Abstract

We propose a hybrid architecture for continuous wave terahertz spectroscopy employing a conventional two color photomixing system combined with a quasi time domain spectrometer, driven by a multimode laser diode. This approach fuses high spectral intensity with broadband frequency information and overcomes the ambiguity of standard continuous wave thickness measurements.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Fukunaga, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, and T. Sudoh, “Real-time terahertz imaging for art conservation science,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 3, 08027 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. D. Stoik, M. J. Bohn, and J. L. Blackshire, “Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft composites using transmissive terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16(21), 17039–17051 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes in line with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Nagai, H. Yada, T. Arikawa, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in water and biological solution,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 1572–9559 (2006).
  8. C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35(3), 255–264 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, and H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Charge transport and carrier dynamics in liquids probed by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(2), 340–343 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125205 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. B. Liu, G. Plopper, S. Earley, Y.-J. Chen, B. S. Ferguson, and X. C. Zhang, “Sensing minute changes in biological cell monolayers with THz differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 1075–1080 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Matsuura, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation by photomixing in dipole photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 559 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Wilk, F. Breitfeld, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Continuous wave terahertz spectrometer as a noncontact thickness measuring device,” Appl. Opt. 47(16), 3023–3026 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. Scheller and M. Koch, “Terahertz quasi time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17723–17733 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. Yasui, T. Yasuda, K. Sawanaka, and T. Araki, “Terahertz paintmeter for noncontact monitoring of thickness and drying progress in paint film,” Appl. Opt. 44(32), 6849–6856 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. M. Scheller and M. Koch, “Fast and accurate thickness determination of unknown materials using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared, Millim, Terahertz Waves 30(7), 762–769 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. E. R. Brown, F. W. Smith, and K. A. McIntosh, “Coherent millimeter-wave generation by heterodyne conversion in low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1480–1484 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  22. N. Vieweg, M. Mikulics, M. Scheller, K. Ezdi, R. Wilk, H. W. Hübers, and M. Koch, “Impact of the contact metallization on the performance of photoconductive THz antennas,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19695–19705 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, and H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes in line with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35(3), 255–264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scheller and M. Koch, “Fast and accurate thickness determination of unknown materials using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared, Millim, Terahertz Waves 30(7), 762–769 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller and M. Koch, “Terahertz quasi time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17723–17733 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

R. Wilk, F. Breitfeld, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Continuous wave terahertz spectrometer as a noncontact thickness measuring device,” Appl. Opt. 47(16), 3023–3026 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Stoik, M. J. Bohn, and J. L. Blackshire, “Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft composites using transmissive terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 16(21), 17039–17051 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Vieweg, M. Mikulics, M. Scheller, K. Ezdi, R. Wilk, H. W. Hübers, and M. Koch, “Impact of the contact metallization on the performance of photoconductive THz antennas,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19695–19705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukunaga, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, and T. Sudoh, “Real-time terahertz imaging for art conservation science,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 3, 08027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

H. B. Liu, G. Plopper, S. Earley, Y.-J. Chen, B. S. Ferguson, and X. C. Zhang, “Sensing minute changes in biological cell monolayers with THz differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 1075–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

M. Nagai, H. Yada, T. Arikawa, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in water and biological solution,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 1572–9559 (2006).

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Charge transport and carrier dynamics in liquids probed by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(2), 340–343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation by photomixing in dipole photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 559 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

E. R. Brown, F. W. Smith, and K. A. McIntosh, “Coherent millimeter-wave generation by heterodyne conversion in low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1480–1484 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Araki, T.

Arikawa, T.

M. Nagai, H. Yada, T. Arikawa, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in water and biological solution,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 1572–9559 (2006).

Bastian, M.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes in line with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, T.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bitzer, A.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, and H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blackshire, J. L.

Bohn, M. J.

Bonn, M.

E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Charge transport and carrier dynamics in liquids probed by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(2), 340–343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breitenstein, B.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35(3), 255–264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Breitfeld, F.

Brown, E. R.

E. R. Brown, F. W. Smith, and K. A. McIntosh, “Coherent millimeter-wave generation by heterodyne conversion in low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1480–1484 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Calawa, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. L.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-J.

H. B. Liu, G. Plopper, S. Earley, Y.-J. Chen, B. S. Ferguson, and X. C. Zhang, “Sensing minute changes in biological cell monolayers with THz differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 1075–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Czasch, S.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Deibel, J.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deninger, A. J.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinatale, W. F.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Döhler, G.

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Duerr, E. K.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duling, I. N.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Earley, S.

H. B. Liu, G. Plopper, S. Earley, Y.-J. Chen, B. S. Ferguson, and X. C. Zhang, “Sensing minute changes in biological cell monolayers with THz differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 1075–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ezdi, K.

Ferguson, B. S.

H. B. Liu, G. Plopper, S. Earley, Y.-J. Chen, B. S. Ferguson, and X. C. Zhang, “Sensing minute changes in biological cell monolayers with THz differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 1075–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, B. M.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, and H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukunaga, K.

K. Fukunaga, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, and T. Sudoh, “Real-time terahertz imaging for art conservation science,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 3, 08027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Göbel, T.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hangyo, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hasek, T.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes in line with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, S.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heinz, T. F.

E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Charge transport and carrier dynamics in liquids probed by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(2), 340–343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helm, H.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, and H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hochrein, T.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes in line with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hosako, I.

K. Fukunaga, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, and T. Sudoh, “Real-time terahertz imaging for art conservation science,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 3, 08027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hübers, H. W.

Isu, T.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. B.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, F.

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jördens, C.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35(3), 255–264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiesel, P.

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kinder, T.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knoesel, E.

E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Charge transport and carrier dynamics in liquids probed by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(2), 340–343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Köberle, M.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, M.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35(3), 255–264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes in line with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller and M. Koch, “Fast and accurate thickness determination of unknown materials using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared, Millim, Terahertz Waves 30(7), 762–769 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller and M. Koch, “Terahertz quasi time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17723–17733 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wilk, F. Breitfeld, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Continuous wave terahertz spectrometer as a noncontact thickness measuring device,” Appl. Opt. 47(16), 3023–3026 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Vieweg, M. Mikulics, M. Scheller, K. Ezdi, R. Wilk, H. W. Hübers, and M. Koch, “Impact of the contact metallization on the performance of photoconductive THz antennas,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19695–19705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kretschmer, K.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes in line with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krumbholz, N.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes in line with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, R.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lison, F.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, H. B.

H. B. Liu, G. Plopper, S. Earley, Y.-J. Chen, B. S. Ferguson, and X. C. Zhang, “Sensing minute changes in biological cell monolayers with THz differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 1075–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Matsuura, S.

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation by photomixing in dipole photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 559 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Brown, F. W. Smith, and K. A. McIntosh, “Coherent millimeter-wave generation by heterodyne conversion in low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1480–1484 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meissner, P.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menu, M.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mikulics, M.

Mittleman, D. M.

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Molvar, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G. A.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, M.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Müller-Wirts, T.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagai, M.

M. Nagai, H. Yada, T. Arikawa, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in water and biological solution,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 1572–9559 (2006).

Oda, N.

K. Fukunaga, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, and T. Sudoh, “Real-time terahertz imaging for art conservation science,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 3, 08027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, Y.

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ortner, A.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, and H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plopper, G.

H. B. Liu, G. Plopper, S. Earley, Y.-J. Chen, B. S. Ferguson, and X. C. Zhang, “Sensing minute changes in biological cell monolayers with THz differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 1075–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quast, H.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Roggenbuck, A.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roskos, H. G.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, K.

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation by photomixing in dipole photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 559 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sawanaka, K.

Scheller, M.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35(3), 255–264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scheller and M. Koch, “Terahertz quasi time domain spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17723–17733 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scheller and M. Koch, “Fast and accurate thickness determination of unknown materials using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared, Millim, Terahertz Waves 30(7), 762–769 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Vieweg, M. Mikulics, M. Scheller, K. Ezdi, R. Wilk, H. W. Hübers, and M. Koch, “Impact of the contact metallization on the performance of photoconductive THz antennas,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19695–19705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schönherr, D.

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segschneider, G.

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sekine, N.

K. Fukunaga, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, and T. Sudoh, “Real-time terahertz imaging for art conservation science,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 3, 08027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Selmar, D.

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35(3), 255–264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shan, J.

E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Charge transport and carrier dynamics in liquids probed by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(2), 340–343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siebert, K. J.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Smith, F. W.

E. R. Brown, F. W. Smith, and K. A. McIntosh, “Coherent millimeter-wave generation by heterodyne conversion in low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1480–1484 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stoik, C. D.

Sudoh, T.

K. Fukunaga, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, and T. Sudoh, “Real-time terahertz imaging for art conservation science,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 3, 08027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

M. Nagai, H. Yada, T. Arikawa, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in water and biological solution,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 1572–9559 (2006).

Tani, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation by photomixing in dipole photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 559 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tautz, S.

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Teramura, S.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Thoman, A.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, and H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomson, M.

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, N.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Verghese, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vieweg, N.

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes in line with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Vieweg, M. Mikulics, M. Scheller, K. Ezdi, R. Wilk, H. W. Hübers, and M. Koch, “Impact of the contact metallization on the performance of photoconductive THz antennas,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19695–19705 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walther, M.

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, and H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitaker, J. F.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wilk, R.

Williamson, S. L.

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yada, H.

M. Nagai, H. Yada, T. Arikawa, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in water and biological solution,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 1572–9559 (2006).

Yamaguchi, M.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, K.

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yasuda, T.

Yasui, T.

Yoneyama, H.

K. Fukunaga, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, and T. Sudoh, “Real-time terahertz imaging for art conservation science,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 3, 08027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

H. B. Liu, G. Plopper, S. Earley, Y.-J. Chen, B. S. Ferguson, and X. C. Zhang, “Sensing minute changes in biological cell monolayers with THz differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 1075–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Bioanal. Chem. (1)

M. Walther, B. M. Fischer, A. Ortner, A. Bitzer, A. Thoman, and H. Helm, “Chemical sensing and imaging with pulsed terahertz radiation,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 397(3), 1009–1017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. Matsuura, M. Tani, and K. Sakai, “Generation of coherent terahertz radiation by photomixing in dipole photoconductive antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(5), 559 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Siebert, H. Quast, R. Leonhardt, T. Löffler, M. Thomson, T. Bauer, H. G. Roskos, and S. Czasch, “Continuous-wave all-optoelectronic terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(16), 3003–3005 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824–3826 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Yamamoto, M. Yamaguchi, M. Tani, M. Hangyo, S. Teramura, T. Isu, and N. Tomita, “Degradation diagnosis of ultrahigh-molecular weight polyethylene with terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5194 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

H. B. Liu, G. Plopper, S. Earley, Y.-J. Chen, B. S. Ferguson, and X. C. Zhang, “Sensing minute changes in biological cell monolayers with THz differential time-domain spectroscopy,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(6), 1075–1080 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Electron. Express (1)

K. Fukunaga, Y. Ogawa, S. Hayashi, and I. Hosako, “Terahertz spectroscopy for art conservation,” IEICE Electron. Express 4(8), 258–263 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves (1)

M. Nagai, H. Yada, T. Arikawa, and K. Tanaka, “Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy in water and biological solution,” Int. J. Infrared Millim. Waves 27, 1572–9559 (2006).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

E. R. Brown, F. W. Smith, and K. A. McIntosh, “Coherent millimeter-wave generation by heterodyne conversion in low-temperature-grown GaAs photoconductors,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(3), 1480–1484 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Biol. Phys. (1)

C. Jördens, M. Scheller, B. Breitenstein, D. Selmar, and M. Koch, “Evaluation of leaf water status by means of permittivity at terahertz frequencies,” J. Biol. Phys. 35(3), 255–264 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. (1)

K. Fukunaga, N. Sekine, I. Hosako, N. Oda, H. Yoneyama, and T. Sudoh, “Real-time terahertz imaging for art conservation science,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 3, 08027 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Infrared, Millim, Terahertz Waves (1)

M. Scheller and M. Koch, “Fast and accurate thickness determination of unknown materials using terahertz time domain spectroscopy,” J. Infrared, Millim, Terahertz Waves 30(7), 762–769 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. B. Jackson, M. Mourou, J. F. Whitaker, I. N. Duling, S. L. Williamson, M. Menu, and G. A. Mourou, “Terahertz imaging for non-destructive evaluation of mural paintings,” Opt. Commun. 281(4), 527–532 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

G. Segschneider, F. Jacob, T. Löffler, H. G. Roskos, S. Tautz, P. Kiesel, and G. Döhler, “Free-carrier dynamics in low-temperature-grown GaAs at high excitation densities investigated by time-domain terahertz spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 65(12), 125205 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

E. Knoesel, M. Bonn, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Charge transport and carrier dynamics in liquids probed by THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(2), 340–343 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polym. Test. (1)

N. Krumbholz, T. Hochrein, N. Vieweg, T. Hasek, K. Kretschmer, M. Bastian, M. Mikulics, and M. Koch, “Monitoring polymeric compounding processes in line with THz time-domain spectroscopy,” Polym. Test. 28(1), 30–35 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

W. L. Chan, J. Deibel, and D. M. Mittleman, “Imaging with terahertz radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70(8), 1325–1379 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. J. Deninger, T. Göbel, D. Schönherr, T. Kinder, A. Roggenbuck, M. Köberle, F. Lison, T. Müller-Wirts, and P. Meissner, “Precisely tunable continuous-wave terahertz source with interferometric frequency control,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79(4), 044702 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulated THz signals (a) and the corresponding spectra (b) of the proposed hybrid system approach. In the case of a two color laser system excitation, a pure sinusoidal signal is generated, inhibiting a high spectral brightness. The signal of the MM laser diode driven spectrometer consists of a pulse train with a THz frequency like spectrum. The hybrid system combines both characteristics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the hybrid CW THz System. A two color laser system and a MM laser diode are superimposed in a dichroic mirror. The resulting laser beam is divided into two parts by a beam splitter (BS). One of the beams is focused onto an emitter PCA, the other one is guided over a delay stage and then focused onto a detector PCA.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured THz signals of the hybrid system for different difference frequency of the two color laser system ((a): waveforms, (b): spectra).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a). THz signal through a Si wafer and silica glass compared with the reference measurement. The difference frequency of the two color laser system was set to 500 GHz. (b): The spectral amplitude of the signals. (c): The phase shift between reference and sample measurements.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I D ( Δ X ) = A ( Δ f ) P 1 P 2 cos ( Δ X c 0 2 π Δ f ) ,
I D ( Δ X ) = m = 1 M 1 ( M m ) M 2 ( 2 π m δ f ) A ( m     δ f ) P 2 cos ( Δ X c 0 2 π m     δ f ) .
I D ( Δ X ) = A ( Δ f ) P 1 P 2 cos ( Δ X c 0 2 π Δ f ) + m = 1 M 1 ( M m ) M 2 ( 2 π m δ f ) A ( m     δ f ) P 2 cos ( Δ X c 0 2 π m     δ f ) .
H ( Δ f ) = 1 1 + 2 π Δ f τ ( 1 - exp(-i 2 π Δ f f 0 ) ) ,
Δ ϕ c w , c o r = Δ ϕ c w 2 π R D { Δ t p f c w }     ,
T = | Δ ϕ c w , c o r |     c 0 2 π f c w ( n c w 1 ) .

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