Abstract

Optical channel waveguides have been produced for the first time in Nd:LGS multi-functional laser crystals by using proton implantation. The obtained good guiding performance exhibits the well-confined modal fields in the waveguiding structures. The confocal fluorescence images of the obtained waveguides have revealed that the photoluminescence properties of the Nd3+ ions have been well-preserved in the waveguide’s active volume, which suggests promising applications as multi-functional integrated laser generation elements. These images have been also used to elucidate the spatial distribution of lattice damage and distortion caused by the implantation process, which are both mainly located at the nuclear collision region.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (2)

2009 (5)

F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Ion-implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics for integrated laser generation,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 28–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, J. Wang, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, H. Yu, and M. Jiang, “Continuous wave and Q-switched laser output of laser-diode-end-pumped disordered Nd:LGS laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 467–469 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chen, “Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 081101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque and F. Chen, “High resolution fluorescence imaging of damage regions in H+ ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, Y. Zheng, H. Kong, J. Xin, E. Frantz, and T. R. Shrout, “Characterization of high temperature piezoelectric crystals with an ordered langasite structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

D. Jaque, F. Chen, and Y. Tan, “Scanning confocal fluorescence imaging and micro-Raman investigations of oxygen implanted channel waveguides in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 161908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Teo, A. A. Bettiol, M. B. Breese, P. Yang, G. Z. Mashanovich, W. R. Headley, G. T. Reed, and D. J. Blackwood, “Three-dimensional control of optical waveguide fabrication in silicon,” Opt. Express 16(2), 573–578 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-2-573 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Chen, “Construction of Two-Dimensional Waveguides in Insulating Optical Materials by Means of Ion Beam Implantation for Photonic Applications: Fabrication Methods and Research Progress,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 33(3), 165–182 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (7)

G. Della Valle, S. Taccheo, R. Osellame, A. Festa, G. Cerullo, and P. Laporta, “1.5 μm single longitudinal mode waveguide laser fabricated by femtosecond laser writing,” Opt. Express 15(6), 3190–3194 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-15-6-3190 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Olivares, A. García-Navarro, G. García, A. Méndez, F. Agulló-López, A. García-Cabañes, M. Carrascosa, and O. Caballero, “Nonlinear optical waveguides generated in lithium niobate by swift-ion irradiation at ultralow fluences,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2587–2589 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Kostritskii and P. Moretti, “Specific behavior of refractive indices in low-dose He+-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 094109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121136 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric Solid-State Planar Waveguide Lasers: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 626–637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Developments of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, Y. Yin, and D. Yuan, “Optical spectroscopy properties of Tm ion in La3Ga5SiO14 single crystal,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 204(2), 602–607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, P. Moreno, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Femtosecond laser induced micromodifications in Nd:SBN crystals: Amorphization and luminescence inhibition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Guarino, M. Jazbinšek, C. Herzog, R. Degl’Innocenti, G. Poberaj, and P. Günter, “Optical waveguides in Sn2P2S6 by low fluence MeV He+ ion implantation,” Opt. Express 14(6), 2344–2358 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-6-2344 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Sum, A. A. Bettiol, C. Florea, and F. Watt, “Proton Beam Writing of Poly-methylmethacrylate Buried Channel Waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(10), 3803–3809 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

I. Aramburu, I. Iparraguirre, M. A. Illarramendi, J. Azkargorta, J. Fernandez, and R. Balda, “Self-tuning in birefringent Nd:LGS laser crystal,” Opt. Mater. 27(11), 1692–1696 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

J. Wang, X. Yin, R. Han, S. Zhang, H. Kong, H. Zhang, X. Hu, and M. Jiang, “Growth, properties and electrooptical applications of single crystal La3Ga5SiO14,” Opt. Mater. 23(1-2), 393–397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477–6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. Fritze and H. L. Tuller, “Langasite for high-temperature bulk acoustic wave applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(7), 976–978 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Bohm, R. B. Heimann, M. Hengst, R. Roewer, and J. Schindler, “Czochralski growth and characterization of piezoelectric single crystals with langasite structure: La3Ga5SiO14 (LGS), La3Ga5.5Nb0.5O14 (LGN), and La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14 (LGT): Part I,” J, Cryt. Growth 204(1-2), 128–136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

D. Kip, “Photorefractive waveguides in oxide crystals: fabrication, properties, and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 67(2), 131–150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1986 (1)

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 33, 127–142 (1986).

1985 (2)

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman and C. T. Seaton, “Nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(12), R57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Agulló-López, F.

Agulló-Rueda, F.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, P. Moreno, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Femtosecond laser induced micromodifications in Nd:SBN crystals: Amorphization and luminescence inhibition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aramburu, I.

I. Aramburu, I. Iparraguirre, M. A. Illarramendi, J. Azkargorta, J. Fernandez, and R. Balda, “Self-tuning in birefringent Nd:LGS laser crystal,” Opt. Mater. 27(11), 1692–1696 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Argiolas, N.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477–6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arias, I.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, P. Moreno, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Femtosecond laser induced micromodifications in Nd:SBN crystals: Amorphization and luminescence inhibition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Azkargorta, J.

I. Aramburu, I. Iparraguirre, M. A. Illarramendi, J. Azkargorta, J. Fernandez, and R. Balda, “Self-tuning in birefringent Nd:LGS laser crystal,” Opt. Mater. 27(11), 1692–1696 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bakhru, H.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bakhru, S.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Balda, R.

I. Aramburu, I. Iparraguirre, M. A. Illarramendi, J. Azkargorta, J. Fernandez, and R. Balda, “Self-tuning in birefringent Nd:LGS laser crystal,” Opt. Mater. 27(11), 1692–1696 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Banyasz, I.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121136 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bardyszewski, W.

Bazzan, M.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477–6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bentini, G. G.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477–6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berneschi, S.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121136 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bettiol, A. A.

Bianconi, M.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477–6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blackwood, D. J.

Bohm, J.

J. Bohm, R. B. Heimann, M. Hengst, R. Roewer, and J. Schindler, “Czochralski growth and characterization of piezoelectric single crystals with langasite structure: La3Ga5SiO14 (LGS), La3Ga5.5Nb0.5O14 (LGN), and La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14 (LGT): Part I,” J, Cryt. Growth 204(1-2), 128–136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Breese, M. B.

Brenci, M.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121136 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Caballero, O.

Carrascosa, M.

Cerullo, G.

Chandler, P. J.

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 33, 127–142 (1986).

Chen, F.

N.-N. Dong, F. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Carbon ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 optical channel waveguides: an intermediate step between light and heavy ion implanted waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5951–5956 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-5951 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Tan and F. Chen, “Proton-implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:YAG laser ceramics,” J. Phys. D 43(7), 075105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque and F. Chen, “High resolution fluorescence imaging of damage regions in H+ ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, “Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 081101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Ion-implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics for integrated laser generation,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 28–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, F. Chen, and Y. Tan, “Scanning confocal fluorescence imaging and micro-Raman investigations of oxygen implanted channel waveguides in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 161908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, “Construction of Two-Dimensional Waveguides in Insulating Optical Materials by Means of Ion Beam Implantation for Photonic Applications: Fabrication Methods and Research Progress,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 33(3), 165–182 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Developments of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chiarini, M.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477–6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Correra, L.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477–6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Degl’Innocenti, R.

Della Valle, G.

Djukic, D.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, N.-N.

Dunn, K.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, J.

I. Aramburu, I. Iparraguirre, M. A. Illarramendi, J. Azkargorta, J. Fernandez, and R. Balda, “Self-tuning in birefringent Nd:LGS laser crystal,” Opt. Mater. 27(11), 1692–1696 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Festa, A.

Florea, C.

Flores-Romero, E.

Frantz, E.

S. Zhang, Y. Zheng, H. Kong, J. Xin, E. Frantz, and T. R. Shrout, “Characterization of high temperature piezoelectric crystals with an ordered langasite structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fried, M.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121136 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fritze, H.

H. Fritze and H. L. Tuller, “Langasite for high-temperature bulk acoustic wave applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(7), 976–978 (2001).
[CrossRef]

García, G.

García-Cabañes, A.

García-Navarro, A.

Guarino, A.

Günter, P.

Guzzi, R.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477–6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Han, R.

J. Wang, X. Yin, R. Han, S. Zhang, H. Kong, H. Zhang, X. Hu, and M. Jiang, “Growth, properties and electrooptical applications of single crystal La3Ga5SiO14,” Opt. Mater. 23(1-2), 393–397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Headley, W. R.

Heimann, R. B.

J. Bohm, R. B. Heimann, M. Hengst, R. Roewer, and J. Schindler, “Czochralski growth and characterization of piezoelectric single crystals with langasite structure: La3Ga5SiO14 (LGS), La3Ga5.5Nb0.5O14 (LGN), and La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14 (LGT): Part I,” J, Cryt. Growth 204(1-2), 128–136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hengst, M.

J. Bohm, R. B. Heimann, M. Hengst, R. Roewer, and J. Schindler, “Czochralski growth and characterization of piezoelectric single crystals with langasite structure: La3Ga5SiO14 (LGS), La3Ga5.5Nb0.5O14 (LGN), and La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14 (LGT): Part I,” J, Cryt. Growth 204(1-2), 128–136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Herzog, C.

Hu, X.

J. Wang, X. Yin, R. Han, S. Zhang, H. Kong, H. Zhang, X. Hu, and M. Jiang, “Growth, properties and electrooptical applications of single crystal La3Ga5SiO14,” Opt. Mater. 23(1-2), 393–397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Illarramendi, M. A.

I. Aramburu, I. Iparraguirre, M. A. Illarramendi, J. Azkargorta, J. Fernandez, and R. Balda, “Self-tuning in birefringent Nd:LGS laser crystal,” Opt. Mater. 27(11), 1692–1696 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iparraguirre, I.

I. Aramburu, I. Iparraguirre, M. A. Illarramendi, J. Azkargorta, J. Fernandez, and R. Balda, “Self-tuning in birefringent Nd:LGS laser crystal,” Opt. Mater. 27(11), 1692–1696 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jaque, D.

N.-N. Dong, F. Chen, and D. Jaque, “Carbon ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 optical channel waveguides: an intermediate step between light and heavy ion implanted waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5951–5956 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-6-5951 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jaque and F. Chen, “High resolution fluorescence imaging of damage regions in H+ ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Ion-implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics for integrated laser generation,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 28–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, F. Chen, and Y. Tan, “Scanning confocal fluorescence imaging and micro-Raman investigations of oxygen implanted channel waveguides in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 161908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, P. Moreno, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Femtosecond laser induced micromodifications in Nd:SBN crystals: Amorphization and luminescence inhibition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jazbinšek, M.

Jiang, M.

Y. Yu, J. Wang, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, H. Yu, and M. Jiang, “Continuous wave and Q-switched laser output of laser-diode-end-pumped disordered Nd:LGS laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 467–469 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, X. Yin, R. Han, S. Zhang, H. Kong, H. Zhang, X. Hu, and M. Jiang, “Growth, properties and electrooptical applications of single crystal La3Ga5SiO14,” Opt. Mater. 23(1-2), 393–397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Khanh, N. Q.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121136 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kip, D.

D. Kip, “Photorefractive waveguides in oxide crystals: fabrication, properties, and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 67(2), 131–150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kong, H.

S. Zhang, Y. Zheng, H. Kong, J. Xin, E. Frantz, and T. R. Shrout, “Characterization of high temperature piezoelectric crystals with an ordered langasite structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, X. Yin, R. Han, S. Zhang, H. Kong, H. Zhang, X. Hu, and M. Jiang, “Growth, properties and electrooptical applications of single crystal La3Ga5SiO14,” Opt. Mater. 23(1-2), 393–397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kostritskii, S. M.

S. M. Kostritskii and P. Moretti, “Specific behavior of refractive indices in low-dose He+-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 094109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lama, F. L.

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 33, 127–142 (1986).

Laporta, P.

Laulicht, B.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. S.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mackenzie, J. I.

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric Solid-State Planar Waveguide Lasers: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 626–637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Márquez, H.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

Mazzoldi, P.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477–6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mendez, C.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, P. Moreno, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Femtosecond laser induced micromodifications in Nd:SBN crystals: Amorphization and luminescence inhibition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Méndez, A.

Moreno, P.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, P. Moreno, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Femtosecond laser induced micromodifications in Nd:SBN crystals: Amorphization and luminescence inhibition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moretti, P.

S. M. Kostritskii and P. Moretti, “Specific behavior of refractive indices in low-dose He+-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 094109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi Conti, G.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121136 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Olivares, J.

Osellame, R.

Osgood, R.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Paszti, F.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121136 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pelli, S.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121136 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Poberaj, G.

Rangel-Rojo, R.

Reed, G. T.

Regener, R.

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rickards, J.

Righini, G. C.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121136 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ródenas, A.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, P. Moreno, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Femtosecond laser induced micromodifications in Nd:SBN crystals: Amorphization and luminescence inhibition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roewer, R.

J. Bohm, R. B. Heimann, M. Hengst, R. Roewer, and J. Schindler, “Czochralski growth and characterization of piezoelectric single crystals with langasite structure: La3Ga5SiO14 (LGS), La3Ga5.5Nb0.5O14 (LGN), and La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14 (LGT): Part I,” J, Cryt. Growth 204(1-2), 128–136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roso, L.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, P. Moreno, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Femtosecond laser induced micromodifications in Nd:SBN crystals: Amorphization and luminescence inhibition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Roth, R. M.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sada, C.

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477–6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schindler, J.

J. Bohm, R. B. Heimann, M. Hengst, R. Roewer, and J. Schindler, “Czochralski growth and characterization of piezoelectric single crystals with langasite structure: La3Ga5SiO14 (LGS), La3Ga5.5Nb0.5O14 (LGN), and La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14 (LGT): Part I,” J, Cryt. Growth 204(1-2), 128–136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Seaton, C. T.

G. I. Stegeman and C. T. Seaton, “Nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(12), R57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shrout, T. R.

S. Zhang, Y. Zheng, H. Kong, J. Xin, E. Frantz, and T. R. Shrout, “Characterization of high temperature piezoelectric crystals with an ordered langasite structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman and C. T. Seaton, “Nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(12), R57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Sum, T. C.

Taccheo, S.

Tan, Y.

Y. Tan and F. Chen, “Proton-implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:YAG laser ceramics,” J. Phys. D 43(7), 075105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, Y. Tan, and D. Jaque, “Ion-implanted optical channel waveguides in neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet transparent ceramics for integrated laser generation,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 28–30 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, F. Chen, and Y. Tan, “Scanning confocal fluorescence imaging and micro-Raman investigations of oxygen implanted channel waveguides in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 161908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Teo, E. J.

Torchia, G. A.

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, P. Moreno, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Femtosecond laser induced micromodifications in Nd:SBN crystals: Amorphization and luminescence inhibition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Trejo-Luna, R.

Tuller, H. L.

H. Fritze and H. L. Tuller, “Langasite for high-temperature bulk acoustic wave applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(7), 976–978 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vázquez, G.

Wang, J.

Y. Yu, J. Wang, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, H. Yu, and M. Jiang, “Continuous wave and Q-switched laser output of laser-diode-end-pumped disordered Nd:LGS laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 467–469 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, X. Yin, R. Han, S. Zhang, H. Kong, H. Zhang, X. Hu, and M. Jiang, “Growth, properties and electrooptical applications of single crystal La3Ga5SiO14,” Opt. Mater. 23(1-2), 393–397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K. M.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Developments of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Developments of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Y. Yu, J. Wang, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, H. Yu, and M. Jiang, “Continuous wave and Q-switched laser output of laser-diode-end-pumped disordered Nd:LGS laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 467–469 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, Y. Yin, and D. Yuan, “Optical spectroscopy properties of Tm ion in La3Ga5SiO14 single crystal,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 204(2), 602–607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watt, F.

Watterich, A.

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121136 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xin, J.

S. Zhang, Y. Zheng, H. Kong, J. Xin, E. Frantz, and T. R. Shrout, “Characterization of high temperature piezoelectric crystals with an ordered langasite structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

Yevick, D.

Yin, X.

J. Wang, X. Yin, R. Han, S. Zhang, H. Kong, H. Zhang, X. Hu, and M. Jiang, “Growth, properties and electrooptical applications of single crystal La3Ga5SiO14,” Opt. Mater. 23(1-2), 393–397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yin, Y.

Z. Wang, Y. Yin, and D. Yuan, “Optical spectroscopy properties of Tm ion in La3Ga5SiO14 single crystal,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 204(2), 602–607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

Yu, Y.

Yuan, D.

Z. Wang, Y. Yin, and D. Yuan, “Optical spectroscopy properties of Tm ion in La3Ga5SiO14 single crystal,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 204(2), 602–607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Y. Yu, J. Wang, H. Zhang, Z. Wang, H. Yu, and M. Jiang, “Continuous wave and Q-switched laser output of laser-diode-end-pumped disordered Nd:LGS laser,” Opt. Lett. 34(4), 467–469 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, X. Yin, R. Han, S. Zhang, H. Kong, H. Zhang, X. Hu, and M. Jiang, “Growth, properties and electrooptical applications of single crystal La3Ga5SiO14,” Opt. Mater. 23(1-2), 393–397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, Y. Zheng, H. Kong, J. Xin, E. Frantz, and T. R. Shrout, “Characterization of high temperature piezoelectric crystals with an ordered langasite structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, X. Yin, R. Han, S. Zhang, H. Kong, H. Zhang, X. Hu, and M. Jiang, “Growth, properties and electrooptical applications of single crystal La3Ga5SiO14,” Opt. Mater. 23(1-2), 393–397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y.

S. Zhang, Y. Zheng, H. Kong, J. Xin, E. Frantz, and T. R. Shrout, “Characterization of high temperature piezoelectric crystals with an ordered langasite structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

D. Kip, “Photorefractive waveguides in oxide crystals: fabrication, properties, and applications,” Appl. Phys. B 67(2), 131–150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonators,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

R. M. Roth, D. Djukic, Y. S. Lee, R. Osgood, S. Bakhru, B. Laulicht, K. Dunn, H. Bakhru, L. Wu, and M. Huang, “Compositional and structural changes in LiNbO3 following deep He+ ion implantation for film exfoliation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 112906 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Fritze and H. L. Tuller, “Langasite for high-temperature bulk acoustic wave applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(7), 976–978 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Berneschi, G. Nunzi Conti, I. Banyasz, A. Watterich, N. Q. Khanh, M. Fried, F. Paszti, M. Brenci, S. Pelli, and G. C. Righini, “Ion beam irradiated channel waveguides in Er3+-doped tellurite glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(12), 121136 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque and F. Chen, “High resolution fluorescence imaging of damage regions in H+ ion implanted Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(1), 011109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Jaque, F. Chen, and Y. Tan, “Scanning confocal fluorescence imaging and micro-Raman investigations of oxygen implanted channel waveguides in Nd:MgO:LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 161908 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. (1)

F. Chen, “Construction of Two-Dimensional Waveguides in Insulating Optical Materials by Means of Ion Beam Implantation for Photonic Applications: Fabrication Methods and Research Progress,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mater. Sci. 33(3), 165–182 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. I. Mackenzie, “Dielectric Solid-State Planar Waveguide Lasers: a review,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 626–637 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J, Cryt. Growth (1)

J. Bohm, R. B. Heimann, M. Hengst, R. Roewer, and J. Schindler, “Czochralski growth and characterization of piezoelectric single crystals with langasite structure: La3Ga5SiO14 (LGS), La3Ga5.5Nb0.5O14 (LGN), and La3Ga5.5Ta0.5O14 (LGT): Part I,” J, Cryt. Growth 204(1-2), 128–136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

G. G. Bentini, M. Bianconi, M. Chiarini, L. Correra, C. Sada, P. Mazzoldi, N. Argiolas, M. Bazzan, and R. Guzzi, “Effect of low dose high energy O3+ implantation on refractive index and linear electro-optic properties in X-cut LiNbO3: Planar optical waveguide formation and characterization,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(11), 6477–6483 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Chen, “Photonic guiding structures in lithium niobate crystals produced by energetic ion beams,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(8), 081101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Kostritskii and P. Moretti, “Specific behavior of refractive indices in low-dose He+-implanted LiNbO3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(9), 094109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, Y. Zheng, H. Kong, J. Xin, E. Frantz, and T. R. Shrout, “Characterization of high temperature piezoelectric crystals with an ordered langasite structure,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman and C. T. Seaton, “Nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(12), R57 (1985).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, D. Jaque, G. A. Torchia, C. Mendez, I. Arias, L. Roso, P. Moreno, and F. Agulló-Rueda, “Femtosecond laser induced micromodifications in Nd:SBN crystals: Amorphization and luminescence inhibition,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(11), 113517 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Phys. D (1)

Y. Tan and F. Chen, “Proton-implanted optical channel waveguides in Nd:YAG laser ceramics,” J. Phys. D 43(7), 075105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (Lond.) (1)

P. J. Chandler and F. L. Lama, “A new approach to the determination of planar waveguide profiles by means of a non-stationary mode index calculation,” Opt. Acta (Lond.) 33, 127–142 (1986).

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. (3)

F. Chen, X. L. Wang, and K. M. Wang, “Developments of ion implanted optical waveguides in optical materials: A review,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1523–1542 (2007).
[CrossRef]

I. Aramburu, I. Iparraguirre, M. A. Illarramendi, J. Azkargorta, J. Fernandez, and R. Balda, “Self-tuning in birefringent Nd:LGS laser crystal,” Opt. Mater. 27(11), 1692–1696 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, X. Yin, R. Han, S. Zhang, H. Kong, H. Zhang, X. Hu, and M. Jiang, “Growth, properties and electrooptical applications of single crystal La3Ga5SiO14,” Opt. Mater. 23(1-2), 393–397 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Solidi A (1)

Z. Wang, Y. Yin, and D. Yuan, “Optical spectroscopy properties of Tm ion in La3Ga5SiO14 single crystal,” Phys. Stat. Solidi A 204(2), 602–607 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

G. Lifante, Integrated Photonics: Fundamentals (Wiley, Atrium, 2008).

E. J. Murphy, Integrated optical circuits and components: Design and applications (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1999).

P. D. Townsend, P. J. Chandler, and L. Zhang, Optical Effects of Ion Implantation (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 1994).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic plot of the channel waveguide process in Nd:LGS crystal, (b) Magnification of a section of the channel waveguide sample and (c) the microscope image of one channel waveguide cross section (the dotted line indicates the spatial location of the channel waveguide).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The no and (b) ne profiles of the Nd:LGS channel waveguides, calculated modal profiles of (c) TE00 and (d) TM00 modes, and measured near-field intensity of the light of (e) TE00 and (f) TM00 modes. The colors bar in the right show the normalized intensity magnitude of the mode profile.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the room temperature micro-luminescence emission spectra correlated to Nd3+ ions at 4F3/24I11/2 transition obtained from the channel waveguide (after annealing at 260°C for 30 min, solid line) and the bulk (dashed line).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Spatial distribution of the emitted intensity, (b) spectral shift and (c) emission width (at FWHM) at the cross section of the channel waveguide sample.

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