Abstract

We demonstrate a monolithic integration of variable optical attenuators (VOAs) and photodetectors (PDs) based on submicrometer silicon (Si) rib waveguide with p-i-n diode structure for near infrared (NIR) light. To make the Si PD absorptive for NIR, we introduced lattice defects at the rib core by means of argon ion implantation. At reverse bias of 5 V, the PD exhibits dark current of ~1 nA, responsivity of ~65 mA/W at 1560-nm wavelength, and a 3-dB cut-off frequency of ~350 MHz, while the VOA shows ~100 MHz. The PD has an absorption coefficient as low as ~0.5 cm−1, which is favorable for an in in-line PD configuration, where the PD absorbs a small portion of the optical power. For DC light, the PD precisely detects the optical power attenuated by the VOA with a detection range of over 40 dB. The 3-dB cut-off frequency of synchronous operation between the VOA and PD is ~50 MHz, which is limited by RF noise originating from the VOA drive current. Putting an isolation groove between the VOA and PD is effective for avoiding performance degradation in DC and RF operation.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. D. Ahn, C.-Y. Hong, J. Liu, W. Giziewicz, M. Beals, L. C. Kimerling, J. Michel, J. Chen, and F. X. Kärtner, “High performance, waveguide integrated Ge photodetectors,” Opt. Express 15(7), 3916–3921 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Vivien, M. Rouvière, J.-M. Fédéli, D. Marris-Morini, J. F. Damlencourt, J. Mangeney, P. Crozat, L. El Melhaoui, E. Cassan, X. Le Roux, D. Pascal, and S. Laval, “High speed and high responsivity germanium photodetector integrated in a silicon-on-insulator microwaveguide,” Opt. Express 15(15), 9843–9848 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Käertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 152–154 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. J. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, C. M. Wynn, S. T. Palmacci, F. Gan, F. X. Käertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “All silicon infrared photodiodes: photo response and effects of processing temperature,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16886–16895 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Silicon waveguide infrared photodiodes with >35 GHz bandwidth and phototransistors with 50 AW-1 response,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5193–5204 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, “In-line channel power monitor based on helium ion implantation in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1882–1884 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Y. Fan and A. K. Ramdas, “Infrared absorption and photoconductivity in irradiated silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(8), 1127–1134 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulator at 1.5 µm in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 83 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, S. Itabashi, S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, “Monolithic integration of germanium photodetectors and silicon wire waveguides with carrier injection structures,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuV2.
  11. A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Monolithically integrated photodetectors for optical signal monitoring in silicon waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 61250J (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. E. Jessop, L. K. Rowe, S. M. McFaul, A. P. Knights, N. G. Tarr, and A. Tam, “Study of the monolithic integration of sub-bandgap detection, signal amplification and optical attenuation on a silicon photonic chip,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 456–459 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, C. H. Kwok, H. K. Tsang, and C. Lin, “Optical burst and transient equalizer for 10Gb/s amplified WDM-PON,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, (Academic, 2007), OThU7.
  14. T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Nishihara, M. Nakamura, K. Nishimura, K. Kishine, S. Kimura, and K. Kato, “10.3 Gbit/s burst-mode PIN-TIA module with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and quick response,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 222 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “Silicon waveguide infrared photodiodes with >35 GHz bandwidth and phototransistors with 50 AW-1 response,” Opt. Express 17(7), 5193–5204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Jessop, L. K. Rowe, S. M. McFaul, A. P. Knights, N. G. Tarr, and A. Tam, “Study of the monolithic integration of sub-bandgap detection, signal amplification and optical attenuation on a silicon photonic chip,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 456–459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Nishihara, M. Nakamura, K. Nishimura, K. Kishine, S. Kimura, and K. Kato, “10.3 Gbit/s burst-mode PIN-TIA module with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and quick response,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

2006 (2)

Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, “In-line channel power monitor based on helium ion implantation in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1882–1884 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Monolithically integrated photodetectors for optical signal monitoring in silicon waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 61250J (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulator at 1.5 µm in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

H. Y. Fan and A. K. Ramdas, “Infrared absorption and photoconductivity in irradiated silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(8), 1127–1134 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

Beals, M.

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, J. D. B.

A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Monolithically integrated photodetectors for optical signal monitoring in silicon waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 61250J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Chen, J.

Cheung, W. Y.

Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, “In-line channel power monitor based on helium ion implantation in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1882–1884 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chow, C. W.

Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, “In-line channel power monitor based on helium ion implantation in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1882–1884 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cocorullo, G.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulator at 1.5 µm in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

Damlencourt, J. F.

Deneault, S.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Käertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 152–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

El Melhaoui, L.

Fan, H. Y.

H. Y. Fan and A. K. Ramdas, “Infrared absorption and photoconductivity in irradiated silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(8), 1127–1134 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Fédéli, J.-M.

Fukuda, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gan, F.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. J. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, C. M. Wynn, S. T. Palmacci, F. Gan, F. X. Käertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “All silicon infrared photodiodes: photo response and effects of processing temperature,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16886–16895 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Käertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 152–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Geis, M. W.

Giziewicz, W.

Gou, S. H.

A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Monolithically integrated photodetectors for optical signal monitoring in silicon waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 61250J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grein, M. E.

Hong, C.-Y.

Itabashi, S.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jessop, P. E.

P. E. Jessop, L. K. Rowe, S. M. McFaul, A. P. Knights, N. G. Tarr, and A. Tam, “Study of the monolithic integration of sub-bandgap detection, signal amplification and optical attenuation on a silicon photonic chip,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 456–459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Monolithically integrated photodetectors for optical signal monitoring in silicon waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 61250J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Käertner, F. X.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. J. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, C. M. Wynn, S. T. Palmacci, F. Gan, F. X. Käertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “All silicon infrared photodiodes: photo response and effects of processing temperature,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16886–16895 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Käertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 152–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kato, K.

S. Nishihara, M. Nakamura, K. Nishimura, K. Kishine, S. Kimura, and K. Kato, “10.3 Gbit/s burst-mode PIN-TIA module with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and quick response,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

Kimura, S.

S. Nishihara, M. Nakamura, K. Nishimura, K. Kishine, S. Kimura, and K. Kato, “10.3 Gbit/s burst-mode PIN-TIA module with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and quick response,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kishine, K.

S. Nishihara, M. Nakamura, K. Nishimura, K. Kishine, S. Kimura, and K. Kato, “10.3 Gbit/s burst-mode PIN-TIA module with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and quick response,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Knights, A. P.

P. E. Jessop, L. K. Rowe, S. M. McFaul, A. P. Knights, N. G. Tarr, and A. Tam, “Study of the monolithic integration of sub-bandgap detection, signal amplification and optical attenuation on a silicon photonic chip,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 456–459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Monolithically integrated photodetectors for optical signal monitoring in silicon waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 61250J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

Le Roux, X.

Lennon, D. M.

Liu, J.

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, “In-line channel power monitor based on helium ion implantation in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1882–1884 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

Mangeney, J.

Marris-Morini, D.

McFaul, S. M.

P. E. Jessop, L. K. Rowe, S. M. McFaul, A. P. Knights, N. G. Tarr, and A. Tam, “Study of the monolithic integration of sub-bandgap detection, signal amplification and optical attenuation on a silicon photonic chip,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 456–459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Morita, H.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, M.

S. Nishihara, M. Nakamura, K. Nishimura, K. Kishine, S. Kimura, and K. Kato, “10.3 Gbit/s burst-mode PIN-TIA module with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and quick response,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, S.

S. Nishihara, M. Nakamura, K. Nishimura, K. Kishine, S. Kimura, and K. Kato, “10.3 Gbit/s burst-mode PIN-TIA module with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and quick response,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, K.

S. Nishihara, M. Nakamura, K. Nishimura, K. Kishine, S. Kimura, and K. Kato, “10.3 Gbit/s burst-mode PIN-TIA module with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and quick response,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Palmacci, S. T.

Pascal, D.

Ramdas, A. K.

H. Y. Fan and A. K. Ramdas, “Infrared absorption and photoconductivity in irradiated silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(8), 1127–1134 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Rendina, I.

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulator at 1.5 µm in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rouvière, M.

Rowe, L. K.

P. E. Jessop, L. K. Rowe, S. M. McFaul, A. P. Knights, N. G. Tarr, and A. Tam, “Study of the monolithic integration of sub-bandgap detection, signal amplification and optical attenuation on a silicon photonic chip,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 456–459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schulein, R. J.

Schulein, R. T.

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Käertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 152–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shoji, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Spector, S. J.

Takahashi, J.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tam, A.

P. E. Jessop, L. K. Rowe, S. M. McFaul, A. P. Knights, N. G. Tarr, and A. Tam, “Study of the monolithic integration of sub-bandgap detection, signal amplification and optical attenuation on a silicon photonic chip,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 456–459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tamechika, E.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tarr, N. G.

P. E. Jessop, L. K. Rowe, S. M. McFaul, A. P. Knights, N. G. Tarr, and A. Tam, “Study of the monolithic integration of sub-bandgap detection, signal amplification and optical attenuation on a silicon photonic chip,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 456–459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsang, H. K.

Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, “In-line channel power monitor based on helium ion implantation in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1882–1884 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchizawa, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Watanabe, T.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wynn, C. M.

Yamada, K.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, J. U.

Electron. Lett. (2)

G. Cocorullo and I. Rendina, “Thermo-optical modulator at 1.5 µm in silicon etalon,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Nishihara, M. Nakamura, K. Nishimura, K. Kishine, S. Kimura, and K. Kato, “10.3 Gbit/s burst-mode PIN-TIA module with high sensitivity, wide dynamic range and quick response,” Electron. Lett. 44(3), 222 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, H. Fukuda, T. Watanabe, J. Takahashi, M. Takahashi, T. Shoji, E. Tamechika, S. Itabashi, and H. Morita, “Microphotonics devices based on silicon microfabrication technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 232–240 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, W. Y. Cheung, and H. K. Tsang, “In-line channel power monitor based on helium ion implantation in silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1882–1884 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Geis, S. J. Spector, M. E. Grein, R. T. Schulein, J. U. Yoon, D. M. Lennon, S. Deneault, F. Gan, F. X. Käertner, and T. M. Lyszczarz, “CMOS-compatible all-Si high-speed waveguide photodiodes with high responsivity in near-infrared communication band,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(3), 152–154 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Y. Fan and A. K. Ramdas, “Infrared absorption and photoconductivity in irradiated silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 30(8), 1127–1134 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. (1)

P. E. Jessop, L. K. Rowe, S. M. McFaul, A. P. Knights, N. G. Tarr, and A. Tam, “Study of the monolithic integration of sub-bandgap detection, signal amplification and optical attenuation on a silicon photonic chip,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 20(S1), 456–459 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

A. P. Knights, J. D. B. Bradley, S. H. Gou, and P. E. Jessop, “Monolithically integrated photodetectors for optical signal monitoring in silicon waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 61250J (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Y. Liu, C. W. Chow, C. H. Kwok, H. K. Tsang, and C. Lin, “Optical burst and transient equalizer for 10Gb/s amplified WDM-PON,” in Proceedings of Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, (Academic, 2007), OThU7.

T. Tsuchizawa, K. Yamada, T. Watanabe, H. Shinojima, H. Nishi, S. Itabashi, S. Park, Y. Ishikawa, and K. Wada, “Monolithic integration of germanium photodetectors and silicon wire waveguides with carrier injection structures,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CTuV2.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Cross-section of a p-i-n diode for the VOA and PD on a submicrometer rib waveguide. (b) Optical microscope image of the in-line VOA and PD with 2.5-mm length.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) I-V curves of the PD under dark and illumination, (b) photocurrent (left) and responsivity (right) versus optical power at the PD, and (c) responsivity for the C-band wavelength. The PD length is 2.5 mm and a reverse bias of 5 V is applied. (d) Responsivity as a function of the PD length at −5 V. (e) Transmission against the PD length.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Block diagram of the frequency-response measurement setups for (a) the VOA and (b) PD. (c) Frequency response of the VOA at injection current of 5 and 10 mA, and that of the PD under reverse bias of 5 and 15 V.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Block diagram of the setup for measuring the synchronous frequency response between the VOA and PD. The frequency response of the synchronous VOA-PD at injection current of 10 mA to the VOA are shown in (b) and (c), respectively, for 1) the direct electrical probing by the PD and 2) electrical conversion at the O-E converter with reverse bias applied to the PD.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Optical microscope image of frequency response measured in a dark condition between the VOA and PD. In-line and out-of-line refer to a VOA-PD pair placed along the same waveguide (VOA-PD1) and separated along the isolation groove (VOA-PD2), respectively. Magnitudes [(b),(d)] and phases [(c),(e)] as a function of frequency at the reverse bias of 5 and 15 V of the PD and at 10-mA injection current to the VOA after calibration with an impedance standard substrate. (b) and (c) for the in-line VOA-PD1, while (d) and (e) for the out-of-line VOA-PD2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photocurrent and increase of dark current at the PD (left) and attenuation (right) at various injection currents to the VOA. Photocurrent was measured with the Si PD under reverse bias of 5 V.

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