Abstract

We have investigated femtosecond multi-filamentation process in a mixture of gases controlling the concentration of atoms versus molecules in the gas cell. The experimental results show that this control could provide a new freedom degree to deterministic spatial distribution control of the multiple filaments. Our simulation indicates surprisingly that only difference of the gases nonlinearity (referred to as “synthesised nonlinearity”) is sufficient to be responsible for this control. This study opens the way to provide few-cycle pulses spatial distributed source for spatially encoded measurements and experiments.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. I. Bespalov, and V. I. Talanov, “Filamentary structure of light beams in nonlinear media,” JETP Lett. 3, 307 (1966).
  2. C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier-envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5394–5404 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. O. G. Kosareva, I. N. Murtazin, N. A. Panov, A. B. Savelev, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Pulse shortening due to filamentation in transparent medium,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(2), 126–132 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Bergé, “Self-compression of 2 μm laser filaments,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21529–21543 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. Méchain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Dubietis, G. Tamošauskas, G. Fibich, and B. Ilan, “Multiple filamentation induced by input-beam ellipticity,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1126 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Fibich and B. Ilan, “Multiple Filamentation of Circularly Polarized Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (1), 013901 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Trisorio, and C. P. Hauri, “Control and characterization of multiple circularly polarized femtosecond filaments in argon,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1650–1652 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. O. Varela, A. Zaïr, J. San Roman, B. Alonso, I. J. Sola, C. Prieto, and L. Roso, “Above-millijoule super-continuum generation using polarisation dependent filamentation in atoms and molecules,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3630–3639 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. V. P. Kandidov, N. Akozbek, M. Scalora, O. G. Kosareva, A. V. Nyakk, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, and S. L. Chin, “Towards a control of multiple filamentation by spatial regularization of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 267–275 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053814 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2–4), 47–189 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Wu, H. Cai, H. P. Zeng, and A. Couairon, “Femtosecond filamentation and pulse compression in the wake of molecular alignment more options,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2593–2595 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, G. Stibenz, and G. Steinmeyer, “Sub-10 fs pulse characterization using spatially encoded arrangement for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1914–1916 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. Y. Mairesse, D. Zeidler, N. Dudovich, M. Spanner, J. Levesque, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “High-order harmonic transient grating spectroscopy in a molecular jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143903 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. J. A. Perez-Hernandez, D. Hoffmann, A. Zaïr, L. E. Chipperfield, L. Plaja, L. C. Ruiz, J. P. Marangos, and L. Roso, “Extension of the cut-off in high-harmonic generation using two delayed pulses of the same colour,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134004 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Express 30(19), 2657–2659 (2005).
  26. C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23, 792794 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

2008

Y. Mairesse, D. Zeidler, N. Dudovich, M. Spanner, J. Levesque, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “High-order harmonic transient grating spectroscopy in a molecular jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bergé, “Self-compression of 2 μm laser filaments,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21529–21543 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Wu, H. Cai, H. P. Zeng, and A. Couairon, “Femtosecond filamentation and pulse compression in the wake of molecular alignment more options,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2593–2595 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2006

O. G. Kosareva, I. N. Murtazin, N. A. Panov, A. B. Savelev, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Pulse shortening due to filamentation in transparent medium,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(2), 126–132 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, G. Stibenz, and G. Steinmeyer, “Sub-10 fs pulse characterization using spatially encoded arrangement for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1914–1916 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier-envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Circular phase mask for control and stabilization of single optical filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31(15), 2326–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

V. P. Kandidov, N. Akozbek, M. Scalora, O. G. Kosareva, A. V. Nyakk, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, and S. L. Chin, “Towards a control of multiple filamentation by spatial regularization of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 267–275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S.  Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Express 30(19), 2657–2659 (2005).

2004

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Fibich, S. Eisenmann, B. Ilan, and A. Zigler, “Control of multiple filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1772 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubietis, G. Tamošauskas, G. Fibich, and B. Ilan, “Multiple filamentation induced by input-beam ellipticity,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1126 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, “Multiple Filamentation of Circularly Polarized Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (1), 013901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23, 792794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1966

V. I. Bespalov, and V. I. Talanov, “Filamentary structure of light beams in nonlinear media,” JETP Lett. 3, 307 (1966).

Abel, M. J.

Akozbek, N.

V. P. Kandidov, N. Akozbek, M. Scalora, O. G. Kosareva, A. V. Nyakk, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, and S. L. Chin, “Towards a control of multiple filamentation by spatial regularization of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 267–275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alisauskas, S.

Alonso, B.

Anscombe, M.

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier-envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Austin, D. R.

Baltuska, A.

Berge, L.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergé, L.

Bespalov, V. I.

V. I. Bespalov, and V. I. Talanov, “Filamentary structure of light beams in nonlinear media,” JETP Lett. 3, 307 (1966).

Biegert, J.

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5394–5404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier-envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Express 30(19), 2657–2659 (2005).

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bourayou, R.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, H.

Chakraborty, H. S.

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

O. G. Kosareva, I. N. Murtazin, N. A. Panov, A. B. Savelev, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Pulse shortening due to filamentation in transparent medium,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(2), 126–132 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, N. Akozbek, M. Scalora, O. G. Kosareva, A. V. Nyakk, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, and S. L. Chin, “Towards a control of multiple filamentation by spatial regularization of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 267–275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chipperfield, L. E.

J. A. Perez-Hernandez, D. Hoffmann, A. Zaïr, L. E. Chipperfield, L. Plaja, L. C. Ruiz, J. P. Marangos, and L. Roso, “Extension of the cut-off in high-harmonic generation using two delayed pulses of the same colour,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

Y. Mairesse, D. Zeidler, N. Dudovich, M. Spanner, J. Levesque, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “High-order harmonic transient grating spectroscopy in a molecular jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cormier, E.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S.  Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Corner, L.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S.  Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Couairon, A.

J. Wu, H. Cai, H. P. Zeng, and A. Couairon, “Femtosecond filamentation and pulse compression in the wake of molecular alignment more options,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2593–2595 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2–4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5394–5404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Express 30(19), 2657–2659 (2005).

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danielius, R.

DiMauro, L. F.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S.  Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dubietis, A.

Dudovich, N.

Y. Mairesse, D. Zeidler, N. Dudovich, M. Spanner, J. Levesque, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “High-order harmonic transient grating spectroscopy in a molecular jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckle, P.

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier-envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eisenmann, S.

Fibich, G.

Forget, N.

Franco, M.

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5394–5404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Express 30(19), 2657–2659 (2005).

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaarde, M. B.

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gallmann, L.

Giniunas, L.

Guandalini, A.

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5394–5404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier-envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hauri, C. P.

A. Trisorio, and C. P. Hauri, “Control and characterization of multiple circularly polarized femtosecond filaments in argon,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1650–1652 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, A.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Helbing, F. W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, D.

J. A. Perez-Hernandez, D. Hoffmann, A. Zaïr, L. E. Chipperfield, L. Plaja, L. C. Ruiz, J. P. Marangos, and L. Roso, “Extension of the cut-off in high-harmonic generation using two delayed pulses of the same colour,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Holler, M.

Hosseini, S. A.

V. P. Kandidov, N. Akozbek, M. Scalora, O. G. Kosareva, A. V. Nyakk, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, and S. L. Chin, “Towards a control of multiple filamentation by spatial regularization of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 267–275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Iaconis, C.

C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23, 792794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ilan, B.

Kandidov, V. P.

O. G. Kosareva, I. N. Murtazin, N. A. Panov, A. B. Savelev, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Pulse shortening due to filamentation in transparent medium,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(2), 126–132 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, N. Akozbek, M. Scalora, O. G. Kosareva, A. V. Nyakk, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, and S. L. Chin, “Towards a control of multiple filamentation by spatial regularization of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 267–275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kasparian, J.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5394–5404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier-envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Express 30(19), 2657–2659 (2005).

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kornelis, W.

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

O. G. Kosareva, I. N. Murtazin, N. A. Panov, A. B. Savelev, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Pulse shortening due to filamentation in transparent medium,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(2), 126–132 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, N. Akozbek, M. Scalora, O. G. Kosareva, A. V. Nyakk, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, and S. L. Chin, “Towards a control of multiple filamentation by spatial regularization of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 267–275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kosik, E. M.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S.  Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leone, S. R.

Levesque, J.

Y. Mairesse, D. Zeidler, N. Dudovich, M. Spanner, J. Levesque, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “High-order harmonic transient grating spectroscopy in a molecular jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, Q.

V. P. Kandidov, N. Akozbek, M. Scalora, O. G. Kosareva, A. V. Nyakk, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, and S. L. Chin, “Towards a control of multiple filamentation by spatial regularization of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 267–275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mairesse, Y.

Y. Mairesse, D. Zeidler, N. Dudovich, M. Spanner, J. Levesque, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “High-order harmonic transient grating spectroscopy in a molecular jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marangos, J. P.

J. A. Perez-Hernandez, D. Hoffmann, A. Zaïr, L. E. Chipperfield, L. Plaja, L. C. Ruiz, J. P. Marangos, and L. Roso, “Extension of the cut-off in high-harmonic generation using two delayed pulses of the same colour,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Méchain, G.

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mejean, G.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mucke, O. D.

Murtazin, I. N.

O. G. Kosareva, I. N. Murtazin, N. A. Panov, A. B. Savelev, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Pulse shortening due to filamentation in transparent medium,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(2), 126–132 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mysyrowicz, A.

A. Zaïr, A. Guandalini, F. Schapper, M. Holler, J. Biegert, L. Gallmann, U. Keller, A. Couairon, M. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spatio-temporal characterization of few-cycle pulses obtained by filamentation,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5394–5404 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2–4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Couairon, M. Franco, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Pulse self-compression to the single-cycle limit by filamentation in a gas with a pressure gradient,” Opt. Express 30(19), 2657–2659 (2005).

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neumark, D. M.

Nyakk, A. V.

V. P. Kandidov, N. Akozbek, M. Scalora, O. G. Kosareva, A. V. Nyakk, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, and S. L. Chin, “Towards a control of multiple filamentation by spatial regularization of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 267–275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Panov, N. A.

O. G. Kosareva, I. N. Murtazin, N. A. Panov, A. B. Savelev, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Pulse shortening due to filamentation in transparent medium,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(2), 126–132 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Perez-Hernandez, J. A.

J. A. Perez-Hernandez, D. Hoffmann, A. Zaïr, L. E. Chipperfield, L. Plaja, L. C. Ruiz, J. P. Marangos, and L. Roso, “Extension of the cut-off in high-harmonic generation using two delayed pulses of the same colour,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pfeifer, T.

Plaja, L.

J. A. Perez-Hernandez, D. Hoffmann, A. Zaïr, L. E. Chipperfield, L. Plaja, L. C. Ruiz, J. P. Marangos, and L. Roso, “Extension of the cut-off in high-harmonic generation using two delayed pulses of the same colour,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pocius, J.

Prade, B.

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prieto, C.

Pugzlys, A.

Rodriguez, M.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roso, L.

J. A. Perez-Hernandez, D. Hoffmann, A. Zaïr, L. E. Chipperfield, L. Plaja, L. C. Ruiz, J. P. Marangos, and L. Roso, “Extension of the cut-off in high-harmonic generation using two delayed pulses of the same colour,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Varela, A. Zaïr, J. San Roman, B. Alonso, I. J. Sola, C. Prieto, and L. Roso, “Above-millijoule super-continuum generation using polarisation dependent filamentation in atoms and molecules,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3630–3639 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruiz, L. C.

J. A. Perez-Hernandez, D. Hoffmann, A. Zaïr, L. E. Chipperfield, L. Plaja, L. C. Ruiz, J. P. Marangos, and L. Roso, “Extension of the cut-off in high-harmonic generation using two delayed pulses of the same colour,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

San Roman, J.

Sauerbrey, R.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Savelev, A. B.

O. G. Kosareva, I. N. Murtazin, N. A. Panov, A. B. Savelev, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Pulse shortening due to filamentation in transparent medium,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(2), 126–132 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

V. P. Kandidov, N. Akozbek, M. Scalora, O. G. Kosareva, A. V. Nyakk, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, and S. L. Chin, “Towards a control of multiple filamentation by spatial regularization of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 267–275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schapper, F.

Schlup, P.

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier-envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skupin, S.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smilgevicius, V.

Sola, I. J.

Spanner, M.

Y. Mairesse, D. Zeidler, N. Dudovich, M. Spanner, J. Levesque, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “High-order harmonic transient grating spectroscopy in a molecular jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

Stibenz, G.

Talanov, V. I.

V. I. Bespalov, and V. I. Talanov, “Filamentary structure of light beams in nonlinear media,” JETP Lett. 3, 307 (1966).

Tamošauskas, G.

Trisorio, A.

Varela, O.

Verhoef, J. A.

Villeneuve, D. M.

Y. Mairesse, D. Zeidler, N. Dudovich, M. Spanner, J. Levesque, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “High-order harmonic transient grating spectroscopy in a molecular jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walmsley, I. A.

Witting, T.

Wolf, J. P.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wöste, L.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

Wyatt, A. S.

Wyatt, A. S.

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S.  Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaïr, A.

Zeidler, D.

Y. Mairesse, D. Zeidler, N. Dudovich, M. Spanner, J. Levesque, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “High-order harmonic transient grating spectroscopy in a molecular jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeng, H. P.

Zigler, A.

Appl. Phys. B

C. P. Hauri, W. Kornelis, F. W. Helbing, A. Heinrich, A. Couairon, A. Mysyrowicz, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “Generation of intense carrier-envelope phase-locked few-cycle laser pulses through filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 673–677 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, N. Akozbek, M. Scalora, O. G. Kosareva, A. V. Nyakk, Q. Luo, S. A. Hosseini, and S. L. Chin, “Towards a control of multiple filamentation by spatial regularization of a high-power femtosecond laser pulse,” Appl. Phys. B 80(2), 267–275 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys.

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier-envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, S257–S264 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Perez-Hernandez, D. Hoffmann, A. Zaïr, L. E. Chipperfield, L. Plaja, L. C. Ruiz, J. P. Marangos, and L. Roso, “Extension of the cut-off in high-harmonic generation using two delayed pulses of the same colour,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42(13), 134004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett.

V. I. Bespalov, and V. I. Talanov, “Filamentary structure of light beams in nonlinear media,” JETP Lett. 3, 307 (1966).

Laser Phys. Lett.

O. G. Kosareva, I. N. Murtazin, N. A. Panov, A. B. Savelev, V. P. Kandidov, and S. L. Chin, “Pulse shortening due to filamentation in transparent medium,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(2), 126–132 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

C. Iaconis, and I. A. Walmsley, “Spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Lett. 23, 792794 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Pfeifer, L. Gallmann, M. J. Abel, D. M. Neumark, and S. R. Leone, “Circular phase mask for control and stabilization of single optical filaments,” Opt. Lett. 31(15), 2326–2328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Trisorio, and C. P. Hauri, “Control and characterization of multiple circularly polarized femtosecond filaments in argon,” Opt. Lett. 32, 1650–1652 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wu, H. Cai, H. P. Zeng, and A. Couairon, “Femtosecond filamentation and pulse compression in the wake of molecular alignment more options,” Opt. Lett. 33(22), 2593–2595 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Wyatt, I. A. Walmsley, G. Stibenz, and G. Steinmeyer, “Sub-10 fs pulse characterization using spatially encoded arrangement for spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1914–1916 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Witting, D. R. Austin, and I. A. Walmsley, “Improved ancilla preparation in spectral shearing interferometry for accurate ultrafast pulse characterization,” Opt. Lett. 34(7), 881–883 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubietis, G. Tamošauskas, G. Fibich, and B. Ilan, “Multiple filamentation induced by input-beam ellipticity,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1126 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Mucke, S. Alisauskas, J. A. Verhoef, A. Pugzlys, A. Baltuska, V. Smilgevicius, J. Pocius, L. Giniunas, R. Danielius, and N. Forget, “Self-compression of millijoule 1.5μm pulses,” Opt. Lett. 34(16), 2498–2500 (2009).
[PubMed]

G. Fibich, S. Eisenmann, B. Ilan, and A. Zigler, “Control of multiple filamentation in air,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1772 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rep.

A. Couairon, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Femtosecond filamentation in transparent media,” Phys. Rep. 441(2–4), 47–189 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

A. Couairon, H. S. Chakraborty, and M. B. Gaarde, “From single-cycle self-compressed filaments to isolated attosecond pulses in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 053814 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

G. Méchain, A. Couairon, M. Franco, B. Prade, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Organizing Multiple Femtosecond Filaments in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 035003 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Fibich and B. Ilan, “Multiple Filamentation of Circularly Polarized Beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (1), 013901 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Cormier, I. A. Walmsley, E. M. Kosik, A. S.  Wyatt, L. Corner, and L. F. DiMauro, “Self-referencing, spectrally, or spatially encoded spectral interferometry for the complete characterization of attosecond electromagnetic pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 033905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Mairesse, D. Zeidler, N. Dudovich, M. Spanner, J. Levesque, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “High-order harmonic transient grating spectroscopy in a molecular jet,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(14), 143903 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Berge, S. Skupin, F. Lederer, G. Mejean, J. Yu, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. P. Wolf, M. Rodriguez, L. Wöste, R. Bourayou, and R. Sauerbrey, “Multiple Filamentation of Terawatt Laser Pulses in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 225002 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: AVI (65496 KB)     

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

Dependence of single filament (a) and multi-filament (b) spatial distribution with concentration of argon/nitrogen in the cell target. The single filament case is unchanged by the target concentration and is taken as reference in this experiment. The multi-filamentation distribution exhibits a clear dependence with the concentration of gas and highlight the possibility to use this new degree of freedom for controlling the deterministic position of the child-filaments produced.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Spectral distribution for the single filament (a) and for one of the child-filament within the multifilament regime (b), as a function of the gas concentration.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

(Media 1) Calculated dependence of multiple filaments spatial distribution in pure (concentration of 100 %) argon (a) and nitrogen (b)target at the output of the cell target (propagation over z=2 m). The multi-filamentation distribution exhibits a clear dependence with the gas species used. The following values have been taken for the simulation: K = 11, σK = 6.31 × 10−140 s −1 cm 22 W −11, n 2 = 2.3 × 1019 cm 2/W for N 2 and σK = 6.0 × 10−140 s −1 cm 22 W −11, n 2 = 1.74 × 1019 cm 2/W for Ar, τK = 70fs, ρ = 2.5 × 1019 cm −3, ρc = 1.8 × 1021 cm −3 [16–18].

Equations (1)

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i z ψ + 1 2 k 0 2 ψ + α k 0 n 2 ψ 2 ψ γ ψ 2 K ψ + i ν ψ 2 K 1 ψ = 0

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