Abstract

Using the full three-dimensional classical ensemble model, we have investigated nonsequential triple ionization (NSTI) of Ne by intense linearly polarized laser fields systematically. Trajectory back analysis enables us to identify the various NSTI channels at different intensities in an intuitive way. The momentum distributions of the triply ionized ions calculated by this model agree well with the experimental results over a wide range of laser intensities [J. Phys. B 41, 081006 (2008)]. With this classical model we achieve insight into the complex sub-laser-cycle dynamics of the correlated three electrons in NSTI.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. . J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133001 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. . S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Recollision dynamics and time delay in strong-field double ionization,” Opt. Express 15, 767–778 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. . Y. M. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. X. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. . A. H. Tong, Q. Liao, Y. M. Zhou, and P. X. Lu, “Internuclear-distance dependence of electron correlation in nonsequential double ionization of H2,” Opt. Express 18, 9064–9070 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. . K. Sacha, and B. Eckhardt, “Nonsequential triple ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 053401 (2001).
  26. . X. Liu, C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, W. Becker, and P. B , Corkum, “Attosecond electron thermalization by laser-driven electron recollision in atoms,” J. Phys. B 39, L305–L311 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. . Phay J. Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “In-Plane Theory of Nonsequential Triple Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083001 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. . Q. Liao, and P. X. Lu, “Manipulating nonsequential double ionization via alignment of asymmetric molecules,” Opt. Express 17, 15550–15557 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. . S. Palaniyappan, A. DiChiara, E. Chowdhury, A. Falkowski, G. Ongadi, E. L. Huskins, and B. C. Walker, “Ultrastrong Field Ionization of Nen+ (n·8): Rescattering and the Role of the Magnetic Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243003 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  31. . S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  32. . A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated Two-Electron Momentum Spectra for Strong-Field Nonsequential Double Ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  33. . R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2010

2009

. Q. Liao, and P. X. Lu, “Manipulating nonsequential double ionization via alignment of asymmetric molecules,” Opt. Express 17, 15550–15557 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

. Y. M. Zhou, Q. Liao, and P. X. Lu, “Mechanism for high-energy electrons in nonsequential double ionization below the recollision-excitation threshold,” Phys. Rev. A 80, 023412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

. O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sub-lasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys. 10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

. Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, Q. B. Zhang, W. Y. Hong, and Z. Y. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 41, 125601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

. A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “From non-sequential to sequential strong-field multiple ionization: identification of pure and mixed reaction channels,” J. Phys. B 41, 081006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

. P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “Attosecend science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

. A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and Recoil Collisions in Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

. S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Recollision dynamics and time delay in strong-field double ionization,” Opt. Express 15, 767–778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated Two-Electron Momentum Spectra for Strong-Field Nonsequential Double Ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

. X. Liu, C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, W. Becker, and P. B , Corkum, “Attosecond electron thermalization by laser-driven electron recollision in atoms,” J. Phys. B 39, L305–L311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

. Phay J. Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “In-Plane Theory of Nonsequential Triple Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B 39, S371–S380 (2006).
[CrossRef]

. J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and bachward ejection in full-dimension analysis of strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

. S. Palaniyappan, A. DiChiara, E. Chowdhury, A. Falkowski, G. Ongadi, E. L. Huskins, and B. C. Walker, “Ultrastrong Field Ionization of Nen+ (n·8): Rescattering and the Role of the Magnetic Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

. M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated multielectron dynamics in ultrafast laser pulse interactions with atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

. R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

. E. R. Peterson, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Above-threshold double-ionization spectroscopy of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

. K. Sacha, and B. Eckhardt, “Nonsequential triple ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 053401 (2001).

2000

. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Nonsequential multiple ionization in intense laser pulses: interpretation of ion momentum distributions within the classical ‘rescattering’ model,” J. Phys. B 33, L823–L830 (2000).
[CrossRef]

. M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. J. Chen, J. Liu, L. B. Fu, and W. M. Zheng, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laserinduced nonsequential double ionization by semiclassical rescattering model,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 011404(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

. Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein,W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, and J. Ullrich, “Momentum Distributions of Nen+ Ions Created by an Intense Ultrashort Laser Pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

. S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201–1214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionizaiton of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993

. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

. A. I’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions induced by multiphoton absorb in rare gases at 0.53 mm,” Phys. Rev. A 27, 2503–2512 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Achtelik, A.

. O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sub-lasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys. 10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Agostini, P.

. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionizaiton of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, A.

. A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and Recoil Collisions in Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Becker, W.

. X. Liu, C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, W. Becker, and P. B , Corkum, “Attosecond electron thermalization by laser-driven electron recollision in atoms,” J. Phys. B 39, L305–L311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

. M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blaga, C. I.

. J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breen, L.

. S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Recollision dynamics and time delay in strong-field double ionization,” Opt. Express 15, 767–778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and bachward ejection in full-dimension analysis of strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

. E. R. Peterson, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Above-threshold double-ionization spectroscopy of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

. J. Chen, J. Liu, L. B. Fu, and W. M. Zheng, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laserinduced nonsequential double ionization by semiclassical rescattering model,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 011404(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

. S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201–1214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, E.

. S. Palaniyappan, A. DiChiara, E. Chowdhury, A. Falkowski, G. Ongadi, E. L. Huskins, and B. C. Walker, “Ultrastrong Field Ionization of Nen+ (n·8): Rescattering and the Role of the Magnetic Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B

. X. Liu, C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, W. Becker, and P. B , Corkum, “Attosecond electron thermalization by laser-driven electron recollision in atoms,” J. Phys. B 39, L305–L311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

. A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and Recoil Collisions in Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

. P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “Attosecend science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

. M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.

. R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003.
[PubMed]

de Jesus, V. L. B.

. A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “From non-sequential to sequential strong-field multiple ionization: identification of pure and mixed reaction channels,” J. Phys. B 41, 081006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

. O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sub-lasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys. 10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

. A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated Two-Electron Momentum Spectra for Strong-Field Nonsequential Double Ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

. K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B 39, S371–S380 (2006).
[CrossRef]

. A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated multielectron dynamics in ultrafast laser pulse interactions with atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deipenwisch, J.

. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003.
[PubMed]

DiChiara, A.

. S. Palaniyappan, A. DiChiara, E. Chowdhury, A. Falkowski, G. Ongadi, E. L. Huskins, and B. C. Walker, “Ultrastrong Field Ionization of Nen+ (n·8): Rescattering and the Role of the Magnetic Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DiMauro, L. F.

. J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionizaiton of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doherty, B. J. S.

. J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorn, A.

. R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

. R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein,W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, and J. Ullrich, “Momentum Distributions of Nen+ Ions Created by an Intense Ultrashort Laser Pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003.
[PubMed]

Dörner, R.

. A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and Recoil Collisions in Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

. M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eberly, J. H.

. S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Recollision dynamics and time delay in strong-field double ionization,” Opt. Express 15, 767–778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and bachward ejection in full-dimension analysis of strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. Phay J. Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “In-Plane Theory of Nonsequential Triple Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckhardt, B.

. K. Sacha, and B. Eckhardt, “Nonsequential triple ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 053401 (2001).

Engel, V.

. M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ergler, Th.

. O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sub-lasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys. 10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

. A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “From non-sequential to sequential strong-field multiple ionization: identification of pure and mixed reaction channels,” J. Phys. B 41, 081006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

. A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated Two-Electron Momentum Spectra for Strong-Field Nonsequential Double Ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

. K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B 39, S371–S380 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Falkowski, A.

. S. Palaniyappan, A. DiChiara, E. Chowdhury, A. Falkowski, G. Ongadi, E. L. Huskins, and B. C. Walker, “Ultrastrong Field Ionization of Nen+ (n·8): Rescattering and the Role of the Magnetic Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feuerstein, B.

. A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “From non-sequential to sequential strong-field multiple ionization: identification of pure and mixed reaction channels,” J. Phys. B 41, 081006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

. O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sub-lasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys. 10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

. A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated Two-Electron Momentum Spectra for Strong-Field Nonsequential Double Ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

. K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B 39, S371–S380 (2006).
[CrossRef]

. A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated multielectron dynamics in ultrafast laser pulse interactions with atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

. R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Nonsequential multiple ionization in intense laser pulses: interpretation of ion momentum distributions within the classical ‘rescattering’ model,” J. Phys. B 33, L823–L830 (2000).
[CrossRef]

. R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein,W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, and J. Ullrich, “Momentum Distributions of Nen+ Ions Created by an Intense Ultrashort Laser Pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003.
[PubMed]

Figueira de Morisson Faria, C.

. X. Liu, C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, W. Becker, and P. B , Corkum, “Attosecond electron thermalization by laser-driven electron recollision in atoms,” J. Phys. B 39, L305–L311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B.

. O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sub-lasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys. 10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, D.

. R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003.
[PubMed]

Fu, L. B.

. J. Chen, J. Liu, L. B. Fu, and W. M. Zheng, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laserinduced nonsequential double ionization by semiclassical rescattering model,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 011404(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gademann, G.

. O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sub-lasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys. 10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

. Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gross, E. K. U.

. M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haan, S. L.

. S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

. S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Recollision dynamics and time delay in strong-field double ionization,” Opt. Express 15, 767–778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and bachward ejection in full-dimension analysis of strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrwerth, O.

. O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sub-lasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys. 10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ho, Phay J.

. Phay J. Ho, and J. H. Eberly, “In-Plane Theory of Nonsequential Triple Ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 083001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, K.

. R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Höhr, C.

. R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003.
[PubMed]

Hong, W. Y.

. Y. M. Zhou, Q. Liao, Q. B. Zhang, W. Y. Hong, and P. X. Lu, “Controlling nonsequential double ionization via two-color few-cycle pulses,” Opt. Express 18, 632–638 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. Q. Liao, P. X. Lu, Q. B. Zhang, W. Y. Hong, and Z. Y. Yang, “Phase-dependent nonsequential double ionization by few-cycle laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 41, 125601 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huskins, E. L.

. S. Palaniyappan, A. DiChiara, E. Chowdhury, A. Falkowski, G. Ongadi, E. L. Huskins, and B. C. Walker, “Ultrastrong Field Ionization of Nen+ (n·8): Rescattering and the Role of the Magnetic Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jagutzki, O.

. M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kammer, S.

. M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karim, A.

. S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Recollision dynamics and time delay in strong-field double ionization,” Opt. Express 15, 767–778 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. S. L. Haan, L. Breen, A. Karim, and J. H. Eberly, “Variable time lag and bachward ejection in full-dimension analysis of strong field double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 103008 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korn, G.

. R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003.
[PubMed]

Krausz, F.

. P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “Attosecend science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kremer, M.

. O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sub-lasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys. 10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kulander, K. C.

. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionizaiton of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larochelle, S.

. S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201–1214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lein, M.

. M. Lein, E. K. U. Gross, and V. Engel, “Intense-field double ionization of helium: identifying the mechanism,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4707–4710 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, Q.

Liu, J.

. J. Chen, J. Liu, L. B. Fu, and W. M. Zheng, “Interpretation of momentum distribution of recoil ions from laserinduced nonsequential double ionization by semiclassical rescattering model,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 011404(R) (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

. X. Liu, C. Figueira de Morisson Faria, W. Becker, and P. B , Corkum, “Attosecond electron thermalization by laser-driven electron recollision in atoms,” J. Phys. B 39, L305–L311 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P. X.

Meckel, M.

. A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and Recoil Collisions in Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

. M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mergel, V.

. Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moshammer, R

. K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B 39, S371–S380 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moshammer, R.

. A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “From non-sequential to sequential strong-field multiple ionization: identification of pure and mixed reaction channels,” J. Phys. B 41, 081006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

. O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sub-lasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys. 10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

. A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated Two-Electron Momentum Spectra for Strong-Field Nonsequential Double Ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

. A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated multielectron dynamics in ultrafast laser pulse interactions with atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

. R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Nonsequential multiple ionization in intense laser pulses: interpretation of ion momentum distributions within the classical ‘rescattering’ model,” J. Phys. B 33, L823–L830 (2000).
[CrossRef]

. R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein,W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, and J. Ullrich, “Momentum Distributions of Nen+ Ions Created by an Intense Ultrashort Laser Pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003.
[PubMed]

Neumayer, P.

. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003.
[PubMed]

Ongadi, G.

. S. Palaniyappan, A. DiChiara, E. Chowdhury, A. Falkowski, G. Ongadi, E. L. Huskins, and B. C. Walker, “Ultrastrong Field Ionization of Nen+ (n·8): Rescattering and the Role of the Magnetic Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Palaniyappan, S.

. S. Palaniyappan, A. DiChiara, E. Chowdhury, A. Falkowski, G. Ongadi, E. L. Huskins, and B. C. Walker, “Ultrastrong Field Ionization of Nen+ (n·8): Rescattering and the Role of the Magnetic Field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 243003 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Parker, J. S.

. J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peterson, E. R.

. E. R. Peterson, and P. H. Bucksbaum, “Above-threshold double-ionization spectroscopy of argon,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 053401 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Plantinga, P. W.

. S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

. M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rottke, H.

. R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003.
[PubMed]

Rudenko, A.

. A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “From non-sequential to sequential strong-field multiple ionization: identification of pure and mixed reaction channels,” J. Phys. B 41, 081006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

. O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sub-lasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys. 10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

. A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated Two-Electron Momentum Spectra for Strong-Field Nonsequential Double Ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

. K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B 39, S371–S380 (2006).
[CrossRef]

. A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated multielectron dynamics in ultrafast laser pulse interactions with atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ruiz, C.

. A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and Recoil Collisions in Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sacha, K.

. K. Sacha, and B. Eckhardt, “Nonsequential triple ionization in strong fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 053401 (2001).

Sandner, W.

. R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003.
[PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionizaiton of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, W.

. R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein,W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, and J. Ullrich, “Momentum Distributions of Nen+ Ions Created by an Intense Ultrashort Laser Pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schöffler, M.

. A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and Recoil Collisions in Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

. M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schössler, S.

. A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and Recoil Collisions in Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schr¨oter, C. D.

. A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated Two-Electron Momentum Spectra for Strong-Field Nonsequential Double Ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schröter, C. D.

. A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “From non-sequential to sequential strong-field multiple ionization: identification of pure and mixed reaction channels,” J. Phys. B 41, 081006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

. O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sub-lasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys. 10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

. K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B 39, S371–S380 (2006).
[CrossRef]

. A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated multielectron dynamics in ultrafast laser pulse interactions with atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

. R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

. R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein,W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, and J. Ullrich, “Momentum Distributions of Nen+ Ions Created by an Intense Ultrashort Laser Pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003.
[PubMed]

Schultz, K. D.

. J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheehy, B.

. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionizaiton of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shomsky, K. N.

. S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simeonidis, K.

. O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sub-lasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys. 10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Smith, Z. S.

. S. L. Haan, Z. S. Smith, K. N. Shomsky, and P. W. Plantinga, “Electron drift directions in strong-field double ionization of atoms,” J. Phys. B 42, 134009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smolarski, M.

. M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spielberger, L.

. Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staudte, A.

. A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and Recoil Collisions in Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

. M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talebpour, A.

. S. Larochelle, A. Talebpour, and S. L. Chin, “Non-sequential multiple ionization of rare gas atoms in a Ti:Sapphire laser field,” J. Phys. B 31, 1201–1214 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, K. T.

. J. S. Parker, B. J. S. Doherty, K. T. Taylor, K. D. Schultz, C. I. Blaga, and L. F. DiMauro, “High-energy cutoff in the spectrum of strong-field nonsequential double ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 133001 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, A. H.

Trump, C.

. R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003.
[PubMed]

Ullrich, J.

. A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “From non-sequential to sequential strong-field multiple ionization: identification of pure and mixed reaction channels,” J. Phys. B 41, 081006 (2008).
[CrossRef]

. O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sub-lasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys. 10, 025007 (2008).
[CrossRef]

. A. Rudenko, V. L. B. de Jesus, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schr¨oter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated Two-Electron Momentum Spectra for Strong-Field Nonsequential Double Ionization of He at 800 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

. K. Zrost, A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Multiple ionization of Ne and Ar by intense 25 fs laser pulses: few-electron dynamics studied with ion momentum spectroscopy,” J. Phys. B 39, S371–S380 (2006).
[CrossRef]

. A. Rudenko, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Correlated multielectron dynamics in ultrafast laser pulse interactions with atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 253001 (2004).
[CrossRef]

. R. Moshammer, J. Ullrich, B. Feuerstein, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, K. Hoffmann, and W. Sandner, “Strongly directed electron emission in non-sequential double ionization of Ne by intense laser pulses,” J. Phys. B 36, L113–L119 (2003).
[CrossRef]

. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Nonsequential multiple ionization in intense laser pulses: interpretation of ion momentum distributions within the classical ‘rescattering’ model,” J. Phys. B 33, L823–L830 (2000).
[CrossRef]

. R. Moshammer, B. Feuerstein,W. Schmitt, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, and J. Ullrich, “Momentum Distributions of Nen+ Ions Created by an Intense Ultrashort Laser Pulse,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 447–450 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

. B. Feuerstein, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, A. Dorn, C. D. Schröter, J. Deipenwisch, J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, C. Höhr, P. Neumayer, J. Ullrich, H. Rottke, C. Trump, M. Wittmann, G. Korn, and W. Sandner, “Separation of recollision mechanisms in nonsequential strong field double ionizaion of Ar: the role of excitation tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 043003.
[PubMed]

Urbasch, G.

. Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villeneuve, D. M.

. A. Staudte, C. Ruiz, M. Schöffler, S. Schössler, D. Zeidler, Th. Weber, M. Meckel, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, A. Becker, and R. Dörner, “Binary and Recoil Collisions in Strong Field Double Ionization of Helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 263002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

. M. Weckenbrock, D. Zeidler, A. Staudte, Th. Weber, M. Schöffler, M. Meckel, S. Kammer, M. Smolarski, O. Jagutzki, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, P. B. Corkum, and R. Dörner, “Fully differential rates for femtosecond multiphoton double ionization of neon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 213002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vollmer, M.

. Th. Weber, H. Giessen, M. Weckenbrock, G. Urbasch, A. Staudte, L. Spielberger, O. Jagutzki, V. Mergel, M. Vollmer, and R. Dörner, “Correlated electron emmision in multiphoton double ionization,” Nature 405, 658–661 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, B.

. B. Walker, B. Sheehy, L. F. Dimauro, P. Agostini, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Precision measurement of strong field double ionizaiton of helium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1227–1230 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walker, B. C.

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Zrost, K.

. A. Rudenko, Th. Ergler, K. Zrost, B. Feuerstein, V. L. B. de Jesus, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “From non-sequential to sequential strong-field multiple ionization: identification of pure and mixed reaction channels,” J. Phys. B 41, 081006 (2008).
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. P. B. Corkum, and F. Krausz, “Attosecend science,” Nat. Phys. 3, 381–387 (2007).
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. O. Herrwerth, A. Rudenko, M. Kremer, V. L. B. de Jesus, B. Fischer, G. Gademann, K. Simeonidis, A. Achtelik, Th. Ergler, B. Feuerstein, C. D. Schröter, R. Moshammer, and J. Ullrich, “Wavelength dependence of sub-lasercycle few-electron dynamics in strong-field multiple ionization,” New J. Phys. 10, 025007 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Double and triple ionization probabilities as a function of the laser intensity. The laser wavelength is 800 nm.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The two-dimensional (the left column) and the longitudinal (the right column) momentum distributions of Ne 3+ ions. The laser intensities are (a) and (b) 1.0 PW/cm 2, (c) and (d) 2.0 PW/cm 2, (e) and (f) 4.0 PW/cm 2, respectively. The distributions are plotted in units of U p . The ensemble sizes are 4 million (1.0 PW/cm 2), 2 million (2.0 PW/cm 2) and 0.8 million (4.0 PW/cm 2). For the two-dimensional momentum distributions, the horizonal axis denotes the longitudinal momentum and the vertical axis denotes the perpendicular momentum (along y axis). The data are integrated over the other perpendicular momentum component.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Samlpe TI trajectories. The laser intensities are (a) and (b) 1.0 PW/cm 2, (c) and (d) 4.0 PW/cm 2, and (e)–(h) 2.0 PW/cm 2, respectively. Panels (a), (c), (e), (g) show the longitudinal coordinate z (paralle to the laser polarization) vs time, and panels (b), (d), (f), (h) show the corresponding energy vs time. The arrows indicate the time when recollision occurs.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

Triple ionization phase tTI versus recollision phase tr (both in cycle) where the intensities are (a) 1.0 PW/cm 2, (b) 4.0 PW/cm 2, (c) and (d) 2.0 PW/cm 2, respectively. At 1.0 PW/cm 2 most of the TI trajectories are ionized through (0-3) channel and at 4.0 PW/cm 2 they are ionized through (0-1-3) channel. For 2.0 PW/cm 2 we have separated the TI trajectories base on whether they get ionized through (0-3) (c) or (0-1-3) (d) channels.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

The longitudinal ion momentum distributions of the (0-1-3) (blure curve) and (0-3) (red curve) trajectories at 2.0 PW/cm 2. The black curve displays the ion momentum distribution of the total TI trajectories. The counts are divided by the total number of the TI trajectories to give the probabilities shown here.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Correlated electron momenta in the direction parallel to the laser polarization for TI of Ne. Plots (a)–(d) correspond to the trajectories in figs. 4(a)–4(d), respectively. For the trajectories in (a) and (c), three electrons are involved in recollision. However, we only display the momenta of two arbitrary electrons from the three-electron recollision. For the trajectories in (b) and (d), two electrons are involved in recollision, and the longitudinal momenta of these two electrons are shown.

Equations (1)

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d 2 r i d t 2 = [ V ne ( r i ) + Σ i j V ee ( r i , r j ) ] E ( t )

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