Abstract

While swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the 1050 nm range is promising for retinal imaging, there are certain challenges. Conventional semiconductor gain media have limited output power, and the performance of high-speed Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) lasers suffers from chromatic dispersion in standard optical fiber. We developed a novel light source with a tapered amplifier as gain medium, and investigated the FDML performance comparing two fiber delay lines with different dispersion properties. We introduced an additional gain element into the resonator, and thereby achieved stable FDML operation, exploiting the full bandwidth of the tapered amplifier despite high dispersion. The light source operates at a repetition rate of 116 kHz with an effective average output power in excess of 30 mW. With a total sweep range of 70 nm, we achieved an axial resolution of 15 µm in air (~11 µm in tissue) in OCT measurements. As our work shows, tapered amplifiers are suitable gain media for swept sources at 1050 nm with increased output power, while high gain counteracts dispersion effects in an FDML laser.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, “‘coherence radar’ and ‘spectral radar’ – new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 340–342 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Golubovic, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical frequency-domain reflectometry using rapid wavelength tuning of a Cr4+:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(22), 1704–1706 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-Megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2977–2998 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. C. Chong, T. Suzuki, K. Totsuka, A. Morosawa, and T. Sakai, “Large coherence length swept source for axial length measurement of the eye,” Appl. Opt. 48(10), D144–D150 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 28(20), 1981–1983 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: Design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. Schubert, P. K. Ahnelt, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, “Enhanced visualization of choroidal vessels using ultrahigh resolution ophthalmic OCT at 1050 nm,” Opt. Express 11(17), 1980–1986 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Wang, J. S. Nelson, Z. Chen, B. J. Reiser, R. S. Chuck, and R. S. Windeler, “Optimal wavelength for ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(12), 1411–1417 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “High-speed and high-sensitive optical coherence angiography,” Proc. SPIE 7372, 73721M (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. K. K. Leung, A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, K. K. Lee, N. R. Munce, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “High-power wavelength-swept laser in Littman telescope-less polygon filter and dual-amplifier configuration for multichannel optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2814–2816 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2049–2051 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9947–9961 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. Chi, O. B. Jensen, J. Holm, C. Pedersen, P. E. Andersen, G. Erbert, B. Sumpf, and P. M. Petersen, “Tunable high-power narrow-linewidth semiconductor laser based on an external-cavity tapered amplifier,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10589–10596 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. B. Adhimoolam, M. E. Klein, I. D. Lindsay, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, and K.-J. Boller, “Widely and rapidly tunable semiconductor master-oscillator fiber amplifier around 1080 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2683–2685 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. Gross, B. Adhimoolam, M. E. Klein, I. D. Lindsay, K. Hsu, and K. Boller, “9-Watt CW Swept-Wavelength Diode-Oscillator Yb-Fiber-Amplifier System,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CFG5.
  24. Y. Wang, W. Liu, J. Fu, and D. Chen, “Quasi-distributed fiber bragg grating sensor system based on a fourier domain mode locking fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 450–454 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. Marschall, L. Thrane, P. E. Andersen, C. Pedersen, and K. Hsu, “Frequency-swept laser light source at 1050 nm with higher bandwidth due to multiple semiconductor optical amplifiers in series,” Proc. SPIE 7168, 716824 (SPIE, 2009).
  26. M. Y. Jeon, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Characterization of Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength swept laser for optical coherence tomography imaging,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3727–3737 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. C. Jirauschek, B. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “A theoretical description of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24013–24019 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Haverkamp, G. Kochem, and K. Boucke, “Single mode fiber coupled tapered laser module with frequency stabilized spectrum,” Proc. SPIE 6876, 68761D (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. W.-Y. Oh, S.-H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3159–3161 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

2008

M. Haverkamp, G. Kochem, and K. Boucke, “Single mode fiber coupled tapered laser module with frequency stabilized spectrum,” Proc. SPIE 6876, 68761D (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Y. Jeon, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Characterization of Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength swept laser for optical coherence tomography imaging,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3727–3737 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

1998

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, “‘coherence radar’ and ‘spectral radar’ – new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adhimoolam, B.

B. Adhimoolam, M. E. Klein, I. D. Lindsay, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, and K.-J. Boller, “Widely and rapidly tunable semiconductor master-oscillator fiber amplifier around 1080 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2683–2685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adler, D. C.

Ahnelt, P. K.

Andersen, P. E.

Biedermann, B.

Biedermann, B. R.

Bizheva, K.

Boller, K.-J.

B. Adhimoolam, M. E. Klein, I. D. Lindsay, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, and K.-J. Boller, “Widely and rapidly tunable semiconductor master-oscillator fiber amplifier around 1080 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2683–2685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Boucke, K.

M. Haverkamp, G. Kochem, and K. Boucke, “Single mode fiber coupled tapered laser module with frequency stabilized spectrum,” Proc. SPIE 6876, 68761D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boudoux, C.

Bouma, B. E.

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

Y. Wang, W. Liu, J. Fu, and D. Chen, “Quasi-distributed fiber bragg grating sensor system based on a fourier domain mode locking fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 450–454 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Chi, M.

Chinn, S. R.

Choma, M.

Chong, C.

Chuck, R. S.

de Boer, J. F.

Drexler, W.

Eigenwillig, C. M.

El-Zaiat, S. Y.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Erbert, G.

Fercher, A. F.

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, J.

Y. Wang, W. Liu, J. Fu, and D. Chen, “Quasi-distributed fiber bragg grating sensor system based on a fourier domain mode locking fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 450–454 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2049–2051 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: Design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Golubovic, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical frequency-domain reflectometry using rapid wavelength tuning of a Cr4+:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(22), 1704–1706 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Golubovic, B.

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groß, P.

B. Adhimoolam, M. E. Klein, I. D. Lindsay, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, and K.-J. Boller, “Widely and rapidly tunable semiconductor master-oscillator fiber amplifier around 1080 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2683–2685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Häusler, G.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, “‘coherence radar’ and ‘spectral radar’ – new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haverkamp, M.

M. Haverkamp, G. Kochem, and K. Boucke, “Single mode fiber coupled tapered laser module with frequency stabilized spectrum,” Proc. SPIE 6876, 68761D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hermann, B.

Hitzenberger, C. K.

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Holm, J.

Holzwarth, R.

Hsu, K.

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, R.

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-Megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9947–9961 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jirauschek, B. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “A theoretical description of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24013–24019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2049–2051 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: Design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izatt, J.

Jensen, O. B.

Jeon, M. Y.

Jirauschek, C.

Kamp, G.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. E.

B. Adhimoolam, M. E. Klein, I. D. Lindsay, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, and K.-J. Boller, “Widely and rapidly tunable semiconductor master-oscillator fiber amplifier around 1080 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2683–2685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Klein, T.

Knight, J. C.

Kochem, G.

M. Haverkamp, G. Kochem, and K. Boucke, “Single mode fiber coupled tapered laser module with frequency stabilized spectrum,” Proc. SPIE 6876, 68761D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. J.

B. Adhimoolam, M. E. Klein, I. D. Lindsay, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, and K.-J. Boller, “Widely and rapidly tunable semiconductor master-oscillator fiber amplifier around 1080 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2683–2685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. K.

Leitgeb, R.

Leung, M. K. K.

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindner, M. W.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, “‘coherence radar’ and ‘spectral radar’ – new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lindsay, I. D.

B. Adhimoolam, M. E. Klein, I. D. Lindsay, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, and K.-J. Boller, “Widely and rapidly tunable semiconductor master-oscillator fiber amplifier around 1080 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2683–2685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

Y. Wang, W. Liu, J. Fu, and D. Chen, “Quasi-distributed fiber bragg grating sensor system based on a fourier domain mode locking fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 450–454 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Makita, S.

S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “High-speed and high-sensitive optical coherence angiography,” Proc. SPIE 7372, 73721M (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mariampillai, A.

Mei, M.

Morosawa, A.

Munce, N. R.

Nelson, J. S.

Oh, W.-Y.

Pedersen, C.

Petersen, P. M.

Považay, B.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiser, B. J.

Russell, P. S.

Sakai, T.

Sarunic, M.

Sattmann, H.

Schubert, C.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, V. J.

Standish, B. A.

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sumpf, B.

Suzuki, T.

Swanson, E. A.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taira, K.

Tearney, G. J.

Totsuka, K.

Unterhuber, A.

Vitkin, I. A.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, W. Liu, J. Fu, and D. Chen, “Quasi-distributed fiber bragg grating sensor system based on a fourier domain mode locking fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 450–454 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, J. S. Nelson, Z. Chen, B. J. Reiser, R. S. Chuck, and R. S. Windeler, “Optimal wavelength for ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(12), 1411–1417 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieser, W.

Windeler, R. S.

Wojtkowski, M.

Yamanari, M.

S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “High-speed and high-sensitive optical coherence angiography,” Proc. SPIE 7372, 73721M (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Yang, V. X. D.

Yasuno, Y.

S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “High-speed and high-sensitive optical coherence angiography,” Proc. SPIE 7372, 73721M (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. H.

Yun, S.-H.

Zhang, J.

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

B. Adhimoolam, M. E. Klein, I. D. Lindsay, P. Groß, C. J. Lee, and K.-J. Boller, “Widely and rapidly tunable semiconductor master-oscillator fiber amplifier around 1080 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(24), 2683–2685 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt.

G. Häusler and M. W. Lindner, “‘coherence radar’ and ‘spectral radar’ – new tools for dermatological diagnosis,” J. Biomed. Opt. 3(1), 21–31 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys.

Y. Wang, W. Liu, J. Fu, and D. Chen, “Quasi-distributed fiber bragg grating sensor system based on a fourier domain mode locking fiber laser,” Laser Phys. 19(3), 450–454 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

A. F. Fercher, C. K. Hitzenberger, G. Kamp, and S. Y. El-Zaiat, “Measurement of intraocular distances by backscattering spectral interferometry,” Opt. Commun. 117(1-2), 43–48 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

R. Leitgeb, C. K. Hitzenberger, and A. F. Fercher, “Performance of fourier domain vs. time domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(8), 889–894 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, J. S. Nelson, Z. Chen, B. J. Reiser, R. S. Chuck, and R. S. Windeler, “Optimal wavelength for ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(12), 1411–1417 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Považay, K. Bizheva, B. Hermann, A. Unterhuber, H. Sattmann, A. F. Fercher, W. Drexler, C. Schubert, P. K. Ahnelt, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, and P. S. Russell, “Enhanced visualization of choroidal vessels using ultrahigh resolution ophthalmic OCT at 1050 nm,” Opt. Express 11(17), 1980–1986 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Choma, M. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, J. F. de Boer, and B. E. Bouma, “Motion artifacts in optical coherence tomography with frequency-domain ranging,” Opt. Express 12(13), 2977–2998 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, K. Taira, J. G. Fujimoto, and K. Hsu, “Amplified, frequency swept lasers for frequency domain reflectometry and OCT imaging: Design and scaling principles,” Opt. Express 13(9), 3513–3528 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Biedermann, W. Wieser, C. M. Eigenwillig, T. Klein, and R. Huber, “Dispersion, coherence and noise of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9947–9961 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jirauschek, B. Biedermann, and R. Huber, “A theoretical description of Fourier domain mode locked lasers,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24013–24019 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Wieser, B. R. Biedermann, T. Klein, C. M. Eigenwillig, and R. Huber, “Multi-Megahertz OCT: High quality 3D imaging at 20 million A-scans and 4.5 GVoxels per second,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14685–14704 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chi, O. B. Jensen, J. Holm, C. Pedersen, P. E. Andersen, G. Erbert, B. Sumpf, and P. M. Petersen, “Tunable high-power narrow-linewidth semiconductor laser based on an external-cavity tapered amplifier,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10589–10596 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, M. Wojtkowski, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier Domain Mode Locking (FDML): A new laser operating regime and applications for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express 14(8), 3225–3237 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Y. Jeon, J. Zhang, and Z. Chen, “Characterization of Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength swept laser for optical coherence tomography imaging,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3727–3737 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

S. R. Chinn, E. A. Swanson, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography using a frequency-tunable optical source,” Opt. Lett. 22(5), 340–342 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Golubovic, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical frequency-domain reflectometry using rapid wavelength tuning of a Cr4+:forsterite laser,” Opt. Lett. 22(22), 1704–1706 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Buffered Fourier domain mode locking: Unidirectional swept laser sources for optical coherence tomography imaging at 370,000 lines/s,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 2975–2977 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Huber, D. C. Adler, V. J. Srinivasan, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Fourier domain mode locking at 1050 nm for ultra-high-speed optical coherence tomography of the human retina at 236,000 axial scans per second,” Opt. Lett. 32(14), 2049–2051 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. K. Leung, A. Mariampillai, B. A. Standish, K. K. Lee, N. R. Munce, I. A. Vitkin, and V. X. D. Yang, “High-power wavelength-swept laser in Littman telescope-less polygon filter and dual-amplifier configuration for multichannel optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 34(18), 2814–2816 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-Y. Oh, S.-H. Yun, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser,” Opt. Lett. 30(23), 3159–3161 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, C. Boudoux, G. J. Tearney, and B. E. Bouma, “High-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter,” Opt. Lett. 28(20), 1981–1983 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

S. Makita, M. Yamanari, and Y. Yasuno, “High-speed and high-sensitive optical coherence angiography,” Proc. SPIE 7372, 73721M (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Haverkamp, G. Kochem, and K. Boucke, “Single mode fiber coupled tapered laser module with frequency stabilized spectrum,” Proc. SPIE 6876, 68761D (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science 254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

S. Marschall, L. Thrane, P. E. Andersen, C. Pedersen, and K. Hsu, “Frequency-swept laser light source at 1050 nm with higher bandwidth due to multiple semiconductor optical amplifiers in series,” Proc. SPIE 7168, 716824 (SPIE, 2009).

P. Gross, B. Adhimoolam, M. E. Klein, I. D. Lindsay, K. Hsu, and K. Boller, “9-Watt CW Swept-Wavelength Diode-Oscillator Yb-Fiber-Amplifier System,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper CFG5.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Setup of the high-power FDML light source. TA: tapered amplifier including fiber-coupling optics; SOA: semiconductor optical amplifier, FFP-TF: fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter; DL: delay line; FC: fiber coupler; ISO: optical isolator; PC polarization controller.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The tapered amplifier is integrated into the fiber-based resonator by free-space coupling optics. Typical for tapered amplifiers is the astigmatism of the output beam. The fast axis (perpendicular to the taper plane, dashed arrows) emerges from a focal point on the crystal facet. The slow axis (within the taper plane, dotted arrows) has a virtual focal point within the tapered section. Therefore, an additional cylindrical lens is necessary to focus the light into a fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spontaneous emission spectrum of the tapered amplifier for 2.5 A drive current.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Chromatic dispersion in an FDML resonator causes additional losses at the tunable filter. Light of wavelength λ 1 has passed the filter at time t 1 and returns after one round trip period τrt (λ 1). If τrt (λ 1) does not match the filter sweep period τsw , then the filter window is offset from λ 1 and only a reduced fraction of the light is transmitted again.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The transient output power of the light source (a, c) is high, but there is a strong asymmetry between sweeping forward (increasing wavelength) or backward (decreasing wavelength). Even though the asymmetry is lower with the PCF-delay line, still only one sweep direction appears useful for OCT. As the averaged power spectra (b, d) show, the HI-1060 delay line allows for a slightly higher total sweep range than the PCF.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The plots of point spread functions over a long range of OCT probing depths reveal better overall performance with the HI-1060 delay line (top). With the PCF (bottom), the signal roll-off is slightly slower, but the noise floor is higher and the point spread functions show larger side lobes, especially for long probing depths.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

OCT images of a slice of cucumber with a clearly visible cell structure and a penetration deeper than 1.5 mm into the water-rich tissue. The high imaging speed can be used to achieve a clearly visible reduction of the background noise, as the comparison of a single frame (a) and a sliding average over 10 frames (b) illustrates.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

OCT images of human skin in vivo. (a) Skin at the finger tip with a thick stratum corneum (Co) and a clearly visible border to the stratum spinosum (Sp). (b) Nail fold with a cross-section through the nail-plate (Np) and the epidermis structure in the cuticle region. The images are averaged over 3 frames.

Metrics