Abstract

We present detailed characterization of a unique high-index-contrast integrated optical polymer waveguide platform where the index of the cladding material is closely matched to that of water. Single-mode waveguides designed to operate across a large part of the visible spectrum have been fabricated and waveguide properties, including mode size, bend loss and evanescent coupling have been modeled using effective-index approximation, finite-element and finite-difference time domain methods. Integrated components such as directional couplers for wavelength splitting and ring resonators for refractive-index or temperature sensing have been modeled, fabricated and characterized. The waveguide platform described here is applicable to a wide range of biophotonic applications relying on evanescent-wave sensing or excitation, offering a high level of integration and functionality. The technology is biocompatible and suitable for wafer-level mass production.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2010

B. Agnarsson, J. Halldorsson, N. Arnfinnsdottir, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Fabrication of planar polymer waveguides for evanescent-wave sensing in aqueous environments,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(1), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Khaing Oo, Y. Han, J. Kanka, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Structure fits the purpose: photonic crystal fibers for evanescent-field surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 35(4), 466–468 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

C. Dongre, R. Dekker, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, M. Pollnau, R. Martinez-Vazquez, R. Osellame, G. Cerullo, R. Ramponi, R. van Weeghel, G. A. J. Besselink, and H. H. van den Vlekkert, “Fluorescence monitoring of microchip capillary electrophoresis separation with monolithically integrated waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 33(21), 2503–2505 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. I. Shopova, H. Zhou, X. Fan, and P. Zhang, “Optofluidic ring resonator based dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 221101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Sumetsky, “Optimization of optical ring resonator devices for sensing applications,” Opt. Lett. 32(17), 2577–2579 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Tsao, L. Hromada, J. Liu, P. Kumar, and D. L. DeVoe, “Low temperature bonding of PMMA and COC microfluidic substrates using UV/ozone surface treatment,” Lab Chip 7(4), 499–505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Leung, P. M. Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, “A review of fiber-optic biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 688–703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. J. Shah, J. Geist, L. E. Locascio, M. Gaitan, M. V. Rao, and W. N. Vreeland, “Surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) for improved adsorption of wall coating polymers for microchip electrophoresis,” Electrophoresis 27(19), 3788–3796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Poon, L. Zhu, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, “Transmission and group delay of microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 31(4), 456–458 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. S. Poon, L. Zhu, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, “Polymer microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(4), 1843–1849 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, “Microfluidic tunable dye laser with integrated mixer and ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 264101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Piruska, I. Nikcevic, S. H. Lee, C. Ahn, W. R. Heineman, P. A. Limbach, and C. J. Seliskar, “The autofluorescence of plastic materials and chips measured under laser irradiation,” Lab Chip 5(12), 1348–1354 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

L. J. Guo, “Recent progress in nanoimprint technology and its applications,” J. Phys. D 37(11), R123–R141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Kaalund, “Critically coupled ring resonators for add-drop filtering,” Opt. Commun. 237(4-6), 357–362 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Hoiby, L. B. Nielsen, T. P. Hansen, J. R. Folkenberg, J. Riishede, D. Noordegraaf, K. Nielsen, A. Carlsen, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonic crystal fiber based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of biomolecules in aqueous solutions,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 1974–1976 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

R. Horváth, H. C. Pedersen, N. Skivesen, D. Selmeczi, and N. B. Larsen, “Optical waveguide sensor for on-line monitoring of bacteria,” Opt. Lett. 28(14), 1233–1235 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-Based Optical Waveguides: Materials, Processing, and Devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 483–485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Wide tunable double ring resonator coupled lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(5), 600–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pépin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: Resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Pandraud, T. M. Koster, C. Gui, M. Dijkstra, A. Van Den Berg, and P. V. Lambeck, “Evanescent wave sensing: New features for detection in small volumes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 85(1-3), 158–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1987

1973

A. Yariv, “Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9(9), 919–933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Dielectric rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071–2102 (1969).

Abad, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Agnarsson, B.

B. Agnarsson, J. Halldorsson, N. Arnfinnsdottir, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Fabrication of planar polymer waveguides for evanescent-wave sensing in aqueous environments,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(1), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Agnarsson, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Evanescent-wave fluorescence microscopy using symmetric planar waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5075–5082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, C.

A. Piruska, I. Nikcevic, S. H. Lee, C. Ahn, W. R. Heineman, P. A. Limbach, and C. J. Seliskar, “The autofluorescence of plastic materials and chips measured under laser irradiation,” Lab Chip 5(12), 1348–1354 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnfinnsdottir, N.

B. Agnarsson, J. Halldorsson, N. Arnfinnsdottir, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Fabrication of planar polymer waveguides for evanescent-wave sensing in aqueous environments,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(1), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Badizadegan, K.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belotti, M.

J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, “Microfluidic tunable dye laser with integrated mixer and ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 264101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Besselink, G. A. J.

Bjarklev, A.

Bowers, J. E.

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Wide tunable double ring resonator coupled lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(5), 600–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Calle, A.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carcenac, F.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pépin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: Resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Carlsen, A.

Cerullo, G.

Chao, C. Y.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, “Microfluidic tunable dye laser with integrated mixer and ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 264101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pépin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: Resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, J.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Couraud, L.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pépin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: Resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-Based Optical Waveguides: Materials, Processing, and Devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dekker, R.

DeRose, G. A.

DeVoe, D. L.

C. W. Tsao, L. Hromada, J. Liu, P. Kumar, and D. L. DeVoe, “Low temperature bonding of PMMA and COC microfluidic substrates using UV/ozone surface treatment,” Lab Chip 7(4), 499–505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dijkstra, M.

G. Pandraud, T. M. Koster, C. Gui, M. Dijkstra, A. Van Den Berg, and P. V. Lambeck, “Evanescent wave sensing: New features for detection in small volumes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 85(1-3), 158–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Domínguez, C.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dongre, C.

Du, H.

Fan, X.

S. I. Shopova, H. Zhou, X. Fan, and P. Zhang, “Optofluidic ring resonator based dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 221101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fang-Yen, C.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flood, E. M.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Folkenberg, J. R.

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fung, W.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gaitan, M.

J. J. Shah, J. Geist, L. E. Locascio, M. Gaitan, M. V. Rao, and W. N. Vreeland, “Surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) for improved adsorption of wall coating polymers for microchip electrophoresis,” Electrophoresis 27(19), 3788–3796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galas, J. C.

J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, “Microfluidic tunable dye laser with integrated mixer and ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 264101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geist, J.

J. J. Shah, J. Geist, L. E. Locascio, M. Gaitan, M. V. Rao, and W. N. Vreeland, “Surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) for improved adsorption of wall coating polymers for microchip electrophoresis,” Electrophoresis 27(19), 3788–3796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghatak, A. K.

Gill, D.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goad, D.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
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B. Agnarsson, J. Halldorsson, N. Arnfinnsdottir, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Fabrication of planar polymer waveguides for evanescent-wave sensing in aqueous environments,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(1), 56–61 (2010).
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B. Agnarsson, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Evanescent-wave fluorescence microscopy using symmetric planar waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5075–5082 (2009).
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G. Pandraud, T. M. Koster, C. Gui, M. Dijkstra, A. Van Den Berg, and P. V. Lambeck, “Evanescent wave sensing: New features for detection in small volumes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 85(1-3), 158–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
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L. J. Guo, “Recent progress in nanoimprint technology and its applications,” J. Phys. D 37(11), R123–R141 (2004).
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B. Agnarsson, J. Halldorsson, N. Arnfinnsdottir, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Fabrication of planar polymer waveguides for evanescent-wave sensing in aqueous environments,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(1), 56–61 (2010).
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Hansen, T. P.

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
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A. Piruska, I. Nikcevic, S. H. Lee, C. Ahn, W. R. Heineman, P. A. Limbach, and C. J. Seliskar, “The autofluorescence of plastic materials and chips measured under laser irradiation,” Lab Chip 5(12), 1348–1354 (2005).
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Hoiby, P. E.

Horváth, R.

Hromada, L.

C. W. Tsao, L. Hromada, J. Liu, P. Kumar, and D. L. DeVoe, “Low temperature bonding of PMMA and COC microfluidic substrates using UV/ozone surface treatment,” Lab Chip 7(4), 499–505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hryniewicz, J. V.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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B. Agnarsson, J. Halldorsson, N. Arnfinnsdottir, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Fabrication of planar polymer waveguides for evanescent-wave sensing in aqueous environments,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(1), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Agnarsson, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Evanescent-wave fluorescence microscopy using symmetric planar waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5075–5082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ja, S. J.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-Based Optical Waveguides: Materials, Processing, and Devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
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Khaing Oo, M. K.

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A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
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G. Pandraud, T. M. Koster, C. Gui, M. Dijkstra, A. Van Den Berg, and P. V. Lambeck, “Evanescent wave sensing: New features for detection in small volumes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 85(1-3), 158–162 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, “Microfluidic tunable dye laser with integrated mixer and ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 264101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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C. W. Tsao, L. Hromada, J. Liu, P. Kumar, and D. L. DeVoe, “Low temperature bonding of PMMA and COC microfluidic substrates using UV/ozone surface treatment,” Lab Chip 7(4), 499–505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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G. Pandraud, T. M. Koster, C. Gui, M. Dijkstra, A. Van Den Berg, and P. V. Lambeck, “Evanescent wave sensing: New features for detection in small volumes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 85(1-3), 158–162 (2000).
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Launois, H.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pépin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: Resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
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C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pépin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: Resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
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F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
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A. Piruska, I. Nikcevic, S. H. Lee, C. Ahn, W. R. Heineman, P. A. Limbach, and C. J. Seliskar, “The autofluorescence of plastic materials and chips measured under laser irradiation,” Lab Chip 5(12), 1348–1354 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leosson, K.

B. Agnarsson, J. Halldorsson, N. Arnfinnsdottir, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Fabrication of planar polymer waveguides for evanescent-wave sensing in aqueous environments,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(1), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Agnarsson, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Evanescent-wave fluorescence microscopy using symmetric planar waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5075–5082 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Leung, P. M. Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, “A review of fiber-optic biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 688–703 (2007).
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A. Piruska, I. Nikcevic, S. H. Lee, C. Ahn, W. R. Heineman, P. A. Limbach, and C. J. Seliskar, “The autofluorescence of plastic materials and chips measured under laser irradiation,” Lab Chip 5(12), 1348–1354 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Little, B. E.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Wide tunable double ring resonator coupled lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(5), 600–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

C. W. Tsao, L. Hromada, J. Liu, P. Kumar, and D. L. DeVoe, “Low temperature bonding of PMMA and COC microfluidic substrates using UV/ozone surface treatment,” Lab Chip 7(4), 499–505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
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J. J. Shah, J. Geist, L. E. Locascio, M. Gaitan, M. V. Rao, and W. N. Vreeland, “Surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) for improved adsorption of wall coating polymers for microchip electrophoresis,” Electrophoresis 27(19), 3788–3796 (2006).
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W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
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H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-Based Optical Waveguides: Materials, Processing, and Devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pépin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: Resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
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E. A. J. Marcatili, “Dielectric rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071–2102 (1969).

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Mejias, M.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pépin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: Resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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A. Leung, P. M. Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, “A review of fiber-optic biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 688–703 (2007).
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Nielsen, L. B.

Nikcevic, I.

A. Piruska, I. Nikcevic, S. H. Lee, C. Ahn, W. R. Heineman, P. A. Limbach, and C. J. Seliskar, “The autofluorescence of plastic materials and chips measured under laser irradiation,” Lab Chip 5(12), 1348–1354 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Oh, S.

W. Choi, C. Fang-Yen, K. Badizadegan, S. Oh, N. Lue, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, “Tomographic phase microscopy,” Nat. Methods 4(9), 717–719 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Pandraud, G.

G. Pandraud, T. M. Koster, C. Gui, M. Dijkstra, A. Van Den Berg, and P. V. Lambeck, “Evanescent wave sensing: New features for detection in small volumes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 85(1-3), 158–162 (2000).
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Pedersen, L. H.

Pépin, A.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pépin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: Resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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A. Piruska, I. Nikcevic, S. H. Lee, C. Ahn, W. R. Heineman, P. A. Limbach, and C. J. Seliskar, “The autofluorescence of plastic materials and chips measured under laser irradiation,” Lab Chip 5(12), 1348–1354 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Poon, J. K.

Poon, J. K. S.

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F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
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J. J. Shah, J. Geist, L. E. Locascio, M. Gaitan, M. V. Rao, and W. N. Vreeland, “Surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) for improved adsorption of wall coating polymers for microchip electrophoresis,” Electrophoresis 27(19), 3788–3796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Riishede, J.

Seliskar, C. J.

A. Piruska, I. Nikcevic, S. H. Lee, C. Ahn, W. R. Heineman, P. A. Limbach, and C. J. Seliskar, “The autofluorescence of plastic materials and chips measured under laser irradiation,” Lab Chip 5(12), 1348–1354 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Sepúlveda, B.

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
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J. J. Shah, J. Geist, L. E. Locascio, M. Gaitan, M. V. Rao, and W. N. Vreeland, “Surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) for improved adsorption of wall coating polymers for microchip electrophoresis,” Electrophoresis 27(19), 3788–3796 (2006).
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B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Wide tunable double ring resonator coupled lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(5), 600–602 (2002).
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A. Leung, P. M. Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, “A review of fiber-optic biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 125(2), 688–703 (2007).
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S. I. Shopova, H. Zhou, X. Fan, and P. Zhang, “Optofluidic ring resonator based dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 221101 (2007).
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J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, “Microfluidic tunable dye laser with integrated mixer and ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 264101 (2005).
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C. W. Tsao, L. Hromada, J. Liu, P. Kumar, and D. L. DeVoe, “Low temperature bonding of PMMA and COC microfluidic substrates using UV/ozone surface treatment,” Lab Chip 7(4), 499–505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Pandraud, T. M. Koster, C. Gui, M. Dijkstra, A. Van Den Berg, and P. V. Lambeck, “Evanescent wave sensing: New features for detection in small volumes,” Sens. Actuators A Phys. 85(1-3), 158–162 (2000).
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van Weeghel, R.

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C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pépin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: Resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
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Vreeland, W. N.

J. J. Shah, J. Geist, L. E. Locascio, M. Gaitan, M. V. Rao, and W. N. Vreeland, “Surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate) for improved adsorption of wall coating polymers for microchip electrophoresis,” Electrophoresis 27(19), 3788–3796 (2006).
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Wald, L.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
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A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
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J. K. S. Poon, L. Zhu, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, “Polymer microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(4), 1843–1849 (2006).
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J. K. Poon, L. Zhu, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, “Transmission and group delay of microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 31(4), 456–458 (2006).
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A. Yariv, “Universal relations for coupling of optical power between microresonators and dielectric waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 36(4), 321–322 (2000).
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A. Yariv, “Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 9(9), 919–933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

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S. I. Shopova, H. Zhou, X. Fan, and P. Zhang, “Optofluidic ring resonator based dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 221101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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S. I. Shopova, H. Zhou, X. Fan, and P. Zhang, “Optofluidic ring resonator based dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 221101 (2007).
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Zhu, L.

Adv. Mater.

H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-Based Optical Waveguides: Materials, Processing, and Devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. C. Galas, J. Torres, M. Belotti, Q. Kou, and Y. Chen, “Microfluidic tunable dye laser with integrated mixer and ring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 264101 (2005).
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S. I. Shopova, H. Zhou, X. Fan, and P. Zhang, “Optofluidic ring resonator based dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(22), 221101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

C. Vieu, F. Carcenac, A. Pépin, Y. Chen, M. Mejias, A. Lebib, L. Manin-Ferlazzo, L. Couraud, and H. Launois, “Electron beam lithography: Resolution limits and applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 164(1-4), 111–117 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J.

E. A. J. Marcatili, “Dielectric rectangular waveguide and directional coupler for integrated optics,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2071–2102 (1969).

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A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(7), 939–944 (2008).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

C. Y. Chao, W. Fung, and L. J. Guo, “Polymer microring resonators for biochemical sensing applications,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(1), 134–142 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. Liu, A. Shakouri, and J. E. Bowers, “Wide tunable double ring resonator coupled lasers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(5), 600–602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, “Critical coupling and its control in optical waveguide-ring resonator systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 483–485 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J. P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. K. S. Poon, L. Zhu, G. A. DeRose, and A. Yariv, “Polymer microring coupled-resonator optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(4), 1843–1849 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

L. J. Guo, “Recent progress in nanoimprint technology and its applications,” J. Phys. D 37(11), R123–R141 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip

A. Piruska, I. Nikcevic, S. H. Lee, C. Ahn, W. R. Heineman, P. A. Limbach, and C. J. Seliskar, “The autofluorescence of plastic materials and chips measured under laser irradiation,” Lab Chip 5(12), 1348–1354 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Tsao, L. Hromada, J. Liu, P. Kumar, and D. L. DeVoe, “Low temperature bonding of PMMA and COC microfluidic substrates using UV/ozone surface treatment,” Lab Chip 7(4), 499–505 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Microelectron. Eng.

B. Agnarsson, J. Halldorsson, N. Arnfinnsdottir, S. Ingthorsson, T. Gudjonsson, and K. Leosson, “Fabrication of planar polymer waveguides for evanescent-wave sensing in aqueous environments,” Microelectron. Eng. 87(1), 56–61 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

F. Prieto, B. Sepúlveda, A. Calle, A. Llobera, C. Domínguez, A. Abad, A. Montoya, and L. M. Lechuga, “An integrated optical interferometric nanodevice based on silicon technology for biosensor applications,” Nanotechnology 14(8), 907–912 (2003).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for waveguide and device characterization. Light from a supercontinuum source (SuperK) is passed through an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber to an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) with up to 8 individually adjustable output channels. The AOTF output polarization was adjusted using retardation plates (PC) before the fiber coupler (FC) in order to obtain the desired linear polarization state at the output of the lensed tapered fiber (LTF) which was mounted on an xyz translation stage. Waveguide output was collected with a single mode fiber (SMF) and passed to a grating spectrometer (SPM) or imaged using a microscope objective, polarization analyzer (PA) and CCD camera. Scattered light from the waveguides was simultaneously imaged from the top using a second objective and CCD camera.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated parameters for waveguides at common fluorophore excitation wavelengths (blue 488 nm, green 546 nm and red 633 nm). a) Effective refractive index of waveguide modes calculated using the effective index (lines) or finite-element (crosses) methods. The point of minimum mode-field diameter is shown with filled circles) b) mode field diameter and penetration depth with varying core sizes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Highly confined waveguide mode output measured experimentally at 570 nm (filled circles), showing close agreement to mode width determined by finite-element calculations (dotted line) after the finite resolution of the imaging optics has been taken into account (solid line). For comparison, the measured mode profile of a single mode fiber is also shown (open circles). (b) Scanning electron microscope image of PMMA waveguides on Cytop prepared with varying dosages prior to application of the top cladding layer (tilted). Decreasing exposure dose by 8% from the optimum value results in underexposure and increased roughness (top waveguide) while increasing the exposure dose by 8% results in overexposure and narrowing of the waveguide channel (bottom waveguide). The nominal waveguide width in this case was 600 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Circular 90-degree bend loss in Cytop-PMMA waveguides at three different wavelengths determined by FDTD calculations for (a) fixed core size of 500 nm × 500 nm and (b) fixed bend radius of 20 µm. For a 500 nm × 500 nm core size and bend radius of 30 µm, the 90° bend loss is 0.5-1.5% for the calculated wavelengths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Scanning electron microscope image of a directional coupler with an interaction length of 40 µm and a nominal waveguide separation of 200 nm in the coupling region. The scale bar is 20 µm. (b) Corresponding microscope image (color) showing how light of wavelengths 505 and 590 nm input from the left hand side of the image is spectrally separated in the output arms. (c) Experimentally determined wavelength dependence of the power transfer between the direct and coupled arms of the device (open and closed squares, respectively) and a comparison with FDTD calculations (crosses). The solid lines are guides to the eye but follow approximately a cos2 dependence with an increasing period towards longer wavelengths due to material dispersion.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) SEM image of ring resonators. Light is coupled into the waveguide from the input port (at the right-hand side of the image) which is displaced from the through waveguide by 180 µm to minimize stray light. (b) SEM image showing a close-up of the coupling region between the 40-µm diameter ring and the straight waveguide. The nominal coupling gap is 200 nm. Scale bar is 2 µm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Output spectra at the through port (upper spectrum) and drop port (lower spectrum) of a 40-μm diameter ring resonator with a nominal 200 nm gap between the straight waveguide and the ring. The through spectrum shows rapid Fabry-Perot oscillations and slow intensity variations which can be traced to the AOTF output. (b) Measured free spectral range or resonance peak/dip separation of Cytop/PMMA ring resonators. The solid line is given by c/(2πRneff).

Equations (1)

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T t h r o u g h = α 2 | t 2 | 2 + | t 1 | 2 2 α | t 2 | | t 1 | cos θ 1 + α 2 | t 2 | 2 | t 1 | 2 2 α | t 2 | | t 1 | cos θ

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