Abstract

A coherent transceiver using a THz quantum cascade (TQCL) laser as the transmitter and an optically pumped molecular laser as the local oscillator has been used, with a pair of Schottky diode mixers in the receiver and reference channels, to acquire high-resolution images of fully illuminated targets, including scale models and concealed objects. Phase stability of the received signal, sufficient to allow coherent image processing of the rotating target (in azimuth and elevation), was obtained by frequency-locking the TQCL to the free-running, highly stable optically pumped molecular laser. While the range to the target was limited by the available TQCL power (several hundred microwatts) and reasonably strong indoor atmospheric attenuation at 2.408 THz, the coherence length of the TQCL transmitter will allow coherent imaging over distances up to several hundred meters. Image data obtained with the system is presented.

© 2010 OSA

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2009 (4)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Nguyen, M. L. Johns, L. Gladden, C. H. Worrall, P. Alexander, H. E. Beere, M. Pepper, D. A. Ritchie, J. Alton, S. Barbieri, and E. H. Linfield, “Three-dimensional imaging with a terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2123–2129 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, and W. E. Nixon, “Three Dimensional Fully Polarimetric W-band ISAR Imagery of Scale-Model Tactical Targets Using a 1.56 THz Compact Range,” Proc. SPIE 5095, 66–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adam, A. J. L.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ajili, L.

Alexander, P.

Alton, J.

Baker, C.

Barbieri, S.

Baryshev, A.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Beck, M.

Beere, H.

Beere, H. E.

Behnken, B. N.

Betz, A. L.

Boreiko, R. T.

Chamberlin, D. R.

Coulombe, M. J.

J. Waldman, A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, M. J. Coulombe, R. H. Giles, A. J. Gatesman, W. D. Goodhue, J. Li, K. J. Linden, and W. E. Nixon, “Prospects for quantum cascade lasers as transmitters and local oscillators in coherent terahertz transmitter/receiver systems,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150C (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, J. Waldman, M. J. Coulombe, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, W. D. Goodhue, X. Qian, and W. E. Nixon, “Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7525–7532 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danylov, A. A.

Darmo, J.

Debbage, P.

Dickinson, J. C.

T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, and W. E. Nixon, “Three Dimensional Fully Polarimetric W-band ISAR Imagery of Scale-Model Tactical Targets Using a 1.56 THz Compact Range,” Proc. SPIE 5095, 66–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

Fasching, G.

Fischer, M.

Gao, J. R.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gatesman, A. J.

Giles, R. H.

Giovannini, M.

Gladden, L.

Goodhue, W. D.

A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, J. Waldman, M. J. Coulombe, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, W. D. Goodhue, X. Qian, and W. E. Nixon, “Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7525–7532 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Waldman, A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, M. J. Coulombe, R. H. Giles, A. J. Gatesman, W. D. Goodhue, J. Li, K. J. Linden, and W. E. Nixon, “Prospects for quantum cascade lasers as transmitters and local oscillators in coherent terahertz transmitter/receiver systems,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150C (2009).
[CrossRef]

Goyette, T. M.

A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, J. Waldman, M. J. Coulombe, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, W. D. Goodhue, X. Qian, and W. E. Nixon, “Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7525–7532 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Waldman, A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, M. J. Coulombe, R. H. Giles, A. J. Gatesman, W. D. Goodhue, J. Li, K. J. Linden, and W. E. Nixon, “Prospects for quantum cascade lasers as transmitters and local oscillators in coherent terahertz transmitter/receiver systems,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150C (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, K. J. Linden, W. R. Neal, W. E. Nixon, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, “Transformation of the multimode terahertz quantum cascade laser beam into a Gaussian, using a hollow dielectric waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5051–5055 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, and W. E. Nixon, “Three Dimensional Fully Polarimetric W-band ISAR Imagery of Scale-Model Tactical Targets Using a 1.56 THz Compact Range,” Proc. SPIE 5095, 66–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Graf, U. U.

Hesler, J. L.

Hovenier, J. N.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency and phase-lock control of a 3 THz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1837–1839 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jellema, W.

Johns, M. L.

Karunasiri, G.

Kasalynas, I.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Khosropanah, P.

Klaassen, T. O.

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klapwijk, T. M.

Klein, B.

Kremser, C.

Kröll, J.

Kumar, S.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency and phase-lock control of a 3 THz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1837–1839 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, A. W. M.

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Waldman, A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, M. J. Coulombe, R. H. Giles, A. J. Gatesman, W. D. Goodhue, J. Li, K. J. Linden, and W. E. Nixon, “Prospects for quantum cascade lasers as transmitters and local oscillators in coherent terahertz transmitter/receiver systems,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150C (2009).
[CrossRef]

Linden, K. J.

J. Waldman, A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, M. J. Coulombe, R. H. Giles, A. J. Gatesman, W. D. Goodhue, J. Li, K. J. Linden, and W. E. Nixon, “Prospects for quantum cascade lasers as transmitters and local oscillators in coherent terahertz transmitter/receiver systems,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150C (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, K. J. Linden, W. R. Neal, W. E. Nixon, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, “Transformation of the multimode terahertz quantum cascade laser beam into a Gaussian, using a hollow dielectric waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5051–5055 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linfield, E. H.

Lo, T.

Neal, W. R.

Nguyen, K. L.

Nixon, W. E.

J. Waldman, A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, M. J. Coulombe, R. H. Giles, A. J. Gatesman, W. D. Goodhue, J. Li, K. J. Linden, and W. E. Nixon, “Prospects for quantum cascade lasers as transmitters and local oscillators in coherent terahertz transmitter/receiver systems,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150C (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, J. Waldman, M. J. Coulombe, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, W. D. Goodhue, X. Qian, and W. E. Nixon, “Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7525–7532 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, K. J. Linden, W. R. Neal, W. E. Nixon, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, “Transformation of the multimode terahertz quantum cascade laser beam into a Gaussian, using a hollow dielectric waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5051–5055 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, and W. E. Nixon, “Three Dimensional Fully Polarimetric W-band ISAR Imagery of Scale-Model Tactical Targets Using a 1.56 THz Compact Range,” Proc. SPIE 5095, 66–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Paveliev, D. G.

Pepper, M.

Philipp, M.

Qian, X.

Qin, Q.

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rabanus, D.

Reno, J. L.

Ricken, O.

Ritchie, D.

Ritchie, D. A.

Robrish, P. R.

Scalari, G.

Stutzki, J.

Tamosiunas, V.

Trutna, W. R.

Unterrainer, K.

Vowinkel, B.

Waldman, J.

J. Waldman, A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, M. J. Coulombe, R. H. Giles, A. J. Gatesman, W. D. Goodhue, J. Li, K. J. Linden, and W. E. Nixon, “Prospects for quantum cascade lasers as transmitters and local oscillators in coherent terahertz transmitter/receiver systems,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150C (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, J. Waldman, M. J. Coulombe, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, W. D. Goodhue, X. Qian, and W. E. Nixon, “Frequency stabilization of a single mode terahertz quantum cascade laser to the kilohertz level,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7525–7532 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Danylov, J. Waldman, T. M. Goyette, A. J. Gatesman, R. H. Giles, K. J. Linden, W. R. Neal, W. E. Nixon, M. C. Wanke, and J. L. Reno, “Transformation of the multimode terahertz quantum cascade laser beam into a Gaussian, using a hollow dielectric waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 46(22), 5051–5055 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, and W. E. Nixon, “Three Dimensional Fully Polarimetric W-band ISAR Imagery of Scale-Model Tactical Targets Using a 1.56 THz Compact Range,” Proc. SPIE 5095, 66–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Walther, C.

Wanke, M. C.

Wiedner, M. C.

Williams, B. S.

P. Khosropanah, A. Baryshev, W. Zhang, W. Jellema, J. N. Hovenier, J. R. Gao, T. M. Klapwijk, D. G. Paveliev, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, B. Klein, and J. L. Hesler, “Phase locking of a 2.7 THz quantum cascade laser to a microwave reference,” Opt. Lett. 34(19), 2958–2960 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Betz, R. T. Boreiko, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Frequency and phase-lock control of a 3 THz quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(14), 1837–1839 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Worrall, C. H.

Zhang, W.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. W. M. Lee, Q. Qin, S. Kumar, B. S. Williams, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time terahertz imaging over a standoff distance (> 25 meters),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(14), 141125 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Baryshev, J. N. Hovenier, A. J. L. Adam, I. Kasalynas, J. R. Gao, T. O. Klaassen, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Phase locking and spectral linewidth of a two-mode terahertz quantum cascade laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(3), 031115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. Waldman, A. A. Danylov, T. M. Goyette, M. J. Coulombe, R. H. Giles, A. J. Gatesman, W. D. Goodhue, J. Li, K. J. Linden, and W. E. Nixon, “Prospects for quantum cascade lasers as transmitters and local oscillators in coherent terahertz transmitter/receiver systems,” Proc. SPIE 7215, 72150C (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Goyette, J. C. Dickinson, J. Waldman, and W. E. Nixon, “Three Dimensional Fully Polarimetric W-band ISAR Imagery of Scale-Model Tactical Targets Using a 1.56 THz Compact Range,” Proc. SPIE 5095, 66–74 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

M. J. Coulombe, T. Horgan, J. Waldman, J. Neilson, S. Carter, and W. Nixon, “A 160 GHz Polarimetric Compact Range for Scale Model RCS Measurements,” Antenna Measurements and Techniques Association (AMTA) Proceedings, Seattle, WA, p. 239, October (1996).

M. J. Coulombe, T. Horgan, J. Waldman, G. Szatkowski, and W. Nixon, “A 520 GHZ Polarimetric Compact Range for Scale Model RCS Measurements,” Antenna Measurements and Techniques Association (AMTA) Proceedings, Monterey, October (1999).

D. L. Mensa, High Resolution Radar Cross-Section Imaging, (Artech House, 1991), Ch. 2.

N. C. Currie, Radar Reflectivity Measurements: Techniques and Applications, (Artech House, 1989).

G. Sinclair, “Theory of models of electromagnetic systems,” Proc. of IRE 36(11), p.1364–1370, (1948).

N. R. Erickson, and T. M. Goyette, “Terahertz Schottky-diode balanced mixers,” Proc. of SPIE 7215, (2009).

D. L. Mensa, High Resolution Radar Cross-Section Imaging, (Artech House, 1991).

J. C. Dickinson, T. M. Goyette, and J. Waldman, “High Resolution Imaging using 325GHz and 1.5THz Transceivers,” Fifteenth International Symposium on Space Terahertz Technology (STT2004), Northampton, MA, April 27–29, (2004).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the QCL-based THz transmitter/receiver system for ISAR imaging measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Circuit configuration used in the system to acquire amplitude (I) and phase (Q) of a backscattered signal from a target and to lock the TQCL frequency to the OPL reference source.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase stability of the transceiver over a 40-min period.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) photograph of a 1/72nd scale model T-80BV tank, (b) 2.4 THz Azimuth/Elevation imagery of the scale model tank with pixel resolution of 0.4x0.6 mm. A calibration object (dihedron) is located to the right of the image.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

0° elevation RCS data of a T-80BV tank.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) photograph of a Boston Marathon medal, (b) 2.4 THz az/el image of the medal.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) photograph of a metal plate with raised lettering, (b) 2.4 THz image of the plate concealed inside a FedEx envelope made from DuPont Tyvek material.

Equations (4)

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D U C R = λ / 2 sin Θ i n c r e m e n t
Δ X = λ / 4 sin ( Θ I n t e g r a t e d A z i m u t h / 2 )
Δ Y = λ / 4 sin ( Θ I n t e g r a t e d E l e v a t i o n / 2 )
σ t = I t k I c σ c

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