Abstract

We present a study of the optical properties of three-armed square nanospirals made of silver and realized as nanostructured thin films with Glancing Angle Deposition. Calculation of current flows in the nanospirals show excited resonant modes resembling those observed in U-shaped resonators. Four principal resonances were determined: near 200 THz and 480 THz for one polarization and 250 THz and 650 THz for the polarization orthogonal to the first one. In particular, a mode with anti-parallel current flow in opposite arms, associated with the observed resonance near 650 THz, indicates the existence of a magnetic-like resonance in the square nanospiral arrays. The robustness of the resonances against variations in the structural parameters of the nanospirals was investigated. This study revealed that the main parameter driving the position of the resonances was the overall dimension of the nanospiral, directly related to the length of their arms. Optical properties of a sample were measured by generalized spectroscopic ellipsometry at near-normal incidence, and evidence conversion between polarization states even for light polarized in the plane containing one of the arms in agreement with the numerical study. The measurements compared favorably to the results of the numerical simulations taking into account the disorder in the sample.

© 2010 OSA

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  25. J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
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  26. A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Negative magnetic permeability in the visible light region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(23), 237401 (2005).
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  27. K. Aydin, K. Guven, N. Katsarakis, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Effect of disorder on magnetic resonance band gap of split-ring resonator structures,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5896–5901 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. E. Ozbay, K. Guven, and K. Aydin, “Metamaterials with negative permeability and negative refractive index: experiments and simulations,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(9), S301–S307 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  29. N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, Y. H. Fu, D. P. Tasi, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent and incoherent metamaterials and order-disorder transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 041102 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (4)

R. Abdeddaïm, G. Guida, A. Priou, B. Gallas, and J. Rivory, “Negative permittivity and permeability of gold square nanospirals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Jen, A. Lakhtakia, C.-W. Yu, and C. T. Lin, “Vapor-deposited thin films with negative real refractive index in the visible regime,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7784–7789 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, Y. H. Fu, D. P. Tasi, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent and incoherent metamaterials and order-disorder transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

T. Zentgraf, J. Dorfmüller, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved optical near fields of split-ring-resonator-based metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 848–850 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Cho, F. Wang, X. Zhang, and Y. R. Shen, “Contribution of the electric quadrupole resonance in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Saenz, I. Semchenko, S. Khakhomov, K. Guven, R. Gonzalo, E. Ozbay, and S. Tretyakov, “Modeling of Spirals with Equal Dielectric, Magnetic, and Chiral Susceptibilities,” Electromagnetics 28(7), 476–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H.-K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science 321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 53–55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, K. Guven, and K. Aydin, “Metamaterials with negative permeability and negative refractive index: experiments and simulations,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(9), S301–S307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, E. Pshenay-Severin, J. Petschulat, A. Chipouline, J. Kuhl, T. Pertsch, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, “The origin of magnetic polarizability in metamaterials at optical frequencies - an electrodynamic approach,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8871–8883 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Garwe, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, U. Hübner, U. Bauerschäfer, F. Setzpfandt, M. Augustin, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, “Evaluation of gold nanowire pairs as a potential negative index material,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 139–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Wormeester, A.-I. Henry, E. S. Kooij, B. Poelsema, and M.-P. Pileni, “Ellipsometric identification of collective optical properties of silver nanocrystal arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(20), 204713 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-P. Zhao, S. B. Chaney, and S.-Z. Zhang, “Absorbance spectra of aligned Ag nanorod arrays prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(6), 063527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (5)

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Negative magnetic permeability in the visible light region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(23), 237401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

K. Aydin, K. Guven, N. Katsarakis, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Effect of disorder on magnetic resonance band gap of split-ring resonator structures,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5896–5901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, “Ultrahigh vacuum glancing angle deposition system for thin films with controlled three-dimensional nanoscale structure,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 1089–1097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (2)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Jellison, “A calculation of thin films parameters from spectroscopic ellipsometry data,” Thin Solid Films 290–291, 40–45 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abdeddaïm, R.

R. Abdeddaïm, G. Guida, A. Priou, B. Gallas, and J. Rivory, “Negative permittivity and permeability of gold square nanospirals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adams, J.

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, “Ultrahigh vacuum glancing angle deposition system for thin films with controlled three-dimensional nanoscale structure,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 1089–1097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Augustin, M.

F. Garwe, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, U. Hübner, U. Bauerschäfer, F. Setzpfandt, M. Augustin, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, “Evaluation of gold nanowire pairs as a potential negative index material,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 139–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

E. Ozbay, K. Guven, and K. Aydin, “Metamaterials with negative permeability and negative refractive index: experiments and simulations,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(9), S301–S307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, N. Katsarakis, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Effect of disorder on magnetic resonance band gap of split-ring resonator structures,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5896–5901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bade, K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science 321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauerschäfer, U.

F. Garwe, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, U. Hübner, U. Bauerschäfer, F. Setzpfandt, M. Augustin, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, “Evaluation of gold nanowire pairs as a potential negative index material,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 139–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beydaghyan, G.

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, “Ultrahigh vacuum glancing angle deposition system for thin films with controlled three-dimensional nanoscale structure,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 1089–1097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T.

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, “Ultrahigh vacuum glancing angle deposition system for thin films with controlled three-dimensional nanoscale structure,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 1089–1097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Burger, S.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buzea, C.

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, “Ultrahigh vacuum glancing angle deposition system for thin films with controlled three-dimensional nanoscale structure,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 1089–1097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H.-K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chaney, S. B.

Y.-P. Zhao, S. B. Chaney, and S.-Z. Zhang, “Absorbance spectra of aligned Ag nanorod arrays prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(6), 063527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H.-K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chipouline, A.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, E. Pshenay-Severin, J. Petschulat, A. Chipouline, J. Kuhl, T. Pertsch, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, “The origin of magnetic polarizability in metamaterials at optical frequencies - an electrodynamic approach,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8871–8883 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, D. J.

D. J. Cho, F. Wang, X. Zhang, and Y. R. Shen, “Contribution of the electric quadrupole resonance in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christ, A.

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dean, C.

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, “Ultrahigh vacuum glancing angle deposition system for thin films with controlled three-dimensional nanoscale structure,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 1089–1097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Decker, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dolling, G.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 53–55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dorfmüller, J.

T. Zentgraf, J. Dorfmüller, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved optical near fields of split-ring-resonator-based metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 848–850 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drachev, V. P.

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H.-K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Economou, E. N.

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ekinci, Y.

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enkrich, C.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etrich, C.

T. Zentgraf, J. Dorfmüller, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved optical near fields of split-ring-resonator-based metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 848–850 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Garwe, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, U. Hübner, U. Bauerschäfer, F. Setzpfandt, M. Augustin, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, “Evaluation of gold nanowire pairs as a potential negative index material,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 139–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedotov, V. A.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, Y. H. Fu, D. P. Tasi, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent and incoherent metamaterials and order-disorder transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y. H.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, Y. H. Fu, D. P. Tasi, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent and incoherent metamaterials and order-disorder transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gallas, B.

R. Abdeddaïm, G. Guida, A. Priou, B. Gallas, and J. Rivory, “Negative permittivity and permeability of gold square nanospirals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gansel, J. K.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garwe, F.

F. Garwe, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, U. Hübner, U. Bauerschäfer, F. Setzpfandt, M. Augustin, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, “Evaluation of gold nanowire pairs as a potential negative index material,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 139–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

T. Zentgraf, J. Dorfmüller, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved optical near fields of split-ring-resonator-based metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 848–850 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, E. Pshenay-Severin, J. Petschulat, A. Chipouline, J. Kuhl, T. Pertsch, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, “The origin of magnetic polarizability in metamaterials at optical frequencies - an electrodynamic approach,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8871–8883 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gippius, N. A.

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalo, R.

E. Saenz, I. Semchenko, S. Khakhomov, K. Guven, R. Gonzalo, E. Ozbay, and S. Tretyakov, “Modeling of Spirals with Equal Dielectric, Magnetic, and Chiral Susceptibilities,” Electromagnetics 28(7), 476–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guida, G.

R. Abdeddaïm, G. Guida, A. Priou, B. Gallas, and J. Rivory, “Negative permittivity and permeability of gold square nanospirals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guven, K.

E. Saenz, I. Semchenko, S. Khakhomov, K. Guven, R. Gonzalo, E. Ozbay, and S. Tretyakov, “Modeling of Spirals with Equal Dielectric, Magnetic, and Chiral Susceptibilities,” Electromagnetics 28(7), 476–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, K. Guven, and K. Aydin, “Metamaterials with negative permeability and negative refractive index: experiments and simulations,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(9), S301–S307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, N. Katsarakis, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Effect of disorder on magnetic resonance band gap of split-ring resonator structures,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5896–5901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, A.-I.

H. Wormeester, A.-I. Henry, E. S. Kooij, B. Poelsema, and M.-P. Pileni, “Ellipsometric identification of collective optical properties of silver nanocrystal arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(20), 204713 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hübner, U.

F. Garwe, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, U. Hübner, U. Bauerschäfer, F. Setzpfandt, M. Augustin, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, “Evaluation of gold nanowire pairs as a potential negative index material,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 139–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, A.

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Negative magnetic permeability in the visible light region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(23), 237401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jellison, G. E.

G. E. Jellison, “A calculation of thin films parameters from spectroscopic ellipsometry data,” Thin Solid Films 290–291, 40–45 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jen, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Jen, A. Lakhtakia, C.-W. Yu, and C. T. Lin, “Vapor-deposited thin films with negative real refractive index in the visible regime,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7784–7789 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kafesaki, M.

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katsarakis, N.

K. Aydin, K. Guven, N. Katsarakis, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Effect of disorder on magnetic resonance band gap of split-ring resonator structures,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5896–5901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Negative magnetic permeability in the visible light region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(23), 237401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kern, K.

T. Zentgraf, J. Dorfmüller, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved optical near fields of split-ring-resonator-based metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 848–850 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khakhomov, S.

E. Saenz, I. Semchenko, S. Khakhomov, K. Guven, R. Gonzalo, E. Ozbay, and S. Tretyakov, “Modeling of Spirals with Equal Dielectric, Magnetic, and Chiral Susceptibilities,” Electromagnetics 28(7), 476–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H.-K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kooij, E. S.

H. Wormeester, A.-I. Henry, E. S. Kooij, B. Poelsema, and M.-P. Pileni, “Ellipsometric identification of collective optical properties of silver nanocrystal arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(20), 204713 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koschny, Th.

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhl, J.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, E. Pshenay-Severin, J. Petschulat, A. Chipouline, J. Kuhl, T. Pertsch, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, “The origin of magnetic polarizability in metamaterials at optical frequencies - an electrodynamic approach,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8871–8883 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakhtakia, A.

Y.-J. Jen, A. Lakhtakia, C.-W. Yu, and C. T. Lin, “Vapor-deposited thin films with negative real refractive index in the visible regime,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7784–7789 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lederer, F.

T. Zentgraf, J. Dorfmüller, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved optical near fields of split-ring-resonator-based metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 848–850 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, E. Pshenay-Severin, J. Petschulat, A. Chipouline, J. Kuhl, T. Pertsch, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, “The origin of magnetic polarizability in metamaterials at optical frequencies - an electrodynamic approach,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8871–8883 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Garwe, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, U. Hübner, U. Bauerschäfer, F. Setzpfandt, M. Augustin, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, “Evaluation of gold nanowire pairs as a potential negative index material,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 139–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. T.

Y.-J. Jen, A. Lakhtakia, C.-W. Yu, and C. T. Lin, “Vapor-deposited thin films with negative real refractive index in the visible regime,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7784–7789 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 53–55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science 321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science 321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, O. J. F.

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

E. Saenz, I. Semchenko, S. Khakhomov, K. Guven, R. Gonzalo, E. Ozbay, and S. Tretyakov, “Modeling of Spirals with Equal Dielectric, Magnetic, and Chiral Susceptibilities,” Electromagnetics 28(7), 476–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Ozbay, K. Guven, and K. Aydin, “Metamaterials with negative permeability and negative refractive index: experiments and simulations,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(9), S301–S307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, N. Katsarakis, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Effect of disorder on magnetic resonance band gap of split-ring resonator structures,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5896–5901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papasimakis, N.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, Y. H. Fu, D. P. Tasi, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent and incoherent metamaterials and order-disorder transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pertsch, T.

T. Zentgraf, J. Dorfmüller, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved optical near fields of split-ring-resonator-based metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 848–850 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, E. Pshenay-Severin, J. Petschulat, A. Chipouline, J. Kuhl, T. Pertsch, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, “The origin of magnetic polarizability in metamaterials at optical frequencies - an electrodynamic approach,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8871–8883 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Garwe, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, U. Hübner, U. Bauerschäfer, F. Setzpfandt, M. Augustin, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, “Evaluation of gold nanowire pairs as a potential negative index material,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 139–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Petschulat, J.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, E. Pshenay-Severin, J. Petschulat, A. Chipouline, J. Kuhl, T. Pertsch, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, “The origin of magnetic polarizability in metamaterials at optical frequencies - an electrodynamic approach,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8871–8883 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pileni, M.-P.

H. Wormeester, A.-I. Henry, E. S. Kooij, B. Poelsema, and M.-P. Pileni, “Ellipsometric identification of collective optical properties of silver nanocrystal arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(20), 204713 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poelsema, B.

H. Wormeester, A.-I. Henry, E. S. Kooij, B. Poelsema, and M.-P. Pileni, “Ellipsometric identification of collective optical properties of silver nanocrystal arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(20), 204713 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priou, A.

R. Abdeddaïm, G. Guida, A. Priou, B. Gallas, and J. Rivory, “Negative permittivity and permeability of gold square nanospirals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pshenay-Severin, E.

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, E. Pshenay-Severin, J. Petschulat, A. Chipouline, J. Kuhl, T. Pertsch, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, “The origin of magnetic polarizability in metamaterials at optical frequencies - an electrodynamic approach,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8871–8883 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rill, M. S.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivory, J.

R. Abdeddaïm, G. Guida, A. Priou, B. Gallas, and J. Rivory, “Negative permittivity and permeability of gold square nanospirals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Robbie, K.

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, “Ultrahigh vacuum glancing angle deposition system for thin films with controlled three-dimensional nanoscale structure,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 1089–1097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

T. Zentgraf, J. Dorfmüller, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved optical near fields of split-ring-resonator-based metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 848–850 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, E. Pshenay-Severin, J. Petschulat, A. Chipouline, J. Kuhl, T. Pertsch, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, “The origin of magnetic polarizability in metamaterials at optical frequencies - an electrodynamic approach,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8871–8883 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Garwe, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, U. Hübner, U. Bauerschäfer, F. Setzpfandt, M. Augustin, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, “Evaluation of gold nanowire pairs as a potential negative index material,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 139–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saenz, E.

E. Saenz, I. Semchenko, S. Khakhomov, K. Guven, R. Gonzalo, E. Ozbay, and S. Tretyakov, “Modeling of Spirals with Equal Dielectric, Magnetic, and Chiral Susceptibilities,” Electromagnetics 28(7), 476–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Saile, V.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarychev, A. K.

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semchenko, I.

E. Saenz, I. Semchenko, S. Khakhomov, K. Guven, R. Gonzalo, E. Ozbay, and S. Tretyakov, “Modeling of Spirals with Equal Dielectric, Magnetic, and Chiral Susceptibilities,” Electromagnetics 28(7), 476–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Setzpfandt, F.

F. Garwe, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, U. Hübner, U. Bauerschäfer, F. Setzpfandt, M. Augustin, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, “Evaluation of gold nanowire pairs as a potential negative index material,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 139–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H.-K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

D. J. Cho, F. Wang, X. Zhang, and Y. R. Shen, “Contribution of the electric quadrupole resonance in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 53–55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, N. Katsarakis, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Effect of disorder on magnetic resonance band gap of split-ring resonator structures,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5896–5901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stacy, A. M.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science 321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science 321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Negative magnetic permeability in the visible light region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(23), 237401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tasi, D. P.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, Y. H. Fu, D. P. Tasi, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent and incoherent metamaterials and order-disorder transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tikhodeev, S. G.

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tretyakov, S.

E. Saenz, I. Semchenko, S. Khakhomov, K. Guven, R. Gonzalo, E. Ozbay, and S. Tretyakov, “Modeling of Spirals with Equal Dielectric, Magnetic, and Chiral Susceptibilities,” Electromagnetics 28(7), 476–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

F. Garwe, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, U. Hübner, U. Bauerschäfer, F. Setzpfandt, M. Augustin, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, “Evaluation of gold nanowire pairs as a potential negative index material,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 139–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vogelgesang, R.

T. Zentgraf, J. Dorfmüller, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved optical near fields of split-ring-resonator-based metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 848–850 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Freymann, G.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

D. J. Cho, F. Wang, X. Zhang, and Y. R. Shen, “Contribution of the electric quadrupole resonance in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science 321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 53–55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wormeester, H.

H. Wormeester, A.-I. Henry, E. S. Kooij, B. Poelsema, and M.-P. Pileni, “Ellipsometric identification of collective optical properties of silver nanocrystal arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(20), 204713 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science 321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Youngs, I.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C.-W.

Y.-J. Jen, A. Lakhtakia, C.-W. Yu, and C. T. Lin, “Vapor-deposited thin films with negative real refractive index in the visible regime,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7784–7789 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H.-K.

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H.-K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

T. Zentgraf, J. Dorfmüller, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved optical near fields of split-ring-resonator-based metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 848–850 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, E. Pshenay-Severin, J. Petschulat, A. Chipouline, J. Kuhl, T. Pertsch, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, “The origin of magnetic polarizability in metamaterials at optical frequencies - an electrodynamic approach,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8871–8883 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.-Z.

Y.-P. Zhao, S. B. Chaney, and S.-Z. Zhang, “Absorbance spectra of aligned Ag nanorod arrays prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(6), 063527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

D. J. Cho, F. Wang, X. Zhang, and Y. R. Shen, “Contribution of the electric quadrupole resonance in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science 321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.-P.

Y.-P. Zhao, S. B. Chaney, and S.-Z. Zhang, “Absorbance spectra of aligned Ag nanorod arrays prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(6), 063527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, Y. H. Fu, D. P. Tasi, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent and incoherent metamaterials and order-disorder transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J. F.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zschiedrich, L.

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. Garwe, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, U. Hübner, U. Bauerschäfer, F. Setzpfandt, M. Augustin, T. Pertsch, A. Tünnermann, and F. Lederer, “Evaluation of gold nanowire pairs as a potential negative index material,” Appl. Phys. B 84(1-2), 139–148 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Abdeddaïm, G. Guida, A. Priou, B. Gallas, and J. Rivory, “Negative permittivity and permeability of gold square nanospirals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(8), 081907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electromagnetics (1)

E. Saenz, I. Semchenko, S. Khakhomov, K. Guven, R. Gonzalo, E. Ozbay, and S. Tretyakov, “Modeling of Spirals with Equal Dielectric, Magnetic, and Chiral Susceptibilities,” Electromagnetics 28(7), 476–493 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Magnetism from Conductors and Enhanced Nonlinear Phenomena,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47(11), 2075–2084 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y.-P. Zhao, S. B. Chaney, and S.-Z. Zhang, “Absorbance spectra of aligned Ag nanorod arrays prepared by oblique angle deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(6), 063527 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

H. Wormeester, A.-I. Henry, E. S. Kooij, B. Poelsema, and M.-P. Pileni, “Ellipsometric identification of collective optical properties of silver nanocrystal arrays,” J. Chem. Phys. 124(20), 204713 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

E. Ozbay, K. Guven, and K. Aydin, “Metamaterials with negative permeability and negative refractive index: experiments and simulations,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9(9), S301–S307 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

A. Christ, O. J. F. Martin, Y. Ekinci, N. A. Gippius, and S. G. Tikhodeev, “Symmetry breaking in a plasmonic metamaterial at optical wavelength,” Nano Lett. 8(8), 2171–2175 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

C. Rockstuhl, F. Lederer, C. Etrich, T. Zentgraf, J. Kuhl, and H. Giessen, “On the reinterpretation of resonances in split-ring-resonators at normal incidence,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8827–8836 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, T. Zentgraf, E. Pshenay-Severin, J. Petschulat, A. Chipouline, J. Kuhl, T. Pertsch, H. Giessen, and F. Lederer, “The origin of magnetic polarizability in metamaterials at optical frequencies - an electrodynamic approach,” Opt. Express 15(14), 8871–8883 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, K. Guven, N. Katsarakis, C. M. Soukoulis, and E. Ozbay, “Effect of disorder on magnetic resonance band gap of split-ring resonator structures,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5896–5901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Drachev, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, H.-K. Yuan, W. Cai, and V. M. Shalaev, “The Ag dielectric function in plasmonic metamaterials,” Opt. Express 16(2), 1186–1195 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-J. Jen, A. Lakhtakia, C.-W. Yu, and C. T. Lin, “Vapor-deposited thin films with negative real refractive index in the visible regime,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7784–7789 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Negative-index metamaterial at 780 nm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 32(1), 53–55 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Zentgraf, J. Dorfmüller, C. Rockstuhl, C. Etrich, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, and H. Giessen, “Amplitude- and phase-resolved optical near fields of split-ring-resonator-based metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 33(8), 848–850 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

D. J. Cho, F. Wang, X. Zhang, and Y. R. Shen, “Contribution of the electric quadrupole resonance in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B 78(12), 121101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, Y. H. Fu, D. P. Tasi, and N. I. Zheludev, “Coherent and incoherent metamaterials and order-disorder transitions,” Phys. Rev. B 80(4), 041102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

J. Zhou, Th. Koschny, M. Kafesaki, E. N. Economou, J. B. Pendry, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Saturation of the magnetic response of split-ring resonators at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 223902 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ishikawa, T. Tanaka, and S. Kawata, “Negative magnetic permeability in the visible light region,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(23), 237401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, S. Linden, S. Burger, L. Zschiedrich, F. Schmidt, J. F. Zhou, Th. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Magnetic metamaterials at telecommunication and visible frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(20), 203901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

K. Robbie, G. Beydaghyan, T. Brown, C. Dean, J. Adams, and C. Buzea, “Ultrahigh vacuum glancing angle deposition system for thin films with controlled three-dimensional nanoscale structure,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(4), 1089–1097 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

J. K. Gansel, M. Thiel, M. S. Rill, M. Decker, K. Bade, V. Saile, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Gold helix photonic metamaterial as broadband circular polarizer,” Science 325(5947), 1513–1515 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yao, Z. Liu, Y. Liu, Y. Wang, C. Sun, G. Bartal, A. M. Stacy, and X. Zhang, “Optical negative refraction in bulk metamaterials of nanowires,” Science 321(5891), 930 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

G. E. Jellison, “A calculation of thin films parameters from spectroscopic ellipsometry data,” Thin Solid Films 290–291, 40–45 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

G. Guida, B. Gallas, R. Abdeddaim, A. Priou, J. Rivory, and K. Robbie, “Disorder in optical metamaterials made of silver nanospirals,” 2nd International Conference on Metamaterials, Photonic Crystals and Plasmonics, 22–25 February 2010, Cairo.

D. F. Edwards, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, E. D. Palik, ed., (Academic Press, 1985) p. 547.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of: (a) one nanospiral with the geometrical parameters used in side and (b) top views and (c) one unit cell of the dense array of nanospirals where one nanospiral has been highlighted. In (c) periodic boundaries were applied along x and y.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption calculated for (a) x-polarized light and (b) y-polarized light and. The insets present snapshots of the instantaneous current distribution in one nanospiral at the positions of the resonances in absorption. The current intensities are encoded on a gray scale ranging from black to white for current intensity increasing. The arrows indicate the current directions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectra (a) for x-polarized light and (b) y-polarized light calculated for different diameter of the arms. (c) Coefficients of conversions of polarization. The length of the arms and their angle with the (x,y) plane were set to 200 nm and 24°, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption spectra (a) for x-polarized light and (b) y-polarized light calculated for different length of the arms. (c) Coefficients of conversions of polarization. The diameter of the arms and their angle with the (x,y) plane were set to 64 nm and 24°, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption spectra (a) for x-polarized light and (b) y-polarized light calculated for different angle of the arms with the (x,y) plane. (c) Coefficients of conversions of polarization. The length of the arms and their diameter were set to 64 nm and 203 nm, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Absorption spectra (a) for x-polarized light and (b) y-polarized light calculated in the periodic case (dotted line) and aperiodic case (full line). (c) Coefficients of conversions of polarization. The aperiodic case was obtained by averaging ten different random realizations. One realization consisted in random variations by ± 10% at most of the initial locations of all nanospirals.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scanning Electron Microscopy cross-section view of the 270 nm thick Ag nanospirals film. One nanospiral has been outlined.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Generalized ellipsometric parameters ψ and Δ presented as Jones matrix elements column (a) measured (line + dots) and column (b) calculated (full line) for incidence angle of 25°. The first quadrant of the first column depicts the top view of one nanospiral with the orientation of s-polarized light.

Equations (1)

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[ E ˜ p , E ˜ s ] r e f = [ r p p   r s p   , r p s   r s s   ] . [ E ˜ p , E ˜ s ] i n c

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