Abstract

We characterize bending losses of curved plasmonic nanowire waveguides for radii of curvature ranging from 1 to 12 μm and widths down to 40 nm. We use near-field measurements to separate bending losses from propagation losses. The attenuation due to bending loss is found to be as low as 0.1 μm−1 for a curved waveguide with a width of 70 nm and a radius of curvature of 2 μm. Experimental results are supported by Finite Difference Time Domain simulations. An analytical model developed for dielectric waveguides is used to predict the trend of rising bending losses with decreasing radius of curvature in plasmonic nanowires.

© 2010 OSA

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2009 (3)

M. Spasenović, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenović, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

2007 (2)

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 035420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (5)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, “Strong modification of the nonlinear optical response of metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “Subwavelength confinement in an integrated metal slot waveguide on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 31(14), 2133–2135 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

M. Lipson, “Guiding, modulating, and emitting light on Silicon – challenges and opportunities,” J. Lightwave Technol. 23(12), 4222–4238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics – Towards Subwavelength Optical Devices,” Curr. Nanosci. 1(1), 17–22 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, S.-J. Choi, J. D. O’Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, “Experimental characterization of the reflectance of 60° waveguide bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 191104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Ayre, T. J. Karle, T. Lijun Wu, T. Davies, and T. F. Krauss, “Experimental verification of numerically optimized photonic crystal injector, Y-splitter, and bend,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23(7), 1390–1395 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

I. Ntakis, P. Pottier, and R. M. De La Rue, “Optimization of transmission properties of two-dimensional photonic crystal channel waveguide bends through local lattice deformation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 12–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1622–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and D. F. P. Pile, “Single-mode subwavelength waveguide with channel plasmon-polaritons in triangular grooves on a metal surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6323–6325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (1)

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuactors B 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1969 (1)

E. A. Marcatili, “Bends in optical dielectric guides,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103 (1969).

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ayre, M.

M. Ayre, T. J. Karle, T. Lijun Wu, T. Davies, and T. F. Krauss, “Experimental verification of numerically optimized photonic crystal injector, Y-splitter, and bend,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23(7), 1390–1395 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balistreri, M. L. M.

Beggs, D. M.

Bergman, K.

Berini, P.

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biberman, A.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend- and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13585–13592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, T. G.

Burresi, M.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, J. R.

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, S.-J. Choi, J. D. O’Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, “Experimental characterization of the reflectance of 60° waveguide bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 191104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, D. E.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 035420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chen, Z.

Choi, S.-J.

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, S.-J. Choi, J. D. O’Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, “Experimental characterization of the reflectance of 60° waveguide bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 191104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dapkus, P. D.

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, S.-J. Choi, J. D. O’Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, “Experimental characterization of the reflectance of 60° waveguide bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 191104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davies, T.

M. Ayre, T. J. Karle, T. Lijun Wu, T. Davies, and T. F. Krauss, “Experimental verification of numerically optimized photonic crystal injector, Y-splitter, and bend,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23(7), 1390–1395 (2005).
[CrossRef]

De La Rue, R. M.

I. Ntakis, P. Pottier, and R. M. De La Rue, “Optimization of transmission properties of two-dimensional photonic crystal channel waveguide bends through local lattice deformation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 12–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Drezet, A.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engelen, R. J. P.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enoch, S.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, “Strong modification of the nonlinear optical response of metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, C.

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuactors B 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Genet, C.

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and D. F. P. Pile, “Single-mode subwavelength waveguide with channel plasmon-polaritons in triangular grooves on a metal surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6323–6325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 242–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harmsen, R. H.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, “Strong modification of the nonlinear optical response of metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemmer, P. R.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 035420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hohenau, A.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holmgaard, T.

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuactors B 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Karle, T. J.

M. Ayre, T. J. Karle, T. Lijun Wu, T. Davies, and T. F. Krauss, “Experimental verification of numerically optimized photonic crystal injector, Y-splitter, and bend,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23(7), 1390–1395 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W. J.

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, S.-J. Choi, J. D. O’Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, “Experimental characterization of the reflectance of 60° waveguide bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 191104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

Korterik, J. P.

Krasavin, A. V.

Krauss, T. F.

D. M. Beggs, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Ultracompact and low-power optical switch based on silicon photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 33(2), 147–149 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ayre, T. J. Karle, T. Lijun Wu, T. Davies, and T. F. Krauss, “Experimental verification of numerically optimized photonic crystal injector, Y-splitter, and bend,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23(7), 1390–1395 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuang, W.

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, S.-J. Choi, J. D. O’Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, “Experimental characterization of the reflectance of 60° waveguide bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 191104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L.

M. Spasenović, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, “Strong modification of the nonlinear optical response of metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. M. Balistreri, J. P. Korterik, L. Kuipers, and N. F. van Hulst, “Phase mapping of optical fields in integrated optical waveguide structures,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19(8), 1169–1176 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L. K.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenović, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laluet, J.-Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, B. G.

Leitner, A.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lijun Wu, T.

M. Ayre, T. J. Karle, T. Lijun Wu, T. Davies, and T. F. Krauss, “Experimental verification of numerically optimized photonic crystal injector, Y-splitter, and bend,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23(7), 1390–1395 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Lukin, M. D.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 035420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics – Towards Subwavelength Optical Devices,” Curr. Nanosci. 1(1), 17–22 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Marcatili, E. A.

E. A. Marcatili, “Bends in optical dielectric guides,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103 (1969).

Markey, L.

Martinelli, M.

McNab, S. J.

Melloni, A.

Mori, D.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morichetti, F.

Morimoto, A.

Ntakis, I.

I. Ntakis, P. Pottier, and R. M. De La Rue, “Optimization of transmission properties of two-dimensional photonic crystal channel waveguide bends through local lattice deformation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 12–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, J. D.

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, S.-J. Choi, J. D. O’Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, “Experimental characterization of the reflectance of 60° waveguide bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 191104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

Opheij, A.

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pile, D. F. P.

D. K. Gramotnev and D. F. P. Pile, “Single-mode subwavelength waveguide with channel plasmon-polaritons in triangular grooves on a metal surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6323–6325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenović, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pottier, P.

I. Ntakis, P. Pottier, and R. M. De La Rue, “Optimization of transmission properties of two-dimensional photonic crystal channel waveguide bends through local lattice deformation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 12–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Prangsma, J. C.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, “Strong modification of the nonlinear optical response of metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandtke, M.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, “Strong modification of the nonlinear optical response of metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segerink, F. B.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, “Strong modification of the nonlinear optical response of metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shakya, J.

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Shih, M. H.

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, S.-J. Choi, J. D. O’Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, “Experimental characterization of the reflectance of 60° waveguide bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 191104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sørensen, A. S.

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 035420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Spasenovic, M.

M. Spasenović, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenović, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinberger, B.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. L.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahara, J.

Taki, H.

van Hulst, N. F.

van Nieuwstadt, J. A. H.

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, “Strong modification of the nonlinear optical response of metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Oosten, D.

M. Spasenović, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verhagen, E.

M. Spasenović, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenović, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasov, Y.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 242–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

White, T. P.

Xia, F.

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 242–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yamagishi, S.

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuactors B 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

Zhu, Z.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

M. H. Shih, W. J. Kim, W. Kuang, J. R. Cao, S.-J. Choi, J. D. O’Brien, and P. D. Dapkus, “Experimental characterization of the reflectance of 60° waveguide bends in photonic crystal waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 191104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and D. F. P. Pile, “Single-mode subwavelength waveguide with channel plasmon-polaritons in triangular grooves on a metal surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(26), 6323–6325 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(9), 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Spasenović, D. van Oosten, E. Verhagen, and L. Kuipers, “Measurements of modal symmetry in subwavelength plasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(20), 203109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides: Bends and directional couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(8), 081111 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

E. A. Marcatili, “Bends in optical dielectric guides,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2103 (1969).

Curr. Nanosci. (1)

S. A. Maier, “Plasmonics – Towards Subwavelength Optical Devices,” Curr. Nanosci. 1(1), 17–22 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

M. Ayre, T. J. Karle, T. Lijun Wu, T. Davies, and T. F. Krauss, “Experimental verification of numerically optimized photonic crystal injector, Y-splitter, and bend,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 23(7), 1390–1395 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

I. Ntakis, P. Pottier, and R. M. De La Rue, “Optimization of transmission properties of two-dimensional photonic crystal channel waveguide bends through local lattice deformation,” J. Appl. Phys. 96(1), 12–18 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Vlasov, W. M. J. Green, and F. Xia, “High-throughput silicon nanophotonic wavelength-insensitive switch for on-chip optical networks,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 242–246 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J.-Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of symmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B 61(15), 10484–10503 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Chang, A. S. Sørensen, P. R. Hemmer, and M. D. Lukin, “Strong coupling of single emitters to surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. B 76(3), 035420 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

J. A. H. van Nieuwstadt, M. Sandtke, R. H. Harmsen, F. B. Segerink, J. C. Prangsma, S. Enoch, and L. Kuipers, “Strong modification of the nonlinear optical response of metallic subwavelength hole arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(14), 146102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Burresi, R. J. P. Engelen, A. Opheij, D. van Oosten, D. Mori, T. Baba, and L. Kuipers, “Observation of polarization singularities at the nanoscale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(3), 033902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Verhagen, M. Spasenović, A. Polman, and L. K. Kuipers, “Nanowire plasmon excitation by adiabatic mode transformation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(20), 203904 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

T. W. Ebbesen, C. Genet, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface-plasmon circuitry,” Phys. Today 61(5), 44 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuactors B (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuactors B 54(1-2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. Raether, “Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings,” Springer Tracts in Modern Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988) Vol. 3.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron micrographs (a and b) and measured near-field amplitudes (c and d) of straight (b and d) and curved (a and c) sections of a 70 nm wide nanowire waveguide. D is an enlargement of a straight section indicated with a white box in c. The radius of curvature of nanowires shown in a and c is 6 μm. The white arrow in c indicates the propagation direction of SPPs on the start of the nanowire bend. The colorbars show the time-averaged electric field amplitude, normalized to the largest measured signal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Amplitude transmittance through a 90° bend as a function of radius of curvature. Blue and green points correspond to waveguides with widths of 70 nm and 40 nm, respectively. Dashed lines are exponential fits with a single exponent to the last three data points of the near-field amplitude transmittance measurements. The errorbars represent the experimental uncertainty. The insets show near-field amplitude images of two investigated structures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Attenuation due to bending losses obtained for waveguides with a width of 70 nm. a: experimentally obtained values for k total (green), k propagation (blue) and k bending (orange). b: Attenuation values obtained from FDTD simulations. The dashed orange lines indicate the fit to an exponential function. The error bars in the left image represent experimental uncertainty. In the right image, the error bars represent the uncertainty in placing power monitors exactly at the beginning and end of a bend.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The fraction of energy in the substrate. BK-7 is the glass substrate, Au is the gold nanowire. X is the distance from the center of the nanowire waveguide. The green and blue dots are results of numerical simulations for wires of width 40 nm and 70 nm, respectively. The shaded area of the substrate marks the area from which the fraction is calculated. An exponentially decaying dependence on X is observed, which is confirmed with overlaid exponential fits (red lines).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Coefficients obtained by fitting to Eq. (3)

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A out / A in = exp ( k propagation x ) exp ( k bending x ) .
k bending = log ( A out A in ) 2 π R C k propagation .
k bending = C 1 exp ( C 2 R C ) , where  C 2 = β ( 2 Δ n e f f / n e f f ) 3 2 ,

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