G. H. Li, F. H. Yang, and D. P. Yu, “Luminescence emission originating from nitrogen doping of β-Ga2O3 nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 69(7), 075304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G. R.

C. H. Hsieh, L. J. Chou, G. R. Lin, Y. Bando, and D. Golberg, “Nanophotonic switch: gold-in-Ga2O3 peapod nanowires,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3081–3085 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lucazeau, G.

D. Dohy, G. Lucazeau, and A. Revcolevschi, “Raman spectra and valence force field of single-crystalline β Ga2O3,” J. Solid State Chem. 45(2), 180–192 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Marukami, Y.

E. G. Víllora, Y. Marukami, T. Sugawara, T. Atou, M. Kikuchi, D. Shindo, and T. Fukuda, “Electron microscopy studies of microstructures in β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Mater. Res. Bull. 37(4), 769–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Méndez, B.

E. Nogales, B. Méndez, and J. Piqueras, “Cathodoluminescence from β-Ga2O3 nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 113112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Monemar, B.

B. Monemar, “Luminescences in III-nitrides,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 59(1-3), 122–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nanda, K. K.

S. C. Vanithakumari and K. K. Nanda, “A one-step method for the growth of Ga2O3-Nanorod-based white-light-emitting phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 21(35), 3581–3584 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nogales, E.

E. Nogales, B. Méndez, and J. Piqueras, “Cathodoluminescence from β-Ga2O3 nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 113112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Patra, A.

G. Sinha and A. Patra, “Generation of green, red and white light from rare-earth doped Ga2O3 nanoparticles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 473(1-3), 151–154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Piqueras, J.

E. Nogales, B. Méndez, and J. Piqueras, “Cathodoluminescence from β-Ga2O3 nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 113112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pollak, F. H.

F. H. Pollak and H. Shen, “Modulation spectroscopy of semiconductors: bulk/thin film, microstructures, surfaces/interfaces and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 10(7-8), 275–374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rao, A. M.

R. Rao, A. M. Rao, B. Xu, J. Dong, S. Sharma, and M. K. Sunkara, “Blushifted Raman scattering and its correlation with the [110] growth direction in gallium oxide nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 094312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rao, R.

R. Rao, A. M. Rao, B. Xu, J. Dong, S. Sharma, and M. K. Sunkara, “Blushifted Raman scattering and its correlation with the [110] growth direction in gallium oxide nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 094312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Revcolevschi, A.

D. Dohy, G. Lucazeau, and A. Revcolevschi, “Raman spectra and valence force field of single-crystalline β Ga2O3,” J. Solid State Chem. 45(2), 180–192 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sato, T.

Y. H. Gao, Y. Bando, T. Sato, Y. F. Zhang, and X. Q. Gao, “Synthesis, Raman scattering and defects of β-Ga2O3 nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(12), 2267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, S.

R. Rao, A. M. Rao, B. Xu, J. Dong, S. Sharma, and M. K. Sunkara, “Blushifted Raman scattering and its correlation with the [110] growth direction in gallium oxide nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 094312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

F. H. Pollak and H. Shen, “Modulation spectroscopy of semiconductors: bulk/thin film, microstructures, surfaces/interfaces and devices,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 10(7-8), 275–374 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shimamura, K.

K. Shimamura, E. G. Villora, T. Ujiie, and K. Aoki, “Excitation and photoluminescence of pure and Si-doped β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shindo, D.

E. G. Víllora, Y. Marukami, T. Sugawara, T. Atou, M. Kikuchi, D. Shindo, and T. Fukuda, “Electron microscopy studies of microstructures in β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Mater. Res. Bull. 37(4), 769–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, G.

G. Sinha and A. Patra, “Generation of green, red and white light from rare-earth doped Ga2O3 nanoparticles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 473(1-3), 151–154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. P.

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E. G. Víllora, Y. Marukami, T. Sugawara, T. Atou, M. Kikuchi, D. Shindo, and T. Fukuda, “Electron microscopy studies of microstructures in β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Mater. Res. Bull. 37(4), 769–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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R. Rao, A. M. Rao, B. Xu, J. Dong, S. Sharma, and M. K. Sunkara, “Blushifted Raman scattering and its correlation with the [110] growth direction in gallium oxide nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 094312 (2005).
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H. H. Tippins, “Optical absorption and photoconductivity in the band edge of β-Ga2O3,” Phys. Rev. 140(1A), A316–A319 (1965).
[CrossRef]

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C. H. Ho, M. C. Tsai, and M. S. Wong, “Characterization of indirect and direct interband transitions of anatase TiO2 by thermoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ujiie, T.

K. Shimamura, E. G. Villora, T. Ujiie, and K. Aoki, “Excitation and photoluminescence of pure and Si-doped β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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S. C. Vanithakumari and K. K. Nanda, “A one-step method for the growth of Ga2O3-Nanorod-based white-light-emitting phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 21(35), 3581–3584 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Villora, E. G.

K. Shimamura, E. G. Villora, T. Ujiie, and K. Aoki, “Excitation and photoluminescence of pure and Si-doped β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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E. G. Víllora, Y. Marukami, T. Sugawara, T. Atou, M. Kikuchi, D. Shindo, and T. Fukuda, “Electron microscopy studies of microstructures in β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Mater. Res. Bull. 37(4), 769–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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R. S. Wagner and W. C. Ellis, “Vapor-liquid-solid mechanism of single crystal growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(5), 89–90 (1964).
[CrossRef]

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C. H. Ho, M. C. Tsai, and M. S. Wong, “Characterization of indirect and direct interband transitions of anatase TiO2 by thermoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

R. Rao, A. M. Rao, B. Xu, J. Dong, S. Sharma, and M. K. Sunkara, “Blushifted Raman scattering and its correlation with the [110] growth direction in gallium oxide nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 094312 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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K. Yamaguchi, “First principles study on electronic structure of β-Ga2O3,” Solid State Commun. 131(12), 739–744 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Y. P. Song, H. Z. Zhang, C. Lin, Y. W. Zhu, G. H. Li, F. H. Yang, and D. P. Yu, “Luminescence emission originating from nitrogen doping of β-Ga2O3 nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 69(7), 075304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, D. P.

Y. P. Song, H. Z. Zhang, C. Lin, Y. W. Zhu, G. H. Li, F. H. Yang, and D. P. Yu, “Luminescence emission originating from nitrogen doping of β-Ga2O3 nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 69(7), 075304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Y. P. Song, H. Z. Zhang, C. Lin, Y. W. Zhu, G. H. Li, F. H. Yang, and D. P. Yu, “Luminescence emission originating from nitrogen doping of β-Ga2O3 nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 69(7), 075304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. N.

L. Dai, X. L. Chen, X. N. Zhang, A. Z. Jin, T. Zhou, B. Q. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Growth and optical characterization of Ga2O3 nanobelts and nanosheets,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 1062–1064 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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L. Dai, X. L. Chen, X. N. Zhang, A. Z. Jin, T. Zhou, B. Q. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Growth and optical characterization of Ga2O3 nanobelts and nanosheets,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 1062–1064 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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L. Dai, X. L. Chen, X. N. Zhang, A. Z. Jin, T. Zhou, B. Q. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Growth and optical characterization of Ga2O3 nanobelts and nanosheets,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 1062–1064 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Y. P. Song, H. Z. Zhang, C. Lin, Y. W. Zhu, G. H. Li, F. H. Yang, and D. P. Yu, “Luminescence emission originating from nitrogen doping of β-Ga2O3 nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 69(7), 075304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. C. Vanithakumari and K. K. Nanda, “A one-step method for the growth of Ga2O3-Nanorod-based white-light-emitting phosphors,” Adv. Mater. 21(35), 3581–3584 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

K. Shimamura, E. G. Villora, T. Ujiie, and K. Aoki, “Excitation and photoluminescence of pure and Si-doped β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(20), 201914 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Wagner and W. C. Ellis, “Vapor-liquid-solid mechanism of single crystal growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4(5), 89–90 (1964).
[CrossRef]

L. Binet and D. Gourier, “Optical evidence of intrinsic quantum wells in the transparent conducting oxide β-Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(8), 1138–1140 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Ho, M. C. Tsai, and M. S. Wong, “Characterization of indirect and direct interband transitions of anatase TiO2 by thermoreflectance spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(8), 081904 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Gao, Y. Bando, T. Sato, Y. F. Zhang, and X. Q. Gao, “Synthesis, Raman scattering and defects of β-Ga2O3 nanorods,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(12), 2267 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. Sinha and A. Patra, “Generation of green, red and white light from rare-earth doped Ga2O3 nanoparticles,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 473(1-3), 151–154 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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L. Dai, X. L. Chen, X. N. Zhang, A. Z. Jin, T. Zhou, B. Q. Hu, and Z. Zhang, “Growth and optical characterization of Ga2O3 nanobelts and nanosheets,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(2), 1062–1064 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Rao, A. M. Rao, B. Xu, J. Dong, S. Sharma, and M. K. Sunkara, “Blushifted Raman scattering and its correlation with the [110] growth direction in gallium oxide nanowires,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(9), 094312 (2005).
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E. G. Víllora, Y. Marukami, T. Sugawara, T. Atou, M. Kikuchi, D. Shindo, and T. Fukuda, “Electron microscopy studies of microstructures in β-Ga2O3 single crystals,” Mater. Res. Bull. 37(4), 769–774 (2002).
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Phys. Rev. (1)

H. H. Tippins, “Optical absorption and photoconductivity in the band edge of β-Ga2O3,” Phys. Rev. 140(1A), A316–A319 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Y. P. Song, H. Z. Zhang, C. Lin, Y. W. Zhu, G. H. Li, F. H. Yang, and D. P. Yu, “Luminescence emission originating from nitrogen doping of β-Ga2O3 nanowires,” Phys. Rev. B 69(7), 075304 (2004).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of (a) top view and (b) side view of the as-grown β-Ga2O3 thin-film nanostrips. (c) X-ray diffraction pattern of β-Ga2O3 nanostrips.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The experimental TR and PL spectra of β-Ga2O3 nanostrips between 1 and 6 eV at 30 and 300 K. The hollow-circle lines are the least-square fits to Eq. (1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Temperature-dependent PL spectra of the β-Ga2O3 nanostrips between 30 and 320 K.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Representative band-structure scheme of the gap-state and near-band-edge transitions in β-Ga2O3 nanostrips.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The low-temperature PL spectrum and phonon replicas of β-Ga2O3 nanostrips near the E DB ex defect emission. (b) The Raman spectrum of β-Ga2O3 thin-film nanostrips.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temperature-dependent TR spectra of the β-Ga2O3 nanostrips between 30 and 320 K.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temperature dependences of transition energies of E0′, E0, and EDB transitions in β-Ga2O3 nanostrips.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ R R = Re [ i = 1 n A i e j φ i ( E E i + j Γ i ) 2 ] ,
E W n = E W 0 + [ d = 1 d max π 2 2 / ( 2 m * L 2 ) ] n d 2 , n d =  1 ,  2 ,  3 ,  

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