Abstract

An etch-free and cost-effective deposition and patterning method to fabricate mid-infrared chalcogenide glass waveguides for chemical sensing applications is introduced. As2S3 raised strip optical waveguides are produced by casting a liquid solution of As2S3 glass in capillary channel molds formed by soft lithography. Mid-IR transmission is characterized by coupling the output of a quantum cascade (QC) laser (λ = 4.8 µm) into the 40 µm wide by 10 µm thick multi-mode waveguides. Loss as low as 4.5 dB/cm is achieved using suitable substrate materials and post-processing. Optical absorption and surface roughness measurements indicate that the solution-processed films are of sufficient quality for optical devices and are promising for further development of waveguide-based mid-IR elements.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (3)

2009 (3)

Y. Bonetti and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers: Entering the mid-infrared,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 32–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyzer with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Lian, W. Pan, D. Furniss, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, and T. Wagner, “Embossing of chalcogenide glasses: monomode rib optical waveguides in evaporated thin films,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1234–1236 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Solmaz, H. Park, C. K. Madsen, and X. Cheng, “Patterning chalcogenide glass by direct resist-free thermal nanoimprint,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), 606–610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Plasma etching of As2S3 films for optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(27), 3179–3183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “One-step hot embossing of optical rib waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(7), 1961–1963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

2006 (4)

N. Hô, M. C. Phillips, H. Qiao, P. J. Allen, K. Krishnaswami, B. J. Riley, T. L. Myers, and N. C. Anheier., “Single-mode low-loss chalcogenide glass waveguides for the mid-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1860–1862 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 421–426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

A. Zakery, Y. Ruan, A. V. Rode, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low-loss waveguides in ultrafast laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(9), 1844–1852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Martin and I. A. Aksay, “Topographical evolution of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films patterned by micromolding in capillaries,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(18), 4261–4268 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1996 (1)

E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Micromolding in Capillaries: Applications in Materials Science,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(24), 5722–5731 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Polymer microstructures formed by moulding in capillaries,” Nature 376(6541), 581–584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

K. H. Norian, G. C. Chern, and I. Lauks, “Morphology and thermal properties of solvent-cast arsenic sulfide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 55(10), 3795–3798 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

G. C. Chern, I. Lauks, and A. R. McGhie, “Spin coated amorphous chalcogenide films: Thermal properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(8), 4596–4601 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin-coated amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 6979–6982 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

Aksay, I. A.

C. R. Martin and I. A. Aksay, “Topographical evolution of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films patterned by micromolding in capillaries,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(18), 4261–4268 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Allen, P. J.

Anheier, N. C.

Arnold, C. B.

S. Song, J. Dua, and C. B. Arnold, “Influence of annealing conditions on the optical and structural properties of spin-coated As2S3 chalcogenide glass thin films,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5472–5480 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baker, N. J.

Bakhirkin, Y.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benson, T. M.

Z. G. Lian, W. Pan, D. Furniss, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, and T. Wagner, “Embossing of chalcogenide glasses: monomode rib optical waveguides in evaporated thin films,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1234–1236 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “One-step hot embossing of optical rib waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(7), 1961–1963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bonetti, Y.

Y. Bonetti and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers: Entering the mid-infrared,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 32–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bonhomme, E.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurement at 10.6µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Broquin, J.-E.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurement at 10.6µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Buchwald, W. R.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bulla, D.

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thermal annealing of arsenic tri-sulphide thin film and its influence on device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bulla, D. A.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyzer with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardinal, T.

Carlie, N.

Cheng, X.

M. Solmaz, H. Park, C. K. Madsen, and X. Cheng, “Patterning chalcogenide glass by direct resist-free thermal nanoimprint,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), 606–610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chern, G. C.

K. H. Norian, G. C. Chern, and I. Lauks, “Morphology and thermal properties of solvent-cast arsenic sulfide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 55(10), 3795–3798 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chern, I. Lauks, and A. R. McGhie, “Spin coated amorphous chalcogenide films: Thermal properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(8), 4596–4601 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin-coated amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 6979–6982 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, D. Y.

Choi, D.-Y.

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thermal annealing of arsenic tri-sulphide thin film and its influence on device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyzer with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Plasma etching of As2S3 films for optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(27), 3179–3183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, I. S.

N. L. Jeon, I. S. Choi, B. Xu, and G. M. Whitesides, “Large-area patterning by vacuum-assisted micromolding,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 946–950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Curl, R. F.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dirisu, A. O.

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dua, J.

Duguay, M. A.

Eggleton, B. J.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyzer with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9205–9221 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emelett, S. J.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Englund, D.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

Y. Bonetti and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers: Entering the mid-infrared,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 32–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faraon, A.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Feng, N.-N.

Finsterbusch, K.

Franz, K. J.

Fraser, M.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

Furniss, D.

Z. G. Lian, W. Pan, D. Furniss, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, and T. Wagner, “Embossing of chalcogenide glasses: monomode rib optical waveguides in evaporated thin films,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1234–1236 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “One-step hot embossing of optical rib waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(7), 1961–1963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Galstian, T. V.

Gmachl, C.

Gmachl, C. F.

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hô, N.

Hoffman, A. J.

Howard, S. S.

A. J. Hoffman, S. Schartner, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, F. Towner, and C. Gmachl, “Low voltage-defect quantum cascade laser with heterogeneous injector regions,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15818–15823 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, N. L.

N. L. Jeon, I. S. Choi, B. Xu, and G. M. Whitesides, “Large-area patterning by vacuum-assisted micromolding,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 946–950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kern, P.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurement at 10.6µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E.

E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Micromolding in Capillaries: Applications in Materials Science,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(24), 5722–5731 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Polymer microstructures formed by moulding in capillaries,” Nature 376(6541), 581–584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L.

Knystautas, É. J.

Kohoutek, T.

Kosterev, A.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krishnaswami, K.

Labadie, L.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurement at 10.6µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lamont, M. R. E.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyzer with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9205–9221 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lauks, I.

K. H. Norian, G. C. Chern, and I. Lauks, “Morphology and thermal properties of solvent-cast arsenic sulfide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 55(10), 3795–3798 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chern, I. Lauks, and A. R. McGhie, “Spin coated amorphous chalcogenide films: Thermal properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(8), 4596–4601 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin-coated amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 6979–6982 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lewicki, R.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lian, Z. G.

Liu, Z.

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Loni, A.

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “One-step hot embossing of optical rib waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(7), 1961–1963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, C.

Luan, F.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyzer with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thermal annealing of arsenic tri-sulphide thin film and its influence on device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyzer with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Plasma etching of As2S3 films for optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(27), 3179–3183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9205–9221 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zakery, Y. Ruan, A. V. Rode, M. Samoc, and B. Luther-Davies, “Low-loss waveguides in ultrafast laser-deposited As2S3 chalcogenide films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(9), 1844–1852 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Madden, S.

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thermal annealing of arsenic tri-sulphide thin film and its influence on device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Plasma etching of As2S3 films for optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(27), 3179–3183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9205–9221 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madden, S. J.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyzer with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Madsen, C. K.

M. Solmaz, H. Park, C. K. Madsen, and X. Cheng, “Patterning chalcogenide glass by direct resist-free thermal nanoimprint,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), 606–610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martin, C. R.

C. R. Martin and I. A. Aksay, “Topographical evolution of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films patterned by micromolding in capillaries,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(18), 4261–4268 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McGhie, A. R.

G. C. Chern, I. Lauks, and A. R. McGhie, “Spin coated amorphous chalcogenide films: Thermal properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(8), 4596–4601 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, C.

Moss, D. J.

Myers, T. L.

Nguyen, H. C.

Norian, K. H.

K. H. Norian, G. C. Chern, and I. Lauks, “Morphology and thermal properties of solvent-cast arsenic sulfide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 55(10), 3795–3798 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Orava, J.

Pan, W.

Pan, W. J.

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “One-step hot embossing of optical rib waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(7), 1961–1963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

M. Solmaz, H. Park, C. K. Madsen, and X. Cheng, “Patterning chalcogenide glass by direct resist-free thermal nanoimprint,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), 606–610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pelusi, M.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyzer with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pelusi, M. D.

Petit, L.

Petroff, P.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, M. C.

Pradel, A.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurement at 10.6µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qiao, H.

Richardson, K.

Richardson, K. A.

Richardson, M.

Riley, B. J.

Risby, T. H.

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 421–426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rivero, C.

Rode, A.

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thermal annealing of arsenic tri-sulphide thin film and its influence on device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Plasma etching of As2S3 films for optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(27), 3179–3183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A. V.

Rowe, H.

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “One-step hot embossing of optical rib waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(7), 1961–1963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ruan, Y.

Samoc, M.

Schartner, S.

Schulte, A.

Seddon, A. B.

Z. G. Lian, W. Pan, D. Furniss, T. M. Benson, A. B. Seddon, T. Kohoutek, J. Orava, and T. Wagner, “Embossing of chalcogenide glasses: monomode rib optical waveguides in evaporated thin films,” Opt. Lett. 34(8), 1234–1236 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “One-step hot embossing of optical rib waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(7), 1961–1963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sewell, P.

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “One-step hot embossing of optical rib waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(7), 1961–1963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

So, S.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Solga, S. F.

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 421–426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Solmaz, M.

M. Solmaz, H. Park, C. K. Madsen, and X. Cheng, “Patterning chalcogenide glass by direct resist-free thermal nanoimprint,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), 606–610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, S.

S. Song, J. Dua, and C. B. Arnold, “Influence of annealing conditions on the optical and structural properties of spin-coated As2S3 chalcogenide glass thin films,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5472–5480 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stoltz, N.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ta’eed, V. G.

Tarasov, V.

Tittel, F.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Towner, F.

Vallée, R.

Viens, J.-F.

Vigreux-Bercovici, C.

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurement at 10.6µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

Vo, T. D.

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyzer with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vuckovic, J.

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, T.

Wang, R.

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thermal annealing of arsenic tri-sulphide thin film and its influence on device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Plasma etching of As2S3 films for optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(27), 3179–3183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Whitesides, G. M.

N. L. Jeon, I. S. Choi, B. Xu, and G. M. Whitesides, “Large-area patterning by vacuum-assisted micromolding,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 946–950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Micromolding in Capillaries: Applications in Materials Science,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(24), 5722–5731 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Polymer microstructures formed by moulding in capillaries,” Nature 376(6541), 581–584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wysocki, G.

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Micromolding in Capillaries: Applications in Materials Science,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(24), 5722–5731 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Polymer microstructures formed by moulding in capillaries,” Nature 376(6541), 581–584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

N. L. Jeon, I. S. Choi, B. Xu, and G. M. Whitesides, “Large-area patterning by vacuum-assisted micromolding,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 946–950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zakery, A.

Zhang, D.

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “One-step hot embossing of optical rib waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(7), 1961–1963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “One-step hot embossing of optical rib waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(7), 1961–1963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zoubir, A.

Adv. Mater. (1)

N. L. Jeon, I. S. Choi, B. Xu, and G. M. Whitesides, “Large-area patterning by vacuum-assisted micromolding,” Adv. Mater. 11(11), 946–950 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

A. Kosterev, G. Wysocki, Y. Bakhirkin, S. So, R. Lewicki, M. Fraser, F. Tittel, and R. F. Curl, “Application of quantum cascade lasers to trace gas analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90(2), 165–176 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Risby and S. F. Solga, “Current status of clinical breath analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 85(2-3), 421–426 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Song, S. S. Howard, Z. Liu, A. O. Dirisu, C. F. Gmachl, and C. B. Arnold, “Mode tuning of quantum cascade lasers through optical processing of chalcogenide glass claddings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(4), 041115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Faraon, D. Englund, D. Bulla, B. Luther-Davies, B. J. Eggleton, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vučković, “Local tuning of photonic crystal cavities using chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043123 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Vigreux-Bercovici, E. Bonhomme, A. Pradel, J.-E. Broquin, L. Labadie, and P. Kern, “Transmission measurement at 10.6µm of Te2As3Se5 rib waveguides on As2S3 substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 011110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Micromolding in Capillaries: Applications in Materials Science,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 118(24), 5722–5731 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

G. C. Chern, I. Lauks, and A. R. McGhie, “Spin coated amorphous chalcogenide films: Thermal properties,” J. Appl. Phys. 54(8), 4596–4601 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Norian, G. C. Chern, and I. Lauks, “Morphology and thermal properties of solvent-cast arsenic sulfide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 55(10), 3795–3798 (1984).
[CrossRef]

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, D. Bulla, R. Wang, A. Rode, and B. Luther-Davies, “Thermal annealing of arsenic tri-sulphide thin film and its influence on device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(5), 053106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Chern and I. Lauks, “Spin-coated amorphous chalcogenide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 6979–6982 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

D.-Y. Choi, S. Madden, A. Rode, R. Wang, and B. Luther-Davies, “Plasma etching of As2S3 films for optical waveguides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(27), 3179–3183 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

R. A. Soref, S. J. Emelett, and W. R. Buchwald, “Silicon waveguided components for the long-wave infrared region,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 8(10), 840–848 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

C. R. Martin and I. A. Aksay, “Topographical evolution of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films patterned by micromolding in capillaries,” J. Phys. Chem. B 107(18), 4261–4268 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. Solmaz, H. Park, C. K. Madsen, and X. Cheng, “Patterning chalcogenide glass by direct resist-free thermal nanoimprint,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 26(2), 606–610 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. J. Pan, H. Rowe, D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, A. Loni, D. Furniss, P. Sewell, T. M. Benson, and A. B. Seddon, “One-step hot embossing of optical rib waveguides in chalcogenide glasses,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(7), 1961–1963 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. Pelusi, F. Luan, T. D. Vo, M. R. E. Lamont, S. J. Madden, D. A. Bulla, D.-Y. Choi, B. Luther-Davies, and B. J. Eggleton, “Photonic-chip-based radio-frequency spectrum analyzer with terahertz bandwidth,” Nat. Photonics 3(3), 139–143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bonetti and J. Faist, “Quantum cascade lasers: Entering the mid-infrared,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 32–34 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Polymer microstructures formed by moulding in capillaries,” Nature 376(6541), 581–584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

S. Song, J. Dua, and C. B. Arnold, “Influence of annealing conditions on the optical and structural properties of spin-coated As2S3 chalcogenide glass thin films,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5472–5480 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Hoffman, S. Schartner, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, F. Towner, and C. Gmachl, “Low voltage-defect quantum cascade laser with heterogeneous injector regions,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15818–15823 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, N.-N. Feng, N. Carlie, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Optical loss reduction in high-index-contrast chalcogenide glass waveguides via thermal reflow,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1469–1478 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. G. Ta’eed, N. J. Baker, L. Fu, K. Finsterbusch, M. R. E. Lamont, D. J. Moss, H. C. Nguyen, B. J. Eggleton, D. Y. Choi, S. Madden, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrafast all-optical chalcogenide glass photonic circuits,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9205–9221 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, N. Carlie, N.-N. Feng, L. Petit, A. Agarwal, K. Richardson, and L. Kimerling, “Si-CMOS-compatible lift-off fabrication of low-loss planar chalcogenide waveguides,” Opt. Express 15(19), 11798–11807 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Madden, D.-Y. Choi, D. A. Bulla, A. V. Rode, B. Luther-Davies, V. G. Ta’eed, M. D. Pelusi, and B. J. Eggleton, “Long, low loss etched As2S3 chalcogenide waveguides for all-optical signal regeneration,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14414–14421 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

D. J. Treacy, “Arsenic Sulfide (As2S3),” in Handbook of optical constants of solids, E.D. Palik, ed., (Academic Press, Orland, Fla., 1985).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Solution casting and molding method. (a) Generating the PDMS mold. (L-R) Master mold patterned by photolithography using SU-8 photoresist. PDMS precursor cast on master mold. Cured PDMS mold peeled away. (b) Forming As2S3 structures by capillarity. (L-R) PDMS mold placed on substrate, forming channels. Droplets of As2S3 solution pipetted to inlets. Channels fill by capillary action. Sample is baked in vacuum oven to solidify structures. PDMS mold is removed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of mid-IR propagation loss measurement setup. Inset photo: Top view of an As2S3 waveguide aligned and butt-coupled to a QC laser. Laser biased at 50V, pulsed at 0.8% duty cycle, at room temperature (with exception of measurement on SiO2 sample: laser biased at 72V, pulsed at 2% duty cycle).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cut-back measurement showing waveguide attenuation for waveguides on different substrate materials, λ = 4.8 µm. Un-annealed waveguide samples are successively cleaved in 1 mm increments. Each data point represents measurements from four distinct waveguides.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FTIR transmission spectra of 3 µm thick As2S3 films. Films processed from As2S3-propylamine solution with ethanol dilution, baked at 80°C (un-annealed) and 120°C (annealed). A weak absorption band centered at 1900 cm−1 (5.26 µm) levels off with annealing.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Waveguide morphology and calculated mode profiles. Both SEM images taken at 45° tilt, with scale bars of 20 µm. (a) Cross-section of an un-annealed waveguide, 40 µm x 10 µm. (b) Cross-section of a waveguide annealed at 120° C, displaying reflowing and rounding of initially retangular structures and densification of the As2S3. (c) Calculated fundamental mode profiles corresponding to the observed waveguide morphologies.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cut-back measurement of annealed As2S3 waveguides. Loss of un-annealed waveguides on NaCl plotted for comparison. Each data point represents measurements from four distinct waveguides.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Material properties at λ = 5 µm [a]

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