Abstract

A number of interrelated factors can affect the precision and accuracy of lung nodule size estimation. To quantify the effect of these factors, we have been conducting phantom CT studies using an anthropomorphic thoracic phantom containing a vasculature insert to which synthetic nodules were inserted or attached. Ten repeat scans were acquired on different multi-detector scanners, using several sets of acquisition and reconstruction protocols and various nodule characteristics (size, shape, density, location). This study design enables both bias and variance analysis for the nodule size estimation task. The resulting database is in the process of becoming publicly available as a resource to facilitate the assessment of lung nodule size estimation methodologies and to enable comparisons between different methods regarding measurement error. This resource complements public databases of clinical data and will contribute towards the development of procedures that will maximize the utility of CT imaging for lung cancer screening and tumor therapy evaluation.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. C. Jaffe, “Measures of response: RECIST, WHO, and new alternatives,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(20), 3245–3251 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato. III, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H.-J. G. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “CT assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data and error,” Translational Oncol. 2, 216–222 (2009).
  6. C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato. III, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative Imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes, of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Translational Oncol. 2, 198–210 (2009).
  7. M. Das, J. Ley-Zaporozhan, H. A. Gietema, A. Czech, G. Mühlenbruch, A. H. Mahnken, M. Katoh, A. Bakai, M. Salganicoff, S. Diederich, M. Prokop, H. U. Kauczor, R. W. Günther, and J. E. Wildberger, “Accuracy of automated volumetry of pulmonary nodules across different multislice CT scanners,” Eur. Radiol. 17(8), 1979–1984 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. J. Kostis, A. P. Reeves, D. F. Yankelevitz, and C. I. Henschke, “Three-dimensional segmentation and growth-rate estimation of small pulmonary nodules in helical CT images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 22(10), 1259–1274 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. M. Kinnard, M. A. Gavrielides, K. J. Myers, R. Zeng, J. Peregoy, W. Pritchard, J. Karanian, and N. Petrick, “Volume Error Analysis for Lung Nodules Attached to Bronchial Vessels in an Anthropomorphic Thoracic Phantom,” Proc. SPIE 6915, 69152Q (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. P. Reeves, A. C. Jirapatnakul, A. M. Biancardi, T. V. Apanasovich, C. Schaefer, J. J. Bowden, M. Kietzmann, R. Korn, M. Dillmann, Q. Li, J. Wang, J. H. Moltz, J. Kuhnigk, T. Hayashi, X. Zhou, H. Fujita, T. Duindam, B. v. Ginneken, R. Avila, J. P. Ko, K. Melamud, H. Rusinek, R. Wiemker, G. Soza, C. Tietjen, M. Thorn, M. F. McNitt-Gray, Y. Valenciaga, M. Khatonabadi, Y. Kawata, and N. Niki, “The VOLCANO'09 challenge: Preliminary results,” in Second International Workshop of Pulmonary Image Analysis, (2009), pp. 353–364.
  11. M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “A template-based approach for the analysis of lung nodules in a volumetric CT phantom study,” Proc. SPIE 7260, 726009 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Information-theoretic approach for analyzing bias and variance in lung nodule size estimation with CT: a phantom study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging . in press).
    [PubMed]
  13. R. Zeng, N. Petrick, M. A. Gavrielides, and K. J. Myers, “Approximations of noise structures in helical multi-detector CT scans: application to lung nodule volume estimation,” Proc. SPIE 7624, 762415 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. I. Henschke, D. F. Yankelevitz, R. Mirtcheva, G. McGuinness, D. McCauley, O. S. Miettinen, and ELCAP Group, “CT screening for lung cancer: frequency and significance of part-solid and nonsolid nodules,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 178(5), 1053–1057 (2002).
    [PubMed]

2010 (1)

R. Zeng, N. Petrick, M. A. Gavrielides, and K. J. Myers, “Approximations of noise structures in helical multi-detector CT scans: application to lung nodule volume estimation,” Proc. SPIE 7624, 762415 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “A template-based approach for the analysis of lung nodules in a volumetric CT phantom study,” Proc. SPIE 7260, 726009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato. III, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H.-J. G. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “CT assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data and error,” Translational Oncol. 2, 216–222 (2009).

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato. III, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative Imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes, of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Translational Oncol. 2, 198–210 (2009).

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

L. M. Kinnard, M. A. Gavrielides, K. J. Myers, R. Zeng, J. Peregoy, W. Pritchard, J. Karanian, and N. Petrick, “Volume Error Analysis for Lung Nodules Attached to Bronchial Vessels in an Anthropomorphic Thoracic Phantom,” Proc. SPIE 6915, 69152Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. Das, J. Ley-Zaporozhan, H. A. Gietema, A. Czech, G. Mühlenbruch, A. H. Mahnken, M. Katoh, A. Bakai, M. Salganicoff, S. Diederich, M. Prokop, H. U. Kauczor, R. W. Günther, and J. E. Wildberger, “Accuracy of automated volumetry of pulmonary nodules across different multislice CT scanners,” Eur. Radiol. 17(8), 1979–1984 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

C. C. Jaffe, “Measures of response: RECIST, WHO, and new alternatives,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(20), 3245–3251 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

W. J. Kostis, A. P. Reeves, D. F. Yankelevitz, and C. I. Henschke, “Three-dimensional segmentation and growth-rate estimation of small pulmonary nodules in helical CT images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 22(10), 1259–1274 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

C. I. Henschke, D. F. Yankelevitz, R. Mirtcheva, G. McGuinness, D. McCauley, O. S. Miettinen, and ELCAP Group, “CT screening for lung cancer: frequency and significance of part-solid and nonsolid nodules,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 178(5), 1053–1057 (2002).
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arbuck, S.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arbuck, S. G.

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Armato. III, S. G.

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato. III, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H.-J. G. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “CT assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data and error,” Translational Oncol. 2, 216–222 (2009).

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato. III, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative Imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes, of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Translational Oncol. 2, 198–210 (2009).

Bakai, A.

M. Das, J. Ley-Zaporozhan, H. A. Gietema, A. Czech, G. Mühlenbruch, A. H. Mahnken, M. Katoh, A. Bakai, M. Salganicoff, S. Diederich, M. Prokop, H. U. Kauczor, R. W. Günther, and J. E. Wildberger, “Accuracy of automated volumetry of pulmonary nodules across different multislice CT scanners,” Eur. Radiol. 17(8), 1979–1984 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barboriak, D. P.

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato. III, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative Imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes, of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Translational Oncol. 2, 198–210 (2009).

Beichel, R.

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato. III, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H.-J. G. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “CT assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data and error,” Translational Oncol. 2, 216–222 (2009).

Bidaut, L. M.

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato. III, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H.-J. G. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “CT assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data and error,” Translational Oncol. 2, 216–222 (2009).

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato. III, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative Imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes, of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Translational Oncol. 2, 198–210 (2009).

Bogaerts, J.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Christian, M. C.

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Czech, A.

M. Das, J. Ley-Zaporozhan, H. A. Gietema, A. Czech, G. Mühlenbruch, A. H. Mahnken, M. Katoh, A. Bakai, M. Salganicoff, S. Diederich, M. Prokop, H. U. Kauczor, R. W. Günther, and J. E. Wildberger, “Accuracy of automated volumetry of pulmonary nodules across different multislice CT scanners,” Eur. Radiol. 17(8), 1979–1984 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dancey, J.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Das, M.

M. Das, J. Ley-Zaporozhan, H. A. Gietema, A. Czech, G. Mühlenbruch, A. H. Mahnken, M. Katoh, A. Bakai, M. Salganicoff, S. Diederich, M. Prokop, H. U. Kauczor, R. W. Günther, and J. E. Wildberger, “Accuracy of automated volumetry of pulmonary nodules across different multislice CT scanners,” Eur. Radiol. 17(8), 1979–1984 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diederich, S.

M. Das, J. Ley-Zaporozhan, H. A. Gietema, A. Czech, G. Mühlenbruch, A. H. Mahnken, M. Katoh, A. Bakai, M. Salganicoff, S. Diederich, M. Prokop, H. U. Kauczor, R. W. Günther, and J. E. Wildberger, “Accuracy of automated volumetry of pulmonary nodules across different multislice CT scanners,” Eur. Radiol. 17(8), 1979–1984 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dodd, L.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eisenhauer, E. A.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fenimore, C. P.

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato. III, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H.-J. G. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “CT assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data and error,” Translational Oncol. 2, 216–222 (2009).

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato. III, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative Imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes, of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Translational Oncol. 2, 198–210 (2009).

Ford, R.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gavrielides, M. A.

R. Zeng, N. Petrick, M. A. Gavrielides, and K. J. Myers, “Approximations of noise structures in helical multi-detector CT scans: application to lung nodule volume estimation,” Proc. SPIE 7624, 762415 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “A template-based approach for the analysis of lung nodules in a volumetric CT phantom study,” Proc. SPIE 7260, 726009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato. III, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative Imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes, of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Translational Oncol. 2, 198–210 (2009).

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato. III, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H.-J. G. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “CT assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data and error,” Translational Oncol. 2, 216–222 (2009).

L. M. Kinnard, M. A. Gavrielides, K. J. Myers, R. Zeng, J. Peregoy, W. Pritchard, J. Karanian, and N. Petrick, “Volume Error Analysis for Lung Nodules Attached to Bronchial Vessels in an Anthropomorphic Thoracic Phantom,” Proc. SPIE 6915, 69152Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Information-theoretic approach for analyzing bias and variance in lung nodule size estimation with CT: a phantom study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging . in press).
[PubMed]

Gietema, H. A.

M. Das, J. Ley-Zaporozhan, H. A. Gietema, A. Czech, G. Mühlenbruch, A. H. Mahnken, M. Katoh, A. Bakai, M. Salganicoff, S. Diederich, M. Prokop, H. U. Kauczor, R. W. Günther, and J. E. Wildberger, “Accuracy of automated volumetry of pulmonary nodules across different multislice CT scanners,” Eur. Radiol. 17(8), 1979–1984 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Günther, R. W.

M. Das, J. Ley-Zaporozhan, H. A. Gietema, A. Czech, G. Mühlenbruch, A. H. Mahnken, M. Katoh, A. Bakai, M. Salganicoff, S. Diederich, M. Prokop, H. U. Kauczor, R. W. Günther, and J. E. Wildberger, “Accuracy of automated volumetry of pulmonary nodules across different multislice CT scanners,” Eur. Radiol. 17(8), 1979–1984 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gwyther, S.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gwyther, S. G.

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henschke, C. I.

W. J. Kostis, A. P. Reeves, D. F. Yankelevitz, and C. I. Henschke, “Three-dimensional segmentation and growth-rate estimation of small pulmonary nodules in helical CT images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 22(10), 1259–1274 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. I. Henschke, D. F. Yankelevitz, R. Mirtcheva, G. McGuinness, D. McCauley, O. S. Miettinen, and ELCAP Group, “CT screening for lung cancer: frequency and significance of part-solid and nonsolid nodules,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 178(5), 1053–1057 (2002).
[PubMed]

Jackson, E. F.

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato. III, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative Imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes, of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Translational Oncol. 2, 198–210 (2009).

Jaffe, C. C.

C. C. Jaffe, “Measures of response: RECIST, WHO, and new alternatives,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(20), 3245–3251 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaplan, R.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, R. S.

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karanian, J.

L. M. Kinnard, M. A. Gavrielides, K. J. Myers, R. Zeng, J. Peregoy, W. Pritchard, J. Karanian, and N. Petrick, “Volume Error Analysis for Lung Nodules Attached to Bronchial Vessels in an Anthropomorphic Thoracic Phantom,” Proc. SPIE 6915, 69152Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Katoh, M.

M. Das, J. Ley-Zaporozhan, H. A. Gietema, A. Czech, G. Mühlenbruch, A. H. Mahnken, M. Katoh, A. Bakai, M. Salganicoff, S. Diederich, M. Prokop, H. U. Kauczor, R. W. Günther, and J. E. Wildberger, “Accuracy of automated volumetry of pulmonary nodules across different multislice CT scanners,” Eur. Radiol. 17(8), 1979–1984 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kauczor, H. U.

M. Das, J. Ley-Zaporozhan, H. A. Gietema, A. Czech, G. Mühlenbruch, A. H. Mahnken, M. Katoh, A. Bakai, M. Salganicoff, S. Diederich, M. Prokop, H. U. Kauczor, R. W. Günther, and J. E. Wildberger, “Accuracy of automated volumetry of pulmonary nodules across different multislice CT scanners,” Eur. Radiol. 17(8), 1979–1984 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.-J. G.

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato. III, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H.-J. G. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “CT assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data and error,” Translational Oncol. 2, 216–222 (2009).

Kinahan, P. E.

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato. III, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative Imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes, of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Translational Oncol. 2, 198–210 (2009).

Kinnard, L.

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato. III, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H.-J. G. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “CT assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data and error,” Translational Oncol. 2, 216–222 (2009).

Kinnard, L. M.

M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “A template-based approach for the analysis of lung nodules in a volumetric CT phantom study,” Proc. SPIE 7260, 726009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Kinnard, M. A. Gavrielides, K. J. Myers, R. Zeng, J. Peregoy, W. Pritchard, J. Karanian, and N. Petrick, “Volume Error Analysis for Lung Nodules Attached to Bronchial Vessels in an Anthropomorphic Thoracic Phantom,” Proc. SPIE 6915, 69152Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Information-theoretic approach for analyzing bias and variance in lung nodule size estimation with CT: a phantom study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging . in press).
[PubMed]

Kostis, W. J.

W. J. Kostis, A. P. Reeves, D. F. Yankelevitz, and C. I. Henschke, “Three-dimensional segmentation and growth-rate estimation of small pulmonary nodules in helical CT images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 22(10), 1259–1274 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacombe, D.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ley-Zaporozhan, J.

M. Das, J. Ley-Zaporozhan, H. A. Gietema, A. Czech, G. Mühlenbruch, A. H. Mahnken, M. Katoh, A. Bakai, M. Salganicoff, S. Diederich, M. Prokop, H. U. Kauczor, R. W. Günther, and J. E. Wildberger, “Accuracy of automated volumetry of pulmonary nodules across different multislice CT scanners,” Eur. Radiol. 17(8), 1979–1984 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahnken, A. H.

M. Das, J. Ley-Zaporozhan, H. A. Gietema, A. Czech, G. Mühlenbruch, A. H. Mahnken, M. Katoh, A. Bakai, M. Salganicoff, S. Diederich, M. Prokop, H. U. Kauczor, R. W. Günther, and J. E. Wildberger, “Accuracy of automated volumetry of pulmonary nodules across different multislice CT scanners,” Eur. Radiol. 17(8), 1979–1984 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCauley, D.

C. I. Henschke, D. F. Yankelevitz, R. Mirtcheva, G. McGuinness, D. McCauley, O. S. Miettinen, and ELCAP Group, “CT screening for lung cancer: frequency and significance of part-solid and nonsolid nodules,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 178(5), 1053–1057 (2002).
[PubMed]

McGuinness, G.

C. I. Henschke, D. F. Yankelevitz, R. Mirtcheva, G. McGuinness, D. McCauley, O. S. Miettinen, and ELCAP Group, “CT screening for lung cancer: frequency and significance of part-solid and nonsolid nodules,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 178(5), 1053–1057 (2002).
[PubMed]

McLennan, G.

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato. III, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H.-J. G. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “CT assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data and error,” Translational Oncol. 2, 216–222 (2009).

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato. III, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative Imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes, of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Translational Oncol. 2, 198–210 (2009).

McNitt-Gray, M. F.

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato. III, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative Imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes, of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Translational Oncol. 2, 198–210 (2009).

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato. III, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H.-J. G. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “CT assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data and error,” Translational Oncol. 2, 216–222 (2009).

Meyer, C. R.

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato. III, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H.-J. G. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “CT assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data and error,” Translational Oncol. 2, 216–222 (2009).

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato. III, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative Imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes, of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Translational Oncol. 2, 198–210 (2009).

Miettinen, O. S.

C. I. Henschke, D. F. Yankelevitz, R. Mirtcheva, G. McGuinness, D. McCauley, O. S. Miettinen, and ELCAP Group, “CT screening for lung cancer: frequency and significance of part-solid and nonsolid nodules,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 178(5), 1053–1057 (2002).
[PubMed]

Mirtcheva, R.

C. I. Henschke, D. F. Yankelevitz, R. Mirtcheva, G. McGuinness, D. McCauley, O. S. Miettinen, and ELCAP Group, “CT screening for lung cancer: frequency and significance of part-solid and nonsolid nodules,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 178(5), 1053–1057 (2002).
[PubMed]

Mooney, M.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mühlenbruch, G.

M. Das, J. Ley-Zaporozhan, H. A. Gietema, A. Czech, G. Mühlenbruch, A. H. Mahnken, M. Katoh, A. Bakai, M. Salganicoff, S. Diederich, M. Prokop, H. U. Kauczor, R. W. Günther, and J. E. Wildberger, “Accuracy of automated volumetry of pulmonary nodules across different multislice CT scanners,” Eur. Radiol. 17(8), 1979–1984 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myers, K. J.

R. Zeng, N. Petrick, M. A. Gavrielides, and K. J. Myers, “Approximations of noise structures in helical multi-detector CT scans: application to lung nodule volume estimation,” Proc. SPIE 7624, 762415 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “A template-based approach for the analysis of lung nodules in a volumetric CT phantom study,” Proc. SPIE 7260, 726009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Kinnard, M. A. Gavrielides, K. J. Myers, R. Zeng, J. Peregoy, W. Pritchard, J. Karanian, and N. Petrick, “Volume Error Analysis for Lung Nodules Attached to Bronchial Vessels in an Anthropomorphic Thoracic Phantom,” Proc. SPIE 6915, 69152Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Information-theoretic approach for analyzing bias and variance in lung nodule size estimation with CT: a phantom study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging . in press).
[PubMed]

Peregoy, J.

L. M. Kinnard, M. A. Gavrielides, K. J. Myers, R. Zeng, J. Peregoy, W. Pritchard, J. Karanian, and N. Petrick, “Volume Error Analysis for Lung Nodules Attached to Bronchial Vessels in an Anthropomorphic Thoracic Phantom,” Proc. SPIE 6915, 69152Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petrick, N.

R. Zeng, N. Petrick, M. A. Gavrielides, and K. J. Myers, “Approximations of noise structures in helical multi-detector CT scans: application to lung nodule volume estimation,” Proc. SPIE 7624, 762415 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “A template-based approach for the analysis of lung nodules in a volumetric CT phantom study,” Proc. SPIE 7260, 726009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato. III, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative Imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes, of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Translational Oncol. 2, 198–210 (2009).

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato. III, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H.-J. G. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “CT assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data and error,” Translational Oncol. 2, 216–222 (2009).

L. M. Kinnard, M. A. Gavrielides, K. J. Myers, R. Zeng, J. Peregoy, W. Pritchard, J. Karanian, and N. Petrick, “Volume Error Analysis for Lung Nodules Attached to Bronchial Vessels in an Anthropomorphic Thoracic Phantom,” Proc. SPIE 6915, 69152Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Information-theoretic approach for analyzing bias and variance in lung nodule size estimation with CT: a phantom study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging . in press).
[PubMed]

Pritchard, W.

L. M. Kinnard, M. A. Gavrielides, K. J. Myers, R. Zeng, J. Peregoy, W. Pritchard, J. Karanian, and N. Petrick, “Volume Error Analysis for Lung Nodules Attached to Bronchial Vessels in an Anthropomorphic Thoracic Phantom,” Proc. SPIE 6915, 69152Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prokop, M.

M. Das, J. Ley-Zaporozhan, H. A. Gietema, A. Czech, G. Mühlenbruch, A. H. Mahnken, M. Katoh, A. Bakai, M. Salganicoff, S. Diederich, M. Prokop, H. U. Kauczor, R. W. Günther, and J. E. Wildberger, “Accuracy of automated volumetry of pulmonary nodules across different multislice CT scanners,” Eur. Radiol. 17(8), 1979–1984 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reeves, A. P.

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato. III, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H.-J. G. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “CT assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data and error,” Translational Oncol. 2, 216–222 (2009).

W. J. Kostis, A. P. Reeves, D. F. Yankelevitz, and C. I. Henschke, “Three-dimensional segmentation and growth-rate estimation of small pulmonary nodules in helical CT images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 22(10), 1259–1274 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubinstein, L.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salganicoff, M.

M. Das, J. Ley-Zaporozhan, H. A. Gietema, A. Czech, G. Mühlenbruch, A. H. Mahnken, M. Katoh, A. Bakai, M. Salganicoff, S. Diederich, M. Prokop, H. U. Kauczor, R. W. Günther, and J. E. Wildberger, “Accuracy of automated volumetry of pulmonary nodules across different multislice CT scanners,” Eur. Radiol. 17(8), 1979–1984 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sargent, D.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, L. H.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shankar, L.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Therasse, P.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Glabbeke, M.

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Oosterom, A. T.

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verweij, J.

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wanders, J.

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wildberger, J. E.

M. Das, J. Ley-Zaporozhan, H. A. Gietema, A. Czech, G. Mühlenbruch, A. H. Mahnken, M. Katoh, A. Bakai, M. Salganicoff, S. Diederich, M. Prokop, H. U. Kauczor, R. W. Günther, and J. E. Wildberger, “Accuracy of automated volumetry of pulmonary nodules across different multislice CT scanners,” Eur. Radiol. 17(8), 1979–1984 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yankelevitz, D. F.

W. J. Kostis, A. P. Reeves, D. F. Yankelevitz, and C. I. Henschke, “Three-dimensional segmentation and growth-rate estimation of small pulmonary nodules in helical CT images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 22(10), 1259–1274 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. I. Henschke, D. F. Yankelevitz, R. Mirtcheva, G. McGuinness, D. McCauley, O. S. Miettinen, and ELCAP Group, “CT screening for lung cancer: frequency and significance of part-solid and nonsolid nodules,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 178(5), 1053–1057 (2002).
[PubMed]

Zeng, R.

R. Zeng, N. Petrick, M. A. Gavrielides, and K. J. Myers, “Approximations of noise structures in helical multi-detector CT scans: application to lung nodule volume estimation,” Proc. SPIE 7624, 762415 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “A template-based approach for the analysis of lung nodules in a volumetric CT phantom study,” Proc. SPIE 7260, 726009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Kinnard, M. A. Gavrielides, K. J. Myers, R. Zeng, J. Peregoy, W. Pritchard, J. Karanian, and N. Petrick, “Volume Error Analysis for Lung Nodules Attached to Bronchial Vessels in an Anthropomorphic Thoracic Phantom,” Proc. SPIE 6915, 69152Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Information-theoretic approach for analyzing bias and variance in lung nodule size estimation with CT: a phantom study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging . in press).
[PubMed]

Zhao, B.

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato. III, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H.-J. G. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “CT assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data and error,” Translational Oncol. 2, 216–222 (2009).

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato. III, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative Imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes, of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Translational Oncol. 2, 198–210 (2009).

AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. (1)

C. I. Henschke, D. F. Yankelevitz, R. Mirtcheva, G. McGuinness, D. McCauley, O. S. Miettinen, and ELCAP Group, “CT screening for lung cancer: frequency and significance of part-solid and nonsolid nodules,” AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 178(5), 1053–1057 (2002).
[PubMed]

Eur. J. Cancer (1)

E. A. Eisenhauer, P. Therasse, J. Bogaerts, L. H. Schwartz, D. Sargent, R. Ford, J. Dancey, S. Arbuck, S. Gwyther, M. Mooney, L. Rubinstein, L. Shankar, L. Dodd, R. Kaplan, D. Lacombe, and J. Verweij, “New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1),” Eur. J. Cancer 45(2), 228–247 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Radiol. (1)

M. Das, J. Ley-Zaporozhan, H. A. Gietema, A. Czech, G. Mühlenbruch, A. H. Mahnken, M. Katoh, A. Bakai, M. Salganicoff, S. Diederich, M. Prokop, H. U. Kauczor, R. W. Günther, and J. E. Wildberger, “Accuracy of automated volumetry of pulmonary nodules across different multislice CT scanners,” Eur. Radiol. 17(8), 1979–1984 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging (2)

W. J. Kostis, A. P. Reeves, D. F. Yankelevitz, and C. I. Henschke, “Three-dimensional segmentation and growth-rate estimation of small pulmonary nodules in helical CT images,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging 22(10), 1259–1274 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Information-theoretic approach for analyzing bias and variance in lung nodule size estimation with CT: a phantom study,” IEEE Trans. Med. Imaging . in press).
[PubMed]

J. Clin. Oncol. (1)

C. C. Jaffe, “Measures of response: RECIST, WHO, and new alternatives,” J. Clin. Oncol. 24(20), 3245–3251 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1)

P. Therasse, S. G. Arbuck, E. A. Eisenhauer, J. Wanders, R. S. Kaplan, L. Rubinstein, J. Verweij, M. Van Glabbeke, A. T. van Oosterom, M. C. Christian, and S. G. Gwyther, “New guidelines to evaluate the response to treatment in solid tumors,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 92(3), 205–216 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (3)

M. A. Gavrielides, R. Zeng, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “A template-based approach for the analysis of lung nodules in a volumetric CT phantom study,” Proc. SPIE 7260, 726009 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Zeng, N. Petrick, M. A. Gavrielides, and K. J. Myers, “Approximations of noise structures in helical multi-detector CT scans: application to lung nodule volume estimation,” Proc. SPIE 7624, 762415 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Kinnard, M. A. Gavrielides, K. J. Myers, R. Zeng, J. Peregoy, W. Pritchard, J. Karanian, and N. Petrick, “Volume Error Analysis for Lung Nodules Attached to Bronchial Vessels in an Anthropomorphic Thoracic Phantom,” Proc. SPIE 6915, 69152Q (2008).
[CrossRef]

Radiology (1)

M. A. Gavrielides, L. M. Kinnard, K. J. Myers, and N. Petrick, “Noncalcified lung nodules: volumetric assessment with thoracic CT,” Radiology 251(1), 26–37 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Translational Oncol. (2)

M. F. McNitt-Gray, L. M. Bidaut, S. G. Armato. III, C. R. Meyer, M. A. Gavrielides, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, N. Petrick, B. Zhao, A. P. Reeves, R. Beichel, H.-J. G. Kim, and L. Kinnard, “CT assessment of response to therapy: tumor volume change measurement, truth data and error,” Translational Oncol. 2, 216–222 (2009).

C. R. Meyer, S. G. Armato. III, C. P. Fenimore, G. McLennan, L. M. Bidaut, D. P. Barboriak, M. A. Gavrielides, E. F. Jackson, M. F. McNitt-Gray, P. E. Kinahan, N. Petrick, and B. Zhao, “Quantitative Imaging to assess tumor response to therapy: common themes, of measurement, truth data, and error sources,” Translational Oncol. 2, 198–210 (2009).

Other (1)

A. P. Reeves, A. C. Jirapatnakul, A. M. Biancardi, T. V. Apanasovich, C. Schaefer, J. J. Bowden, M. Kietzmann, R. Korn, M. Dillmann, Q. Li, J. Wang, J. H. Moltz, J. Kuhnigk, T. Hayashi, X. Zhou, H. Fujita, T. Duindam, B. v. Ginneken, R. Avila, J. P. Ko, K. Melamud, H. Rusinek, R. Wiemker, G. Soza, C. Tietjen, M. Thorn, M. F. McNitt-Gray, Y. Valenciaga, M. Khatonabadi, Y. Kawata, and N. Niki, “The VOLCANO'09 challenge: Preliminary results,” in Second International Workshop of Pulmonary Image Analysis, (2009), pp. 353–364.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of the exterior shell of the thoracic phantom (left) and the vasculature insert (right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

: Photograph of the different types of synthetic nodules used in this study. Each column contains nodules in three sizes, and each row contains the five nodule shape categories. From left to right, spherical, elliptical, lobulated, spiculated, and irregular shapes are shown. The three sizes shown here (with the exception of the irregular shapes on the right) were manufactured to have the equivalent nominal volumes of spherical nodules with diameters of 5, 10, and 20 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

An example layout (Layout #4) indicating the positioning of each nodule along with information on the size, shape, and density of each nodule in the layout. Vessel branches within the anthropomorphic phantom were color coded in order to map nodules to specific positions within the phantom’s vasculature structure in a reproducible manner. Nodule sizes in the figure correspond to equivalent diameters of spheres with the same nominal volume as the nodule.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example scans of a lobulated nodule with −10HU density and 10mm diameter (nominal volume equal to that of a 10 mm diameter sphere), acquired with the following 4 different protocols: Top left (Case 1a)- low exposure (25 mAs), 1.2 pitch. Top right (Case 1b)- high exposure (200 mAs), 1.2 pitch. Bottom left (Case 1c)- low exposure (25m As), 0.9 pitch. Bottom right (Case 1d)- high exposure (200m As), 0.9 pitch. Reconstructed slice thickness was 0.8 mm for all scans. The series of scans can be viewed by clicking on the Interactive Science Publishing (ISP) hyperlink (View 1).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Example scans of a spiculated nodule of −630HU density and 20 mm diameter (nominal volume equal to that of a 20 mm diameter sphere), acquired with the following 4 protocols: Top left (Case 2a)- thin slice thickness (0.8 mm), detail reconstruction kernel (BF60). Top right (Case 2b)- thick slice thickness (3.0mm), detail reconstruction kernel (BF60). Bottom left (Case 2c)- thin slice thickness (0.8 mm), medium reconstruction kernel (BF40). Bottom right (Case 2d)- thick slice thickness (3.0 mm), medium reconstruction kernel (BF40). All scans were acquired with a high exposure (200 mAs) and 1.2 pitch. The whole series of each scan can be viewed by clicking on the Interactive Science Publishing (ISP) hyperlink (View 2).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Example series of Layout 4, acquired with a 100mAs exposure and reconstructed to 3mm slices. The whole series can be viewed by clicking on the Interactive Science Publishing (ISP) hyperlink (View 3).

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Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of nodule placement and description for each nodule layout.

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Table 2 Summary of reconstructed CT data sets: a description of the individual nodule layouts are provided in Table 1. a

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