Abstract

We have developed an optical system designed for detecting colored nanomaterials in aqueous solutions, using the concept of evanescent-field-coupled waveguide-mode sensors. In this study, we found that the waveguide modes induced in the sensor are intrinsically sensitive to a change in optical absorption, or a ‘change in color’. The system detects less than one gold nanoparticle (diameter: 20 nm) adsorbed per square micrometer. It is also demonstrated that significant signal enhancement due to adsorption of molecules is achieved using a dye. The developed sensor rarely suffers from a drawback of impurity adsorption. The system is expected to be applied as an effective sensing tool for metal colloids, nanoparticles, and colored biomolecules in solution.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2008 (7)

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rong, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and S. M. Weiss, “Nanoscale porous silicon waveguide for label-free DNA sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(10), 1572–1576 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, N. Fukuda, Y. Koganezawa, and Y. Ohki, “The design of evanescent-field-coupled waveguide-mode sensors,” Nanotechnology 19(9), 095503 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Tan, L. Shi, and X. Chen, “Modeling of an optical sensor based on whispering gallery modes (WGMs) on the surface guiding layer of glass filaments,” Sensors 8(10), 6761–6768 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Moreira, A. M. N. Lima, H. Neff, and C. Thirstrup, “Temperature-dependent sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance sensors at the gold-water interface,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(2), 854–862 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, Y. Koganezawa, Y. Ohki, and T. Komatsubara, “Silica-based monolithic sensing plates for waveguide-mode sensors,” Opt. Express 16(9), 6408–6416 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-9-6408 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

T. P. Burg, M. Godin, S. M. Knudsen, W. Shen, G. Carlson, J. S. Foster, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid,” Nature 446(7139), 1066–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

R. Lucklum and P. Hauptmann, “Acoustic microsensors--the challenge behind microgravimetry,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384(3), 667–682 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. T. Yang, C. Callegari, X. L. Feng, K. L. Ekinci, and M. L. Roukes, “Zeptogram-scale nanomechanical mass sensing,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 583–586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, “Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (1)

K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, “Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(30), 10812–10818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. D. M. Harris, M. Tremayne, and B. M. Kariuki, “Contemporary advances in the use of powder X-ray diffraction for structure determination,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 40(9), 1626–1651 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

M. Osterfeld, H. Franke, and C. Feger, “Optical gas detection using metal film enhanced leaky mode spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(19), 2310–2312 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. Knoll, “Optical characterization of organic thin films and interfaces with evanescent waves,” MRS Bull. 16, 29–39 (1991).

1989 (1)

R. Feidenhansl, “Surface-structure determination by X-ray-diffraction,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 10(3), 105–188 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Ruska, “The development of the electron microscope and of electron microscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 59(3), 627–638 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, and C. Gerber, “Atomic force microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(9), 930–933 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

G. A. Petsko and D. Ringe, “Fluctuations in protein structure from X-ray diffraction,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13(1), 331–371 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (2)

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

E. Kretschmann, “Die bestimmung optischer konstanten von metallen durch anregung von oberflächenplasmaschwingungen,” Z. Phys. 241(4), 313–324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

Anker, J. N.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arnold, S.

F. Vollmer and S. Arnold, “Whispering-gallery-mode biosensing: label-free detection down to single molecules,” Nat. Methods 5(7), 591–596 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, “Optical properties of thin films,” Thin Solid Films 89(3), 249–262 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Awazu, K.

Babcock, K.

T. P. Burg, M. Godin, S. M. Knudsen, W. Shen, G. Carlson, J. S. Foster, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid,” Nature 446(7139), 1066–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binnig, G.

G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, and C. Gerber, “Atomic force microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(9), 930–933 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burg, T. P.

T. P. Burg, M. Godin, S. M. Knudsen, W. Shen, G. Carlson, J. S. Foster, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid,” Nature 446(7139), 1066–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Callegari, C.

Y. T. Yang, C. Callegari, X. L. Feng, K. L. Ekinci, and M. L. Roukes, “Zeptogram-scale nanomechanical mass sensing,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 583–586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carlson, G.

T. P. Burg, M. Godin, S. M. Knudsen, W. Shen, G. Carlson, J. S. Foster, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid,” Nature 446(7139), 1066–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. S.

Chen, X.

W. Tan, L. Shi, and X. Chen, “Modeling of an optical sensor based on whispering gallery modes (WGMs) on the surface guiding layer of glass filaments,” Sensors 8(10), 6761–6768 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, M. H.

Ekinci, K. L.

Y. T. Yang, C. Callegari, X. L. Feng, K. L. Ekinci, and M. L. Roukes, “Zeptogram-scale nanomechanical mass sensing,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 583–586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, X.

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, “Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

Feger, C.

M. Osterfeld, H. Franke, and C. Feger, “Optical gas detection using metal film enhanced leaky mode spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(19), 2310–2312 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Feidenhansl, R.

R. Feidenhansl, “Surface-structure determination by X-ray-diffraction,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 10(3), 105–188 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Feng, X. L.

Y. T. Yang, C. Callegari, X. L. Feng, K. L. Ekinci, and M. L. Roukes, “Zeptogram-scale nanomechanical mass sensing,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 583–586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foster, J. S.

T. P. Burg, M. Godin, S. M. Knudsen, W. Shen, G. Carlson, J. S. Foster, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid,” Nature 446(7139), 1066–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franke, H.

M. Osterfeld, H. Franke, and C. Feger, “Optical gas detection using metal film enhanced leaky mode spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(19), 2310–2312 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fujimaki, M.

Fukuda, N.

M. Fujimaki, C. Rockstuhl, X. Wang, K. Awazu, J. Tominaga, N. Fukuda, Y. Koganezawa, and Y. Ohki, “The design of evanescent-field-coupled waveguide-mode sensors,” Nanotechnology 19(9), 095503 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerber, C.

G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, and C. Gerber, “Atomic force microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(9), 930–933 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Godin, M.

T. P. Burg, M. Godin, S. M. Knudsen, W. Shen, G. Carlson, J. S. Foster, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid,” Nature 446(7139), 1066–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, W. P.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, W. N.

Hanumegowda, N. M.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harris, K. D. M.

K. D. M. Harris, M. Tremayne, and B. M. Kariuki, “Contemporary advances in the use of powder X-ray diffraction for structure determination,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 40(9), 1626–1651 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauptmann, P.

R. Lucklum and P. Hauptmann, “Acoustic microsensors--the challenge behind microgravimetry,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384(3), 667–682 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kano, H.

Kariuki, B. M.

K. D. M. Harris, M. Tremayne, and B. M. Kariuki, “Contemporary advances in the use of powder X-ray diffraction for structure determination,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 40(9), 1626–1651 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawata, S.

Knoll, W.

K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, “Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(30), 10812–10818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Knoll, “Optical characterization of organic thin films and interfaces with evanescent waves,” MRS Bull. 16, 29–39 (1991).

Knudsen, S. M.

T. P. Burg, M. Godin, S. M. Knudsen, W. Shen, G. Carlson, J. S. Foster, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid,” Nature 446(7139), 1066–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koganezawa, Y.

Komatsubara, T.

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, “Die bestimmung optischer konstanten von metallen durch anregung von oberflächenplasmaschwingungen,” Z. Phys. 241(4), 313–324 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. H. A.

K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, “Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(30), 10812–10818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liedberg, B.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lima, A. M. N.

C. S. Moreira, A. M. N. Lima, H. Neff, and C. Thirstrup, “Temperature-dependent sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance sensors at the gold-water interface,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(2), 854–862 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lind, T.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lucklum, R.

R. Lucklum and P. Hauptmann, “Acoustic microsensors--the challenge behind microgravimetry,” Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384(3), 667–682 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyandres, O.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manalis, S. R.

T. P. Burg, M. Godin, S. M. Knudsen, W. Shen, G. Carlson, J. S. Foster, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid,” Nature 446(7139), 1066–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreira, C. S.

C. S. Moreira, A. M. N. Lima, H. Neff, and C. Thirstrup, “Temperature-dependent sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance sensors at the gold-water interface,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(2), 854–862 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Najmaie, A.

G. Rong, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and S. M. Weiss, “Nanoscale porous silicon waveguide for label-free DNA sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(10), 1572–1576 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neff, H.

C. S. Moreira, A. M. N. Lima, H. Neff, and C. Thirstrup, “Temperature-dependent sensitivity of surface plasmon resonance sensors at the gold-water interface,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 134(2), 854–862 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nylander, C.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, and T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ohki, Y.

Osterfeld, M.

M. Osterfeld, H. Franke, and C. Feger, “Optical gas detection using metal film enhanced leaky mode spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62(19), 2310–2312 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Oveys, H.

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, “Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patel, B. C.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petsko, G. A.

G. A. Petsko and D. Ringe, “Fluctuations in protein structure from X-ray diffraction,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13(1), 331–371 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quate, C. F.

G. Binnig, C. F. Quate, and C. Gerber, “Atomic force microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56(9), 930–933 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ringe, D.

G. A. Petsko and D. Ringe, “Fluctuations in protein structure from X-ray diffraction,” Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 13(1), 331–371 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rockstuhl, C.

Rong, G.

G. Rong, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and S. M. Weiss, “Nanoscale porous silicon waveguide for label-free DNA sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 23(10), 1572–1576 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roukes, M. L.

Y. T. Yang, C. Callegari, X. L. Feng, K. L. Ekinci, and M. L. Roukes, “Zeptogram-scale nanomechanical mass sensing,” Nano Lett. 6(4), 583–586 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruska, E.

E. Ruska, “The development of the electron microscope and of electron microscopy,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 59(3), 627–638 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Saarinen, J. J.

Sander, M. S.

K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, “Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(30), 10812–10818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shah, N. C.

J. N. Anker, W. P. Hall, O. Lyandres, N. C. Shah, J. Zhao, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Biosensing with plasmonic nanosensors,” Nat. Mater. 7(6), 442–453 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, W.

T. P. Burg, M. Godin, S. M. Knudsen, W. Shen, G. Carlson, J. S. Foster, K. Babcock, and S. R. Manalis, “Weighing of biomolecules, single cells and single nanoparticles in fluid,” Nature 446(7139), 1066–1069 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, L.

W. Tan, L. Shi, and X. Chen, “Modeling of an optical sensor based on whispering gallery modes (WGMs) on the surface guiding layer of glass filaments,” Sensors 8(10), 6761–6768 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

Smith, T. L.

I. M. White, H. Oveys, X. Fan, T. L. Smith, and J. Zhang, “Integrated multiplexed biosensors based on liquid core optical ring resonators and antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191106 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stica, C. J.

N. M. Hanumegowda, C. J. Stica, B. C. Patel, I. White, and X. Fan, “Refractometric sensors based on microsphere resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(20), 201107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamada, K.

K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, “Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(30), 10812–10818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tan, L. S.

K. H. A. Lau, L. S. Tan, K. Tamada, M. S. Sander, and W. Knoll, “Highly sensitive detection of processes occurring inside nanoporous anodic alumina templates: A waveguide optical study,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(30), 10812–10818 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tan, W.

W. Tan, L. Shi, and X. Chen, “Modeling of an optical sensor based on whispering gallery modes (WGMs) on the surface guiding layer of glass filaments,” Sensors 8(10), 6761–6768 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thirstrup, C.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Sketch of the setup of an EFC-WM sensor. A prism, a sensing plate, and a Teflon cuvette that supports samples to be examined are mounted on a goniometer. Light illuminates the sensing plate and the reflected light is detected by a photodiode. (b) Sketch of a cross sectional view of the monolithic sensing plate. The plate has a layered structure of a SiO2 glass substrate, single-crystalline Si layer, and thermally grown SiO2 waveguide layer, on which molecular probes that specifically capture analytes are formed. A prism (SiO2 glass) will be placed on the SiO2 glass substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance of EFC-WM sensors calculated using the Fresnel equation. The sensing plates assumed in the calculation are monolithic sensing plates having a waveguide with a thickness of 500 nm. The thickness of the Si layer is in the range of 10–80 nm in (a) and 100–160 nm in (b). The thicknesses shown on top of the figures indicate those of the Si layers. The incident light is an s-polarised beam with a wavelength of 632.8 nm. The solid curves show the reflectance calculated by assuming that the waveguide is soaked in water. The dotted curves show the reflectance calculated by assuming that a colored material with n = 3, k = 3, and the thickness t = 0.01 nm is placed on the waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Correlation between the thickness of the Si layer and the change in reflectance (ΔR) caused by the colored material. The values of ΔR are defined as the difference between the reflectance values at the bottom of the dips with and without the colored material layer in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Reflectance of the EFC-WM sensor designed for the detection of change in k. The reflectance values are calculated using the Fresnel equation. Black curve: reflectance obtained by assuming that the waveguide is soaked in water. Red curve: reflectance for a material with n = 1.45, k = 0, and t = 10 nm placed on the waveguide. Blue curve: reflectance for a material with n = 3, k = 3, and t = 0.01 nm placed on the waveguide. (b), (c), (d), Simulated amplitudes of electric fields of the waveguide modes at the incident angles corresponding to the bottoms of the dips seen in the black, red, and blue curves in (a), respectively. A transfer matrix technique for stratified media was used in the calculation. The substrate, the Si layer, and the waveguide are in line from left to right. Each boundary is indicated by a green line. The illuminating plane wave propagates in the positive z-direction. The strength of the field is indicated by the color bar.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Cross-sectional view of the SOQ substrate used for fabricating the monolithic sensing plate. The substrate consists of a single-crystalline Si layer on a SiO2 glass substrate. The thickness of the Si layer was 270 nm. (b) Cross-sectional view of the monolithic sensing plate. The waveguide layer with a thickness of 520 nm was formed by thermal oxidisation of the Si layer of the SOQ substrate. The thickness of the remaining Si layer was 35 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Reflectance of the system measured by soaking the waveguide surface in the buffer (black curve) and reflectance measured 20 h after injecting a solution containing 1 nM of immunogold conjugate (red curve). Dotted blue curve is reflectance calculated using the Fresnel equation by assuming that a single layer (thickness: 20 nm) with a complex refractive index of 1.3556 + 0.0038i is formed on the waveguide. The inset shows a schematic of adsorption of immunogold conjugate on biotin probes. (b) SEM image of the waveguide surface after the 20-h reaction of 1 nM of immunogold conjugate.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Reflectance of the system measured by soaking the waveguide surface in the buffer (solid curve) and reflectance measured 20 h after injecting a solution containing 10 pM of immunogold conjugate (dotted curve). (b), (c) SEM images of the waveguide surface after the 20-h reaction. The insets in (b) and (c) are enlarged view of areas surrounded by the white circles in (b) and (c). The white dots are gold nanoparticles.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Change in reflectance with adsorption of dyed streptavidin. (a) Reflectance before (black curve) and after (red curve) adsorption of streptavidin without dye. The red curve was measured 1 h after the injection of a sample containing non-colored streptavidin dissolved in PBS (500 nM). (b) (c) Reflectance before (black curves) and after (red curves) adsorption of dyed streptavidin. The red curve in (b) was measured 1 h after the injection of a sample containing 100 pM of dyed streptavidin. The red curve in (c) was measured 20 h after the injection of a sample containing 10 pM of dyed streptavidin.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical absorption spectrum of the dyed streptavidin dissolved in the PBS buffer (25 nM).

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