Abstract

On-chip integration of III-V laser diodes and photodetectors with silicon nanowire waveguides is demonstrated. Through flip-chip bonding of GaInNAs/GaAs laser diodes directly onto the silicon substrate, efficient heat dissipation was realized and characteristic temperatures as high as 132K were achieved. Spot-size converters for the laser-to-waveguide coupling were used, with efficiencies greater than 60%. The photodetectors were fabricated by bonding of InGaAs/InP wafers directly to silicon waveguides and formation of metal-semiconductor-metal structures, giving responsivities as high as 0.74 A/W. Both laser diode and the photodetector were integrated with a single silicon waveguide to demonstrate a complete on-chip optical transmission link.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2009

2008

Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed hybrid silicon evanescent electroabsorption modulator,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9936–9941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, D. V. Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “Design and optimization of electrically injected InP-based microdisk lasers integrated on and coupled to a SOI waveguide circuit,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 52–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

2005

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. D. Mesel, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Thin-film devices fabricated with benzocyclobutene adhesive wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 517–523 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2001

M. M. R. Howlader, T. Watanabe, and T. Suga, “Investigation of the bonding strength and interface current of p-Si/n-GaAs wafers bonded by surface activated bonding at room temperature,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19(6), 2114–2118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

Albonesi, D. H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, D. V. Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “Design and optimization of electrically injected InP-based microdisk lasers integrated on and coupled to a SOI waveguide circuit,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 52–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Laser emission and photodetection in an InP/InGaAsP layer integrated on and coupled to a Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8154–8159 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. D. Mesel, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Thin-film devices fabricated with benzocyclobutene adhesive wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 517–523 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bowers, J. E.

Campenhout, J. V.

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, D. V. Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “Design and optimization of electrically injected InP-based microdisk lasers integrated on and coupled to a SOI waveguide circuit,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 52–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.-H.

Chen, G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-W.

Chen, J.

Chen, L.

Chetrit, Y.

Christiaens, I.

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. D. Mesel, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Thin-film devices fabricated with benzocyclobutene adhesive wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 517–523 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cioccio, L. D.

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, D. V. Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “Design and optimization of electrically injected InP-based microdisk lasers integrated on and coupled to a SOI waveguide circuit,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 52–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, O.

Cohen, R.

Dai, D.

Fang, A. W.

Fauchet, P. M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, D. V. Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “Design and optimization of electrically injected InP-based microdisk lasers integrated on and coupled to a SOI waveguide circuit,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 52–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fiorentino, M.

Friedman, E. G.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Giziewicz, W.

Green, W. M. J.

Haurylau, M.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. Y.

Howlader, M. M. R.

M. M. R. Howlader, T. Watanabe, and T. Suga, “Investigation of the bonding strength and interface current of p-Si/n-GaAs wafers bonded by surface activated bonding at room temperature,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19(6), 2114–2118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Itabashi, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

Kärtner, F. X.

Kimerling, L. C.

Kuo, Y. H.

Kuo, Y.-H.

Liang, D.

Lipson, M.

Liu, J.

Manipatruni, S.

McNab, S. J.

Mesel, K. D.

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. D. Mesel, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Thin-film devices fabricated with benzocyclobutene adhesive wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 517–523 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morita, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M. M.

Nelson, N. A.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nötzel, R.

Okumura, T.

Paniccia, M. J.

Park, H.

Preston, K.

Regreny, P.

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, D. V. Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “Design and optimization of electrically injected InP-based microdisk lasers integrated on and coupled to a SOI waveguide circuit,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 52–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Laser emission and photodetection in an InP/InGaAsP layer integrated on and coupled to a Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8154–8159 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. D. Mesel, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Thin-film devices fabricated with benzocyclobutene adhesive wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 517–523 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Romeo, P. R.

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, D. V. Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “Design and optimization of electrically injected InP-based microdisk lasers integrated on and coupled to a SOI waveguide circuit,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 52–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

Rubin, D.

Sarid, G.

Schmidt, B.

Seassal, C.

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, D. V. Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “Design and optimization of electrically injected InP-based microdisk lasers integrated on and coupled to a SOI waveguide circuit,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 52–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sekaric, L.

Shakya, J.

Shoji, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M.

Spencer, D. T.

Suga, T.

M. M. R. Howlader, T. Watanabe, and T. Suga, “Investigation of the bonding strength and interface current of p-Si/n-GaAs wafers bonded by surface activated bonding at room temperature,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19(6), 2114–2118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, J.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tamechika, E.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, D. V. Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “Design and optimization of electrically injected InP-based microdisk lasers integrated on and coupled to a SOI waveguide circuit,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 52–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. D. Mesel, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Thin-film devices fabricated with benzocyclobutene adhesive wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 517–523 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. M. R. Howlader, T. Watanabe, and T. Suga, “Investigation of the bonding strength and interface current of p-Si/n-GaAs wafers bonded by surface activated bonding at room temperature,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19(6), 2114–2118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yin, T.

Zhang, J.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Lightwave Technol.

J. V. Campenhout, P. R. Romeo, D. V. Thourhout, C. Seassal, P. Regreny, L. D. Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, and R. Baets, “Design and optimization of electrically injected InP-based microdisk lasers integrated on and coupled to a SOI waveguide circuit,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 26(1), 52–63 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Christiaens, G. Roelkens, K. D. Mesel, D. V. Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Thin-film devices fabricated with benzocyclobutene adhesive wafer bonding,” IEEE J. Lightwave Technol. 23(2), 517–523 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Haurylau, G. Chen, H. Chen, J. Zhang, N. A. Nelson, D. H. Albonesi, E. G. Friedman, and P. M. Fauchet, “On-chip optical interconnect roadmap: challenges and critical directions,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1699–1705 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B

M. M. R. Howlader, T. Watanabe, and T. Suga, “Investigation of the bonding strength and interface current of p-Si/n-GaAs wafers bonded by surface activated bonding at room temperature,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 19(6), 2114–2118 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Y.-H. Kuo, H.-W. Chen, and J. E. Bowers, “High speed hybrid silicon evanescent electroabsorption modulator,” Opt. Express 16(13), 9936–9941 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. J. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express 15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, S. Manipatruni, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “12.5 Gbit/s carrier-injection-based silicon micro-ring silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 15(2), 430–436 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, T. Okumura, H.-H. Chang, D. T. Spencer, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, D. Dai, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically-pumped compact hybrid silicon microring lasers for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20355–20364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Park, Y. H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, R. Jones, O. Cohen, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “A hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent preamplifier and photodetector,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13539–13546 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chen, K. Preston, S. Manipatruni, and M. Lipson, “Integrated GHz silicon photonic interconnect with micrometer-scale modulators and detectors,” Opt. Express 17(17), 15248–15256 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yin, R. Cohen, M. M. Morse, G. Sarid, Y. Chetrit, D. Rubin, and M. J. Paniccia, “31 GHz Ge n-i-p waveguide photodetectors on Silicon-on-Insulator substrate,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13965–13971 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Ahn, C. Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. A. Vlasov and S. J. McNab, “Losses in single-mode silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 12(8), 1622–1631 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, R. Nötzel, and M. Smit, “Laser emission and photodetection in an InP/InGaAsP layer integrated on and coupled to a Silicon-on-Insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 14(18), 8154–8159 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE

D. A. B. Miller, “Rationale and challenges for optical interconnects to electronic chips,” Proc. IEEE 88(6), 728–749 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Kapulainen, S. Ylinen, T. Aalto, M. Harjanne, K. Solehmainen, J. Ollila, and V. Vilokkinen, “Hybrid integration of InP lasers with SOI waveguides using thermocompression bonding,” in Proceedings of 5th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2008), pp. 61–63.

H. Yoshida, T. Sato, K. Ohira, R. Hashimoto, N. Iizuka, and M. Ezaki, “A novel thin-overcladding spot- size converter for efficient silicon-wire optical interconnections and waveguide circuits,” in Proceedings of 5th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2008), pp. 377–379.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-Integrated 40GHz Germanium Waveguide Photodetector for On-Chip Optical Interconnects,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper OMR4. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OFC-2009-OMR4 .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic illustration of laser diode chip integrated on Si waveguide with spot-size converter. (b) Simulation result of light power coupling from LD to Si waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Alignment tolerance of LD chip and Si waveguide with SSC. (a) Dimension of SSC with tapered overcladding. Coupling efficiency dependence on (b) lateral direction offset from the waveguide center, (c) height of the active layer, and (d) gap between LD facet and BOX facet.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM image of integrated LD chip (b) Lasing characteristics of LD chip before and after FCB. (c) Threshold current dependence on operation temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

InGaAs MSM-PD integrated on Si waveguide. (a) Illustration and (b) cross-sectional structure and simulated optical field.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Microphotograph of fabricated MSM-PD on Si waveguide. (b) Photo and dark current characteristics.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Photograph of integration of laser diode (LD) chip and PD with Si waveguide. (b) On-chip optical transmission result; photocurrent dependence on injection current to the LD.

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