Abstract

We report on the design, simulation and experimental demonstration of a new type of waveguide crossing based on subwavelength gratings in silicon waveguides. We used 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations to minimize loss, crosstalk and polarization dependence. Measurement of fabricated devices show that our waveguide crossings have a loss as low as −0.023 dB/crossing, polarization dependent loss of < 0.02 dB and crosstalk <-40 dB.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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2009 (4)

2008 (2)

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and T. J. Hall, “Demultiplexer with blazed waveguide sidewall grating and sub-wavelength grating structure,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17616–17625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. Special Issue on Silicon Photonics, (2008), Article ID 685489, doi:
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, “Gradient-index antireflective subwavelength structures for planar waveguide facets,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1794–1796 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(5), 299–306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Alduino and M. Paniccia, “Interconnects: wiring electronics with light,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 153–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-loss, low-cross-talk crossings for silicon-on-insulator nanophotonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 32(19), 2801–2803 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

Y. Jiao, S. F. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. A. B. Miller, S. Fan, and K. Busch, “Wannier basis design and optimization of a photonic crystal waveguide crossing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1875–1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Luyssaert, P. Bienstman, P. Vandersteegen, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Efficient nonadiabatic planar waveguide tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(8), 2462–2468 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

H. Liu, H. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and E. Pun, “Low-loss waveguide crossing using a multimode interference structure,” Opt. Commun. 241(1-3), 99–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, “Optical elements with subwavelength structured surfaces,” Opt. Rev. 10(2), 63–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1956 (1)

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466–475 (1956).

Alduino, A.

A. Alduino and M. Paniccia, “Interconnects: wiring electronics with light,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 153–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Asakawa, K.

Baets, R.

Bienstman, P.

Bock, P. J.

Bogaerts, W.

Brimont, A.

Busch, K.

Y. Jiao, S. F. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. A. B. Miller, S. Fan, and K. Busch, “Wannier basis design and optimization of a photonic crystal waveguide crossing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1875–1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and T. J. Hall, “Sub-wavelength grating mode transformers in silicon slab waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(21), 19120–19133 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. Special Issue on Silicon Photonics, (2008), Article ID 685489, doi:
[CrossRef]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and T. J. Hall, “Demultiplexer with blazed waveguide sidewall grating and sub-wavelength grating structure,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17616–17625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, “Gradient-index antireflective subwavelength structures for planar waveguide facets,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1794–1796 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(5), 299–306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cuesta, F.

Delâge, A.

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and T. J. Hall, “Sub-wavelength grating mode transformers in silicon slab waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(21), 19120–19133 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and T. J. Hall, “Demultiplexer with blazed waveguide sidewall grating and sub-wavelength grating structure,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17616–17625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. Special Issue on Silicon Photonics, (2008), Article ID 685489, doi:
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(5), 299–306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Densmore, A.

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. Special Issue on Silicon Photonics, (2008), Article ID 685489, doi:
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(5), 299–306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doerr, C. R.

Dumon, P.

Fan, S.

Y. Jiao, S. F. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. A. B. Miller, S. Fan, and K. Busch, “Wannier basis design and optimization of a photonic crystal waveguide crossing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1875–1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Johnson, C. Manolatou, S. Fan, P. R. Villeneuve, J. D. Joannopoulos, and H. A. Haus, “Elimination of cross talk in waveguide intersections,” Opt. Lett. 23(23), 1855–1857 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Galán, J. V.

Griol, A.

Håkansson, A.

Halir, R.

Hall, T. J.

Haus, H. A.

Huang, M. C. Y.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J.-P.

Ikeda, N.

Janz, S.

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and T. J. Hall, “Sub-wavelength grating mode transformers in silicon slab waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(21), 19120–19133 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. Special Issue on Silicon Photonics, (2008), Article ID 685489, doi:
[CrossRef]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and T. J. Hall, “Demultiplexer with blazed waveguide sidewall grating and sub-wavelength grating structure,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17616–17625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, “Gradient-index antireflective subwavelength structures for planar waveguide facets,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1794–1796 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(5), 299–306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiao, Y.

Y. Jiao, S. F. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. A. B. Miller, S. Fan, and K. Busch, “Wannier basis design and optimization of a photonic crystal waveguide crossing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1875–1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Johnson, S. G.

Kikuta, H.

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, “Optical elements with subwavelength structured surfaces,” Opt. Rev. 10(2), 63–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kitagawa, Y.

Lalanne, P.

Lamontagne, B.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. Special Issue on Silicon Photonics, (2008), Article ID 685489, doi:
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(5), 299–306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lapointe, J.

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. Special Issue on Silicon Photonics, (2008), Article ID 685489, doi:
[CrossRef]

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, “Gradient-index antireflective subwavelength structures for planar waveguide facets,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1794–1796 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(5), 299–306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.-H.

Liu, H.

H. Liu, H. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and E. Pun, “Low-loss waveguide crossing using a multimode interference structure,” Opt. Commun. 241(1-3), 99–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Q. Y.

Lopinski, G.

Luebbert, C. C.

Luyssaert, B.

Ma, R.

Manolatou, C.

Martí, J.

Mateus, C. F. R.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

Y. Jiao, S. F. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. A. B. Miller, S. Fan, and K. Busch, “Wannier basis design and optimization of a photonic crystal waveguide crossing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1875–1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mingaleev, S. F.

Y. Jiao, S. F. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. A. B. Miller, S. Fan, and K. Busch, “Wannier basis design and optimization of a photonic crystal waveguide crossing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1875–1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mizutani, A.

Molina-Fernández, I.

Okamoto, K.

Ozaki, N.

Paniccia, M.

A. Alduino and M. Paniccia, “Interconnects: wiring electronics with light,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 153–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Post, E.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. Special Issue on Silicon Photonics, (2008), Article ID 685489, doi:
[CrossRef]

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, “Gradient-index antireflective subwavelength structures for planar waveguide facets,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1794–1796 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(5), 299–306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pun, E.

H. Liu, H. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and E. Pun, “Low-loss waveguide crossing using a multimode interference structure,” Opt. Commun. 241(1-3), 99–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rytov, S. M.

S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466–475 (1956).

Sanchis, P.

Schillinger, M.

Y. Jiao, S. F. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. A. B. Miller, S. Fan, and K. Busch, “Wannier basis design and optimization of a photonic crystal waveguide crossing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1875–1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J. H.

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and T. J. Hall, “Sub-wavelength grating mode transformers in silicon slab waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(21), 19120–19133 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. Special Issue on Silicon Photonics, (2008), Article ID 685489, doi:
[CrossRef]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and T. J. Hall, “Demultiplexer with blazed waveguide sidewall grating and sub-wavelength grating structure,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17616–17625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, “Gradient-index antireflective subwavelength structures for planar waveguide facets,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1794–1796 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(5), 299–306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, Y.

Suzuki, Y.

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takata, Y.

Tam, H.

H. Liu, H. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and E. Pun, “Low-loss waveguide crossing using a multimode interference structure,” Opt. Commun. 241(1-3), 99–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Toyota, H.

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, “Optical elements with subwavelength structured surfaces,” Opt. Rev. 10(2), 63–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vachon, M.

Van Thourhout, D.

Vandersteegen, P.

Villalba, P.

Villeneuve, P. R.

Wai, P. K. A.

H. Liu, H. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and E. Pun, “Low-loss waveguide crossing using a multimode interference structure,” Opt. Commun. 241(1-3), 99–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Waldron, P.

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. Special Issue on Silicon Photonics, (2008), Article ID 685489, doi:
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(5), 299–306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wangüemert-Pérez, J. G.

Watanabe, Y.

Xu, D.-X.

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. C. Luebbert, Q. Y. Liu, P. Cheben, and J. H. Schmid, “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, “Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures,” Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408–1410 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and T. J. Hall, “Sub-wavelength grating mode transformers in silicon slab waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(21), 19120–19133 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Bock, P. Cheben, A. Delâge, J. H. Schmid, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and T. J. Hall, “Demultiplexer with blazed waveguide sidewall grating and sub-wavelength grating structure,” Opt. Express 16(22), 17616–17625 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. Special Issue on Silicon Photonics, (2008), Article ID 685489, doi:
[CrossRef]

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, and D.-X. Xu, “Gradient-index antireflective subwavelength structures for planar waveguide facets,” Opt. Lett. 32(13), 1794–1796 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with sub-micrometer aperture waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(5), 299–306 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, “Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics,” Opt. Express 14(11), 4695–4702 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, W.

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, “Optical elements with subwavelength structured surfaces,” Opt. Rev. 10(2), 63–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

J. H. Schmid, P. Cheben, S. Janz, J. Lapointe, E. Post, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, B. Lamontagne, P. Waldron, and D.-X. Xu, “Subwavelength grating structures in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Adv. Opt. Technol. Special Issue on Silicon Photonics, (2008), Article ID 685489, doi:
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. Jiao, S. F. Mingaleev, M. Schillinger, D. A. B. Miller, S. Fan, and K. Busch, “Wannier basis design and optimization of a photonic crystal waveguide crossing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(9), 1875–1877 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. F. R. Mateus, M. C. Y. Huang, L. Chen, C. J. Chang-Hasnain, and Y. Suzuki, “Broad-band mirror (1.12–1.62 μm) using a subwavelength grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(7), 1676–1678 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

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A. Alduino and M. Paniccia, “Interconnects: wiring electronics with light,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 153–155 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Liu, H. Tam, P. K. A. Wai, and E. Pun, “Low-loss waveguide crossing using a multimode interference structure,” Opt. Commun. 241(1-3), 99–104 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Rev. (1)

H. Kikuta, H. Toyota, and W. Yu, “Optical elements with subwavelength structured surfaces,” Opt. Rev. 10(2), 63–73 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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S. M. Rytov, “Electromagnetic properties of a finely stratified medium,” Sov. Phys. JETP 2, 466–475 (1956).

Other (5)

P. Cheben, “Wavelength dispersive planar waveguide devices: echelle gratings and arrayed waveguide gratings,” in Optical waveguides: from theory to applied technologies, M. L. Calvo and V. Lakshminarayanan, eds. (CRC Press, 2007), 173–230.

X. J. M. Leijtens, B. Kuhlow, and M. K. Smit, “Arrayed waveguide gratings,” in Wavelength filters in fiber optics, H. Venghaus, (Springer Verlag, 2006), 125–187.

P. Cheben, J. H. Schmid, P. J. Bock, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, B. Lamontagne, A. Densmore, and T. Hall, “Sub-wavelength nanostructures for engineering the effective index of silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” 11th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, Azores, Portugal, June 28 - July 2, 2009, doi:10.1109/ICTON.2009.5185333.

M. A. Popovic, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Low-loss bloch waves in open structures and highly compact, efficient Si waveguide-crossing arrays,” Proc. of 20th Annual Meeting of the IEEE Lasers and Electro-Optics Society, 56–57 (2007).

P. Cheben, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, B. Lamontagne, A. Delâge, and S. Tanev, “Highly efficient broad-band waveguide grating coupler with a sub-wavelength grating mirror,” in Frontiers in planar lightwave circuit technology, S. Janz et al., eds. (Springer, 2006), 235–243.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Top view of the 3D FDTD simulation layout for a Si wire waveguide with a SWG crossing, where Λi and Λf are the initial and final grating pitches, w i and w f are the initial and final segment widths and a = 150 nm is the segment length. Inset in (a) shows the layout for estimating crosstalk. b) Loss for zero SWG crossings (open diamond symbols), loss for one SWG crossing (full diamond) and crosstalk (square) for w f in the range of 200 nm to 350 nm for TE polarization at λ = 1.55 µm. Si wire crossing loss (−1.35 dB) and crosstalk (−10.9 dB) are indicated for reference. c) SWG loss per crossing for TE (blue) and TM (red) polarizations for w f = 350 nm. Inset in (c) shows loss for one SWG crossing with varying center square segment width w.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral dependence of simulated loss for a crossing structure with wf = 350 nm for TE (blue) and TM (red) polarizations for a wavelength range of 1520 nm – 1580 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top view of the 3D FDTD simulation layout for a Si wire waveguide with a SWG crossing using bridging segments to reduce taper loss, where b = 100 is the bridging segment length and w 1 = 400, w 2 = 100 nm are the start and the end widths of the bridging segments.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Scanning electron microscope images of SWG crossings: a) multiple SWG crossings, b) one SWG crossing, c) detail of the crossing region with square center segment and d) SWG straight waveguide.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured loss for SWG crossings with Λ = 300 nm for TE (blue diamond) and TM (red diamond) polarizations and Λ = 400 nm for TE (blue cross) and TM (red cross) polarizations using a broadband ASE source. Loss for direct wire crossings is shown for comparison for TE (green circle) and TM (cyan circle).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured loss for a 50 µm long SWG taper with Λf = 400 nm and w f = 300 nm for TE (blue) and TM (red) polarizations using a broadband ASE source.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured loss per crossing for a SWG crossings with Λ = 300 nm for TE (blue) and TM (red) polarizations using a tunable external cavity semiconductor laser.

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