Abstract

We demonstrate a near-infrared electro-optic modulator with a bandwidth of 3 GHz and a VπL figure of merit of 0.8 V-cm using a push-pull configuration. This is the highest operating speed achieved in a silicon-polymer hybrid system to date by several orders of magnitude. The modulator was fabricated from a silicon strip-loaded slot waveguide and clad in a nonlinear polymer. In this geometry, the electrodes form parts of the waveguide, and the modulator driving voltage drops across a 200 nm slot.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. T. Baehr-Jones and M. Hochberg, “Polymer Silicon Hybrid Systems: A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8085–8090 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).
  4. T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. V. R. Almeida, Q. F. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1209–1211 (2004).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and A. Scherer, “Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5216–5226 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links,” Opt. Express (to be published).
    [PubMed]
  14. S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, G.-R. Zhou, M. E. Grein, F. Gan, M. A. Popovic, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, E. P. Ippen, F. Z. Kärtner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “CMOS-compatible dual-output silicon modulator for analog signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11027–11031 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. Gill, S. Patel, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, A. White, Y.-K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-Compatible Si-Ring-Assisted Mach–Zehnder Interferometer With Internal Bandwidth Equalization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. F. Okorn-Schmidt, “Characterization of silicon surface preparation processes for advanced gate dielectrics,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 43(3), 351–365 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Baehr-Jones, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Campus Box 352500, Seattle, WA 98195, R. Ding, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J-M. Fedeli, and M. Hochberg are preparing a manuscript to be called “Low-Loss Strip-loaded slot waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator.”
  21. J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7410–7424 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. M. Beggs, M. Ayre, D. F. G. Gallagher, and T. F. Krauss, “Design and fabrication of high-efficiency fibre couplers for nanophotonic devices,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1446–1449 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8401–8410 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

D. Gill, S. Patel, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, A. White, Y.-K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-Compatible Si-Ring-Assisted Mach–Zehnder Interferometer With Internal Bandwidth Equalization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. Jen, A. Falco, T. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7410–7424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones and M. Hochberg, “Polymer Silicon Hybrid Systems: A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8085–8090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Spector, M. W. Geis, G.-R. Zhou, M. E. Grein, F. Gan, M. A. Popovic, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, E. P. Ippen, F. Z. Kärtner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “CMOS-compatible dual-output silicon modulator for analog signal processing,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11027–11031 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Beggs, M. Ayre, D. F. G. Gallagher, and T. F. Krauss, “Design and fabrication of high-efficiency fibre couplers for nanophotonic devices,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1446–1449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8401–8410 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Almeida, Q. F. Xu, C. A. Barrios, and M. Lipson, “Guiding and confining light in void nanostructure,” Opt. Lett. 29(11), 1209–1211 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. F. Okorn-Schmidt, “Characterization of silicon surface preparation processes for advanced gate dielectrics,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 43(3), 351–365 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, V. R.

Ayre, M.

D. M. Beggs, M. Ayre, D. F. G. Gallagher, and T. F. Krauss, “Design and fabrication of high-efficiency fibre couplers for nanophotonic devices,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1446–1449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones and M. Hochberg, “Polymer Silicon Hybrid Systems: A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8085–8090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8401–8410 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and A. Scherer, “Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5216–5226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links,” Opt. Express (to be published).
[PubMed]

Baets, R.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

Barrios, C. A.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beattie, J.

D. Gill, S. Patel, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, A. White, Y.-K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-Compatible Si-Ring-Assisted Mach–Zehnder Interferometer With Internal Bandwidth Equalization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beggs, D. M.

D. M. Beggs, M. Ayre, D. F. G. Gallagher, and T. F. Krauss, “Design and fabrication of high-efficiency fibre couplers for nanophotonic devices,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1446–1449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Biaggio, I.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

Bogaerts, W.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brosi, J.-M.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bruns, J.

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. Jen, A. Falco, T. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carothers, D.

D. Gill, S. Patel, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, A. White, Y.-K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-Compatible Si-Ring-Assisted Mach–Zehnder Interferometer With Internal Bandwidth Equalization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-K.

D. Gill, S. Patel, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, A. White, Y.-K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-Compatible Si-Ring-Assisted Mach–Zehnder Interferometer With Internal Bandwidth Equalization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L.

Dalton, L. R.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davies, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diederich, F.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

Dumon, P.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

Eich, M.

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. Jen, A. Falco, T. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Erben, C.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Esembeson, B.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

Falco, A.

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. Jen, A. Falco, T. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Frank, B.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Freude, W.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

Gallagher, D. F. G.

D. M. Beggs, M. Ayre, D. F. G. Gallagher, and T. F. Krauss, “Design and fabrication of high-efficiency fibre couplers for nanophotonic devices,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1446–1449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gan, F.

Geis, M. W.

Gill, D.

D. Gill, S. Patel, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, A. White, Y.-K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-Compatible Si-Ring-Assisted Mach–Zehnder Interferometer With Internal Bandwidth Equalization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gopalan, P.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, W. M. J.

Grein, M. E.

Hampe, J.

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. Jen, A. Falco, T. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Heber, J. D.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, C.

D. Gill, S. Patel, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, A. White, Y.-K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-Compatible Si-Ring-Assisted Mach–Zehnder Interferometer With Internal Bandwidth Equalization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones and M. Hochberg, “Polymer Silicon Hybrid Systems: A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8085–8090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8401–8410 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and A. Scherer, “Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5216–5226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links,” Opt. Express (to be published).
[PubMed]

Huang, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, G. Wang, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, and A. Scherer, “Towards a millivolt optical modulator with nano-slot waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(13), 8401–8410 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A.

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. Jen, A. Falco, T. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and A. Scherer, “Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(14), 5216–5226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7410–7424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kamocsai, R.

D. Gill, S. Patel, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, A. White, Y.-K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-Compatible Si-Ring-Assisted Mach–Zehnder Interferometer With Internal Bandwidth Equalization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. Z.

Katz, H. E.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, T.-D.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koos, C.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

Krauss, T.

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. Jen, A. Falco, T. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

D. M. Beggs, M. Ayre, D. F. G. Gallagher, and T. F. Krauss, “Design and fabrication of high-efficiency fibre couplers for nanophotonic devices,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1446–1449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, R.

Lee, M.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lennon, D. M.

Leuthold, J.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, Y.

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, J.

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. Jen, A. Falco, T. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7410–7424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

McGee, D. J.

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michinobu, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okorn-Schmidt, H. F.

H. F. Okorn-Schmidt, “Characterization of silicon surface preparation processes for advanced gate dielectrics,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 43(3), 351–365 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, S.

D. Gill, S. Patel, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, A. White, Y.-K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-Compatible Si-Ring-Assisted Mach–Zehnder Interferometer With Internal Bandwidth Equalization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Penkov, B.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, A.

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. Jen, A. Falco, T. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A.

D. Gill, S. Patel, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, A. White, Y.-K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-Compatible Si-Ring-Assisted Mach–Zehnder Interferometer With Internal Bandwidth Equalization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M. A.

Rasras, M.

D. Gill, S. Patel, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, A. White, Y.-K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-Compatible Si-Ring-Assisted Mach–Zehnder Interferometer With Internal Bandwidth Equalization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scherer, A.

Scimeca, M. L.

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sekaric, L.

Shi, Y.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

Steier, W. H.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, P.

Takayesu, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tu, K.-Y.

D. Gill, S. Patel, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, A. White, Y.-K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-Compatible Si-Ring-Assisted Mach–Zehnder Interferometer With Internal Bandwidth Equalization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vallaitis, T.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Vorreau, P.

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

Wang, G.

Wang, W.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

White, A.

D. Gill, S. Patel, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, A. White, Y.-K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-Compatible Si-Ring-Assisted Mach–Zehnder Interferometer With Internal Bandwidth Equalization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Witzens, J.

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links,” Opt. Express (to be published).
[PubMed]

Wülbern, J.

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. Jen, A. Falco, T. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q. F.

Yoon, J. U.

Zhou, G.-R.

Zhou, X.-H.

J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7410–7424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. Jen, A. Falco, T. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for highspeed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Develop. (1)

H. F. Okorn-Schmidt, “Characterization of silicon surface preparation processes for advanced gate dielectrics,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 43(3), 351–365 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

D. Gill, S. Patel, M. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, A. White, Y.-K. Chen, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, R. Kamocsai, C. Hill, and J. Beattie, “CMOS-Compatible Si-Ring-Assisted Mach–Zehnder Interferometer With Internal Bandwidth Equalization,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 45–52 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

J. Luo, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Rational molecular design and supramolecular assembly of highly efficient organic electro-optic materials,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(40), 7410–7424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

T. Baehr-Jones and M. Hochberg, “Polymer Silicon Hybrid Systems: A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 112(21), 8085–8090 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

D. M. Beggs, M. Ayre, D. F. G. Gallagher, and T. F. Krauss, “Design and fabrication of high-efficiency fibre couplers for nanophotonic devices,” Microelectron. Eng. 84(5-8), 1446–1449 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, T. Vallaitis, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “All-optical high-speed signal processing with silicon organic hybrid slot waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 216–219 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

OFC (1)

C. Koos, P. Vorreau, P. Dumon, R. Baets, B. Esembeson, I. Biaggio, T. Michinobu, F. Diederich, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Highly-nonlinear silicon photonics slot waveguide,” OFC 2008, PDP25 (2008).

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

J. Leuthold, W. Freude, J.-M. Brosi, R. Baets, P. Dumon, I. Biaggio, M. L. Scimeca, F. Diederich, B. Frank, and C. Koos, “Silicon Organic Hybrid Technology-A Platform for Practical Nonlinear Optics,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1304–1316 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. Lee, H. E. Katz, C. Erben, D. M. Gill, P. Gopalan, J. D. Heber, and D. J. McGee, “Broadband modulation of light by using an electro-optic polymer,” Science 298(5597), 1401–1403 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

Mach-40 intensity modulator http://www.covega.com

T. Baehr-Jones, Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Campus Box 352500, Seattle, WA 98195, R. Ding, Y. Liu, R. Bojko, J-M. Fedeli, and M. Hochberg are preparing a manuscript to be called “Low-Loss Strip-loaded slot waveguides in Silicon-on-Insulator.”

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The diagram of the silicon slot waveguide as used in the Mach-Zehnder modulator described in this work. The modal pattern near 1550nm is plotted; contours of |Ex| are shown (x-axis is assumed to be parallel to the substrate and perpendicular to the propagation direction). (b) SEM micrograph of the cross-section of a strip-loaded slot waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Mach-Zehnder modulator layout; (b) SEM micrograph showing the fabricated device; (c) SEM micrograph of the layout of one arm showing the region where ridge waveguide couples into strip-loaded slot waveguide and metal pads sitting on strip-loading.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission through the Mach–Zehnder device as a function of wavelength, for various modulator drive voltages. As can be seen, 2 V bias suggested the direction of spectrum shift, 8 V bias was slightly above Vπ voltage.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The frequency dependence of the device: 6 dB rolloff in S21 occurred around 3 GHz. The corresponding normalized S21 of 8 V Vπ is also plotted in the same axis. The inset graph shows the response from 200 MHz to 6 GHz, in which the −6 dB rolloff appears around 3 GHz.

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