Abstract

We report error-free long-haul transmission of optical data modulated using a silicon microring resonator electro-optic modulator with modulation rates up to 12.5 Gb/s. Using bit-error-rate and power penalty characterizations, we evaluate the performance of this device with varying modulation rates, and perform a comparative analysis using a commercial electro-optic modulator. We then experimentally measure the signal integrity degradation of the high-speed optical data with increasing propagation distances, induced chromatic dispersions, and bandwidth-distance products, showing error-free transmission for propagation distances up to 80 km. These results confirm the functional ubiquity of this silicon modulator, establishing the potential role of silicon photonic interconnects for chip-scale high-performance computing systems and memory access networks, optically-interconnected data centers, as well as high-performance telecommunication networks spanning large distances.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (6)

2009 (6)

H. L. R. Lira, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Broadband hitless silicon electro-optic switch for on-chip optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22271–22280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power, 2 x 2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24020–24029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, H. Liang, D. Zheng, R. Shafiiha, C.-C. Kung, W. Qian, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low Vpp, ultralow-energy, compact, high-speed silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22484–22490 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kärtner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (5)

2006 (3)

L. Zhou and A. W. Poon, “Silicon electro-optic modulators using p-i-n diodes embedded 10-micron-diameter microdisk resonators,” Opt. Express 14(15), 6851–6857 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Colace, G. M. A. Altieri, and G. Assanto, “Waveguide photodetectors for the near-infrared in polycrystalline germanium on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1094–1096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Goebuchi, T. Kato, and Y. Kokubun, “Fast and stable wavelength-selective switch using double-series coupled dielectric microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(3), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

Altieri, G. M. A.

L. Colace, G. M. A. Altieri, and G. Assanto, “Waveguide photodetectors for the near-infrared in polycrystalline germanium on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1094–1096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Amberg, P.

Asanovic, K.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kärtner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Assanto, G.

L. Colace, G. M. A. Altieri, and G. Assanto, “Waveguide photodetectors for the near-infrared in polycrystalline germanium on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1094–1096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Batten, C.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kärtner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

Beausoleil, R. G.

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 149–158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bedell, S. W.

Bergman, K.

Berroth, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Biberman, A.

Block, B. A.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, D. D.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, “High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a Silicon-On-Insulator microwaveguide,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9843–9848 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cercus, J.-L.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J.

Chang, P. L. D.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

Chen, L.

Chetrit, Y.

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13965–13971 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. O.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13965–13971 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colace, L.

L. Colace, G. M. A. Altieri, and G. Assanto, “Waveguide photodetectors for the near-infrared in polycrystalline germanium on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1094–1096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J. E.

X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Li, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low-energy all-CMOS modulator integrated with driver,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3059–3070 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Damlencourt, J.-F.

Danielson, D. T.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dehlinger, G.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

El Melhaoui, L.

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Giziewicz, W.

Goebuchi, Y.

Y. Goebuchi, T. Kato, and Y. Kokubun, “Fast and stable wavelength-selective switch using double-series coupled dielectric microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(3), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Grill, A.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Halbwax, M.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, J.-M.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Heitzmann, M.

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hendry, G.

Ho, R.

X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Li, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low-energy all-CMOS modulator integrated with driver,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3059–3070 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, C. W.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kärtner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C.-Y.

Hoyt, J. L.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kärtner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, Y.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jongthammanurak, S.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Joshi, A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kärtner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jutzi, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kärtner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasper, E.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kato, T.

Y. Goebuchi, T. Kato, and Y. Kokubun, “Fast and stable wavelength-selective switch using double-series coupled dielectric microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(3), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kern, A. M.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khilo, A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kärtner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koester, S. J.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koka, P.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

Y. Goebuchi, T. Kato, and Y. Kokubun, “Fast and stable wavelength-selective switch using double-series coupled dielectric microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(3), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C.-C.

Kwong, D.-L.

Laval, S.

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, “High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a Silicon-On-Insulator microwaveguide,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9843–9848 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Le Roux, X.

Lexau, J.

X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, G. Li, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultra-low-energy all-CMOS modulator integrated with driver,” Opt. Express 18(3), 3059–3070 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Li, H.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kärtner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 149–158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Liao, J. T. S.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, S.

Liow, T.-Y.

Lipson, M.

Lira, H. L. R.

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G.-Q.

Luo, Y.

Mangeney, J.

Manipatruni, S.

Marris-Morini, D.

Mekis, A.

Michel, J.

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mohammed, E.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M. M.

Moss, B.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kärtner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oehme, M.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Orcutt, J.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kärtner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ouyang, Q. C.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Palermo, S.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M. J.

Pascal, D.

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, “High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a Silicon-On-Insulator microwaveguide,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9843–9848 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pinckney, N.

Pinguet, T.

Poon, A. W.

Popovic, M. A.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kärtner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Raj, K.

Ram, R. J.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kärtner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Reshotko, M. R.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rice, P. M.

Rouvière, M.

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, “High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a Silicon-On-Insulator microwaveguide,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9843–9848 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13965–13971 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarid, G.

Schaub, J. D.

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Shakya, J.

Shi, J.

Shubin, I.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, R. Ho, X. Zheng, H. Schwetman, J. Lexau, P. Koka, G. Li, I. Shubin, and J. E. Cunningham, “Computer systems based on silicon photonic interconnects,” Proc. IEEE 97, 1337–1361 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kärtner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, M.

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 149–158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stojanovic, V.

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kärtner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thacker, H.

Topuria, T.

Van Campenhout, J.

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, “High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a Silicon-On-Insulator microwaveguide,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9843–9848 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wada, K.

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 149–158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wöhl, G.

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

Xu, Q.

Yang, J.-Y.

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 149–158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yin, T.

Young, I. A.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 149–158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zheng, D.

Zheng, X.

Zhou, L.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, S. Jongthammanurak, D. T. Danielson, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Tensile strained Ge p-i-n photodetectors on Si platform for C and L band telecommunications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(1), 011110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits (1)

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-state Circuits 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Micro (1)

C. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popović, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kärtner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanović, and K. Asanović, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” IEEE Micro 29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (4)

G. Dehlinger, S. J. Koester, J. D. Schaub, J. O. Chu, Q. C. Ouyang, and A. Grill, “High-speed germanium-on-SOI lateral PIN photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2547–2549 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Jutzi, M. Berroth, G. Wöhl, M. Oehme, and E. Kasper, “Ge-on-Si vertical incidence photodiodes with 39-GHz bandwidth,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(7), 1510–1512 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Goebuchi, T. Kato, and Y. Kokubun, “Fast and stable wavelength-selective switch using double-series coupled dielectric microring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(3), 538–540 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Colace, G. M. A. Altieri, and G. Assanto, “Waveguide photodetectors for the near-infrared in polycrystalline germanium on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(9), 1094–1096 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Zhang, Y. Li, J.-Y. Yang, M. Song, R. G. Beausoleil, and A. E. Willner, “Silicon-based microring resonator modulators for intensity modulation,” IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 149–158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Rouvière, M. Halbwax, J.-L. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng. 44(7), 075402 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (12)

H. L. R. Lira, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Broadband hitless silicon electro-optic switch for on-chip optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(25), 22271–22280 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Van Campenhout, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Low-power, 2 x 2 silicon electro-optic switch with 110-nm bandwidth for broadband reconfigurable optical networks,” Opt. Express 17(26), 24020–24029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J.-F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, “High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a Silicon-On-Insulator microwaveguide,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9843–9848 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13965–13971 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chen, P. Dong, and M. Lipson, “High performance germanium photodetectors integrated on submicron silicon waveguides by low temperature wafer bonding,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11513–11518 (2008).
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S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4986–4999 (2010).
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S. Manipatruni, L. Chen, K. Preston, and M. Lipson, “Ultra low power electro-optic modulator on silicon: towards direct logic driven silicon modulators,” Proc. Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), CThJ6 (2010).

R. G. Beausoleil, J. Ahn, N. Binkert, A. Davis, D. Fattal, M. Fiorentino, N. P. Jouppi, M. McLaren, C. M. Santori, R. S. Schreiber, S. Spillane, D. Vantrease, and Q. Xu, “A nanophotonic interconnect for high-performance many-core computation,” Proc. Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications (IPNRA), ITuD2 (2008).

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A. Narasimha, B. Analui, E. Balmater, A. Clark, T. Gal, D. Guckenberger, S. Gutierrez, M. Harrison, R. Ingram, R. Koumans, D. Kucharski, K. Leap, Y. Liang, A. Mekis, S. Mirsaidi, M. Peterson, T. Pham, T. Pinguet, D. Rines, V. Sadagopan, T. J. Sleboda, D. Song, Y. Wang, B. Welch, J. Witzens, S. Abdalla, S. Gloeckner, and P. Dobbelaere, “A 40-Gb/s QSFP optoelectronic transceiver in a 0.13µm CMOS silicon-on-insulator technology,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), OMK7 (2008).

A. Biberman, N. Ophir, K. Bergman, S. Manipatruni, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “First demonstration of 80-km long-haul transmission of 12.5-Gb/s data using silicon microring resonator electro-optic modulator,” Proc. Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), JWA28 (2010).

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S. Manipatruni, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “50 Gbit/s wavelength division multiplexing using silicon microring modulators,” Proc. International Conference on Group IV Photonics (GFP), FC3 244–246 (2009).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup diagrams for measuring system-level performance of the silicon microring resonator electro-optic modulator. (a) Experimental setup for characterizing the performance of the silicon modulator for modulation rates between 5 and 12.5 Gb/s. (b) Experimental setup for comparative analysis of the silicon modulator using a commercial LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder electro-optic modulator. (c) Experimental setup for propagating an optical signal encoded using the silicon modulator through varying lengths of standard single-mode optical fiber, between 0 and 80 km, for modulation rates between 10 and 12.5 Gb/s. (d) Top-view scanning-electron-microscope (SEM) image of the silicon modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimentally-measured temporal responses of varying modulation rates for the silicon microring resonator electro-optic modulator as well as a commercial LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder electro-optic modulator. Output eye diagrams for the (a) 5-Gb/s, (b) 7.5-Gb/s, (c) 10-Gb/s, and (d) 12.5-Gb/s modulation rates using the silicon modulator, and (e) 5-Gb/s, (f) 7.5-Gb/s, (g) 10-Gb/s, and (h) 12.5-Gb/s modulation rates using the LiNbO3 modulator.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimentally-measured system-level performance characterizations of the silicon microring resonator electro-optic modulator for modulation rates between 5 and 12.5 Gb/s. (a) Bit-error-rate curves for an optical signal encoded using the silicon modulator, as well as a commercial LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder electro-optic modulator, for 5-, 7.5-, 10-, and 12.5-Gb/s modulation rates. (b) Resulting power penalty associated with the operation of the silicon modulator compared to the LiNbO3 modulator for modulation rates between 5 and 12.5 Gb/s.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimentally-measured temporal responses of varying propagation distances through standard single-mode optical fiber of an optical signal encoded using the silicon microring resonator electro-optic modulator. Output eye diagrams for the (a) 0-km, (b) 1-km, (c) 2-km, (d) 5-km, (e) 10-km, (f) 15-km, (g) 40-km, (h) 60-km, and (i) 80-km propagation distances for 10-Gb/s modulation rates, as well as (j) 0-km and (k) 80-km propagation distances for 12.5-Gb/s modulation rate, using the silicon modulator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimentally-measured system-level performance characterizations of varying propagation distances through standard single-mode optical fiber of an optical signal encoded using the using the silicon microring resonator electro-optic modulator. (a) Bit-error-rate curves for 0-, 1-, 2-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 40-, 60-, and 80-km propagation distances for 10-Gb/s modulation rates, as well as 0- and 80-km propagation distances for 12.5-Gb/s modulation rates, using the silicon modulator. (b) Resulting power penalty associated with propagating the optical signal encoded using the silicon modulator through varying lengths of standard single-mode optical fiber for 10-Gb/s modulation rate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Summary of experimentally-measured results for varying propagation distances through standard single-mode optical fiber, induced chromatic dispersions, and bandwidth-distance products, of an optical signal encoded using the using the silicon microring resonator electro-optic modulator for modulation rates between 10 and 12.5 Gb/s.

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