Abstract

Grating couplers are an efficient means for fiber to chip coupling, as they require no facet preparation and enable wafer scale testing. While grating couplers are commonly used in silicon wire waveguides, their application to micrometric silicon-on-insulator rib waveguides is complicated due to the presence of high-order Bloch modes. We study the Bloch modes behavior and their excitation determined by access waveguide design. The latter is implemented to enable single Bloch mode excitation. The use of a design process based on modal analysis is proposed. A grating coupler is proposed in silicon-on-insulator with 1.5µm thick silicon layer that achieves a coupling efficiency of 65.6% at 1.55µm. The structure, including interconnection waveguides, access waveguide and grating can be fabricated using a single lithography step.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

B. Schmid, A. Petrov, and M. Eich, "Optimized grating coupler with fully etched slots," Opt. Express 17(13), 11066-11076 (2009).
[PubMed]

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, and S. Janz, "Compact high performance multi-mode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(21), 1600-1602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D. Xu, I. Molina-Fern’andez, and J.Wang¨uemert-P’erez, "Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures," Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408-1410 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Huttl, and C. Schubert, "Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 614-616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, and J. Marti, "Study of high efficiency grating couplers for silicon-based horizontal slot waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 985-987 (2008).

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. Fedeli, "High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-oninsulator waveguide circuit," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, A. Ortega-Moñux, J.Wangüemert-P’erez, D. Xu, P. Cheben, and S. Janz, "A design procedure for high-performance, rib-waveguide-based multimode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 26(16), 2928-2936 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

2006

M. Schnarrenberger, L. Zimmermann, T. Mitze, K. Voigt, J. Bruns, and K. Petermann, "Low loss star coupler concept for AWGs in rib waveguide technology," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2469-2471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, "Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics," Opt. Express 14(11), 4695-4702 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Soref, "The past, present, and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron 12(6), 1678-1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Janz, P. Dalacu, D. Delâge, A. Densmore, A. Lamontagne, B. Picard, M. Post, E. Schmid, J. Waldron, D. Xu, K. P. Yap, and W. Ye, "Microphotonic elements for integration on the silicon-on-insulator waveguide platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron 12(6), 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "High efficiency silicon-on-insulator grating coupler based on a poly-silicon overlay," Opt. Express 14(24), 11622-11630 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

W. Ye, D. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, M. Picard, B. Lamontagne, and N. Tarr, "Birefringence control using stress engineering in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 23(3), 1308-1318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. Wangüemert-Pérez, "3D-Scalar Fourier eigenvector expansion method (Fourier-EEM) for analyzing optical waveguide discontinuities," Opt. Quantum Electron 37(1), 213-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

2002

A. Sure, T. Dillon, J. Murakowski, C. Lin, D. Pustai, and D. Prather, "Fabrication and characterization of threedimensional silicon tapers," Opt. Express 11(26), 3555-3561 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Cao, P. Lalanne, and J. Hugonin, "Stable and efficient Bloch-mode computational method for one-dimensional grating waveguides," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 19(2), 335-338 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

K. Hill and G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1263-1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/demultiplexer with extremely low polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(7), 940-942 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1991

R. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(8), 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1977

T. Tamir and S. Peng, "Analysis and design of grating couplers," Appl. Phys.A-Mater. 14(3), 235-254 (1977).

Lamontagne, B

A . Delâge, S . Janz, D . Xu, D . Dalacu, B . Lamontagne, and A . Bogdanov, "Graded-index coupler for microphotonic SOI waveguides," Proc. SPIE 5577, 204-212 (2004).

Almeida, V.

Ayre, M.

Baets, R.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. Fedeli, "High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-oninsulator waveguide circuit," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. Krauss, and R. Baets, "Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151-156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, "High efficiency silicon-on-insulator grating coupler based on a poly-silicon overlay," Opt. Express 14(24), 11622-11630 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, "Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2749-2751 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, "Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides," Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2749-2751 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Blasco, J.

P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, and J. Marti, "Study of high efficiency grating couplers for silicon-based horizontal slot waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 985-987 (2008).

Bogaerts, W.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bogdanov, A

A . Delâge, S . Janz, D . Xu, D . Dalacu, B . Lamontagne, and A . Bogdanov, "Graded-index coupler for microphotonic SOI waveguides," Proc. SPIE 5577, 204-212 (2004).

Brision, S.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. Fedeli, "High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-oninsulator waveguide circuit," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bruns, J.

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Huttl, and C. Schubert, "Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 614-616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnarrenberger, L. Zimmermann, T. Mitze, K. Voigt, J. Bruns, and K. Petermann, "Low loss star coupler concept for AWGs in rib waveguide technology," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2469-2471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cao, Q.

Cheben, P.

Coppinger, F.

P. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/demultiplexer with extremely low polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(7), 940-942 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dalacu, D

A . Delâge, S . Janz, D . Xu, D . Dalacu, B . Lamontagne, and A . Bogdanov, "Graded-index coupler for microphotonic SOI waveguides," Proc. SPIE 5577, 204-212 (2004).

Dalacu, D.

Dalacu, P.

S. Janz, P. Dalacu, D. Delâge, A. Densmore, A. Lamontagne, B. Picard, M. Post, E. Schmid, J. Waldron, D. Xu, K. P. Yap, and W. Ye, "Microphotonic elements for integration on the silicon-on-insulator waveguide platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron 12(6), 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

De Mesel, K.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

Delâge, D.

S. Janz, P. Dalacu, D. Delâge, A. Densmore, A. Lamontagne, B. Picard, M. Post, E. Schmid, J. Waldron, D. Xu, K. P. Yap, and W. Ye, "Microphotonic elements for integration on the silicon-on-insulator waveguide platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron 12(6), 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Densmore, A.

Dillon, T.

Eich, M.

Fedeli, J.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. Fedeli, "High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-oninsulator waveguide circuit," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gautier, P.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. Fedeli, "High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-oninsulator waveguide circuit," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Halir, R.

Helfert, S.

Hill, K.

K. Hill and G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1263-1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hugonin, J.

Huttl, B.

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Huttl, and C. Schubert, "Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 614-616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

P. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/demultiplexer with extremely low polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(7), 940-942 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Janz, S.

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, and S. Janz, "Compact high performance multi-mode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(21), 1600-1602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D. Xu, I. Molina-Fern’andez, and J.Wang¨uemert-P’erez, "Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures," Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408-1410 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D. Xu, "A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with submicrometer aperture waveguides," Opt. Express 15(5), 2299-2306 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Janz, P. Dalacu, D. Delâge, A. Densmore, A. Lamontagne, B. Picard, M. Post, E. Schmid, J. Waldron, D. Xu, K. P. Yap, and W. Ye, "Microphotonic elements for integration on the silicon-on-insulator waveguide platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron 12(6), 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, "Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics," Opt. Express 14(11), 4695-4702 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ye, D. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, M. Picard, B. Lamontagne, and N. Tarr, "Birefringence control using stress engineering in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 23(3), 1308-1318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. Picard, and W. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2384-2386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, T.

F. Van Laere, G. Roelkens, M. Ayre, J. Schrauwen, D. Taillaert, D. Van Thourhout, T. Krauss, and R. Baets, "Compact and highly efficient grating couplers between optical fiber and nanophotonic waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 25(1), 151-156 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lalanne, P.

Lamontagne, A.

S. Janz, P. Dalacu, D. Delâge, A. Densmore, A. Lamontagne, B. Picard, M. Post, E. Schmid, J. Waldron, D. Xu, K. P. Yap, and W. Ye, "Microphotonic elements for integration on the silicon-on-insulator waveguide platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron 12(6), 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

Lin, C.

Lipson, M.

Lyan, P.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. Fedeli, "High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-oninsulator waveguide circuit," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marti, J.

P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, and J. Marti, "Study of high efficiency grating couplers for silicon-based horizontal slot waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 985-987 (2008).

Meltz, G.

K. Hill and G. Meltz, "Fiber Bragg grating technology fundamentals and overview," J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1263-1276 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mitze, T.

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Huttl, and C. Schubert, "Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 614-616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnarrenberger, L. Zimmermann, T. Mitze, K. Voigt, J. Bruns, and K. Petermann, "Low loss star coupler concept for AWGs in rib waveguide technology," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2469-2471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moerman, I.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Molina-Fern’andez, I.

Molina-Fernández, I.

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, and S. Janz, "Compact high performance multi-mode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(21), 1600-1602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, A. Ortega-Moñux, J.Wangüemert-P’erez, D. Xu, P. Cheben, and S. Janz, "A design procedure for high-performance, rib-waveguide-based multimode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 26(16), 2928-2936 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. Wangüemert-Pérez, "3D-Scalar Fourier eigenvector expansion method (Fourier-EEM) for analyzing optical waveguide discontinuities," Opt. Quantum Electron 37(1), 213-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Murakowski, J.

Ortega-Moñux, A.

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, and S. Janz, "Compact high performance multi-mode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(21), 1600-1602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, A. Ortega-Moñux, J.Wangüemert-P’erez, D. Xu, P. Cheben, and S. Janz, "A design procedure for high-performance, rib-waveguide-based multimode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator," J. Lightwave Technol. 26(16), 2928-2936 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. Wangüemert-Pérez, "3D-Scalar Fourier eigenvector expansion method (Fourier-EEM) for analyzing optical waveguide discontinuities," Opt. Quantum Electron 37(1), 213-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Panepucci, R.

Peng, S.

T. Tamir and S. Peng, "Analysis and design of grating couplers," Appl. Phys.A-Mater. 14(3), 235-254 (1977).

Petermann, K.

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Huttl, and C. Schubert, "Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 614-616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnarrenberger, L. Zimmermann, T. Mitze, K. Voigt, J. Bruns, and K. Petermann, "Low loss star coupler concept for AWGs in rib waveguide technology," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2469-2471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(8), 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, A.

Picard, B.

S. Janz, P. Dalacu, D. Delâge, A. Densmore, A. Lamontagne, B. Picard, M. Post, E. Schmid, J. Waldron, D. Xu, K. P. Yap, and W. Ye, "Microphotonic elements for integration on the silicon-on-insulator waveguide platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron 12(6), 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Picard, M.

Post, E.

Post, M.

S. Janz, P. Dalacu, D. Delâge, A. Densmore, A. Lamontagne, B. Picard, M. Post, E. Schmid, J. Waldron, D. Xu, K. P. Yap, and W. Ye, "Microphotonic elements for integration on the silicon-on-insulator waveguide platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron 12(6), 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prather, D.

Pregla, R.

Pustai, D.

Roelkens, G.

Sanchis, P.

P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, and J. Marti, "Study of high efficiency grating couplers for silicon-based horizontal slot waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 985-987 (2008).

Schmid, B.

Schmid, E.

S. Janz, P. Dalacu, D. Delâge, A. Densmore, A. Lamontagne, B. Picard, M. Post, E. Schmid, J. Waldron, D. Xu, K. P. Yap, and W. Ye, "Microphotonic elements for integration on the silicon-on-insulator waveguide platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron 12(6), 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, J.

Schmidtchen, J.

R. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(8), 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schnarrenberger, M.

M. Schnarrenberger, L. Zimmermann, T. Mitze, K. Voigt, J. Bruns, and K. Petermann, "Low loss star coupler concept for AWGs in rib waveguide technology," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2469-2471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schrauwen, J.

Schubert, C.

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Huttl, and C. Schubert, "Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 614-616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, "The past, present, and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron 12(6), 1678-1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(8), 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sure, A.

Taillaert, D.

Tamir, T.

T. Tamir and S. Peng, "Analysis and design of grating couplers," Appl. Phys.A-Mater. 14(3), 235-254 (1977).

Tarr, N.

Trinh, P.

P. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/demultiplexer with extremely low polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(7), 940-942 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van Daele, P.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Van Laere, F.

Van Thourhout, D.

Vermeulen, D.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. Fedeli, "High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-oninsulator waveguide circuit," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Verstuyft, S.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Voigt, K.

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Huttl, and C. Schubert, "Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 614-616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnarrenberger, L. Zimmermann, T. Mitze, K. Voigt, J. Bruns, and K. Petermann, "Low loss star coupler concept for AWGs in rib waveguide technology," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2469-2471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Waldron, J.

S. Janz, P. Dalacu, D. Delâge, A. Densmore, A. Lamontagne, B. Picard, M. Post, E. Schmid, J. Waldron, D. Xu, K. P. Yap, and W. Ye, "Microphotonic elements for integration on the silicon-on-insulator waveguide platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron 12(6), 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Waldron, P.

Wangüemert-Pérez, J.

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, and S. Janz, "Compact high performance multi-mode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(21), 1600-1602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. Wangüemert-Pérez, "3D-Scalar Fourier eigenvector expansion method (Fourier-EEM) for analyzing optical waveguide discontinuities," Opt. Quantum Electron 37(1), 213-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Winzer, G.

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Huttl, and C. Schubert, "Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 614-616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, and S. Janz, "Compact high performance multi-mode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(21), 1600-1602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Halir, P. Cheben, S. Janz, D. Xu, I. Molina-Fern’andez, and J.Wang¨uemert-P’erez, "Waveguide grating coupler with subwavelength microstructures," Opt. Lett. 34(9), 1408-1410 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cheben, J. Schmid, A. Delâge, A. Densmore, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, J. Lapointe, E. Post, P. Waldron, and D. Xu, "A high-resolution silicon-on-insulator arrayed waveguide grating microspectrometer with submicrometer aperture waveguides," Opt. Express 15(5), 2299-2306 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Janz, P. Dalacu, D. Delâge, A. Densmore, A. Lamontagne, B. Picard, M. Post, E. Schmid, J. Waldron, D. Xu, K. P. Yap, and W. Ye, "Microphotonic elements for integration on the silicon-on-insulator waveguide platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron 12(6), 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, D. Xu, S. Janz, and A. Densmore, "Subwavelength waveguide grating for mode conversion and light coupling in integrated optics," Opt. Express 14(11), 4695-4702 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ye, D. Xu, S. Janz, P. Cheben, M. Picard, B. Lamontagne, and N. Tarr, "Birefringence control using stress engineering in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides," J. Lightwave Technol. 23(3), 1308-1318 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Xu, P. Cheben, D. Dalacu, A. Delâge, S. Janz, B. Lamontagne, M. Picard, and W. Ye, "Eliminating the birefringence in silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguides by use of cladding stress," Opt. Lett. 29(20), 2384-2386 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yap, K. P.

S. Janz, P. Dalacu, D. Delâge, A. Densmore, A. Lamontagne, B. Picard, M. Post, E. Schmid, J. Waldron, D. Xu, K. P. Yap, and W. Ye, "Microphotonic elements for integration on the silicon-on-insulator waveguide platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron 12(6), 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ye, W.

Yegnanarayanan, S.

P. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/demultiplexer with extremely low polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(7), 940-942 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, L.

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Huttl, and C. Schubert, "Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 614-616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnarrenberger, L. Zimmermann, T. Mitze, K. Voigt, J. Bruns, and K. Petermann, "Low loss star coupler concept for AWGs in rib waveguide technology," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2469-2471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A-Mater.

T. Tamir and S. Peng, "Analysis and design of grating couplers," Appl. Phys.A-Mater. 14(3), 235-254 (1977).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, S. Brision, P. Lyan, P. Gautier, and J. Fedeli, "High efficiency diffractive grating couplers for interfacing a single mode optical fiber with a nanophotonic silicon-oninsulator waveguide circuit," Appl. Phys. Lett. 92,131101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. Soref, J. Schmidtchen, and K. Petermann, "Large single-mode rib waveguides in GeSi-Si and Si-on-SiO2," IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(8), 1971-1974 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

K. Voigt, L. Zimmermann, G. Winzer, T. Mitze, J. Bruns, K. Petermann, B. Huttl, and C. Schubert, "Performance of 40-Gb/s DPSK demodulator in SOI-technology," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 614-616 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Sanchis, J. Blasco, and J. Marti, "Study of high efficiency grating couplers for silicon-based horizontal slot waveguides," IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(12), 985-987 (2008).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

R. Halir, A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, J. Wangüemert-Pérez, P. Cheben, D. Xu, B. Lamontagne, and S. Janz, "Compact high performance multi-mode interference couplers in silicon-on-insulator," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 21(21), 1600-1602 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, and B. Jalali, "Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/demultiplexer with extremely low polarization sensitivity," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9(7), 940-942 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Schnarrenberger, L. Zimmermann, T. Mitze, K. Voigt, J. Bruns, and K. Petermann, "Low loss star coupler concept for AWGs in rib waveguide technology," IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2469-2471 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron

A. Ortega-Moñux, I. Molina-Fernández, and J. Wangüemert-Pérez, "3D-Scalar Fourier eigenvector expansion method (Fourier-EEM) for analyzing optical waveguide discontinuities," Opt. Quantum Electron 37(1), 213-228 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

A . Delâge, S . Janz, D . Xu, D . Dalacu, B . Lamontagne, and A . Bogdanov, "Graded-index coupler for microphotonic SOI waveguides," Proc. SPIE 5577, 204-212 (2004).

Top Quantum Electron

R. Soref, "The past, present, and future of silicon photonics," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron 12(6), 1678-1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Janz, P. Dalacu, D. Delâge, A. Densmore, A. Lamontagne, B. Picard, M. Post, E. Schmid, J. Waldron, D. Xu, K. P. Yap, and W. Ye, "Microphotonic elements for integration on the silicon-on-insulator waveguide platform," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron 12(6), 1402-1415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Top Quantum Electron.

D. Taillaert, W. Bogaerts, P. Bienstman, T. Krauss, P. Van Daele, I. Moerman, S. Verstuyft, K. De Mesel, and R. Baets, "An out-of-plane grating coupler for efficient butt-coupling between compact planar waveguides and single-mode fibers," IEEE J. Sel.Top Quantum Electron. 38(7), 949-955 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Pavesi and D. J. Lockwood, eds., Silicon Photonics (Springer, Berlin, 2004)

P. Cheben, R. Soref, D. Lockwood, and G. Reed, "Silicon Photonics," Adv. Opt. Technol. (2008) Article ID 510937, 2 pages, 2008. doi:10.1155/2008/510937
[CrossRef]

P. Cheben, A. Delâge, S. Janz, and D. Xu, Echelle gratings and arrayed waveguide gratings for WDM and spectral analysis in Advances in Information Optics and Photonics, A. T. Friberg and R. Dandliker, eds., (SPIE Press, Billingham, Washington, 2008), pp. 599-632.

L. Zavargo-Peche, C. A. Alonso-Ramos, A. Ortega-Moñux, R. Halir, J. G. Wangüemert-Pérez, and I. Molina-Fernández, "A tool for automatic grating design," in XVIII International Workshop Optical Waveguide Theory and Numerical Modeling (OWTNM 2009), 2009, p. 45.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) SOI Rib waveguide transverse geometry. (b) schematic top view of the coupler, including access waveguide, inverse taper and grating.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Schematic view of a fiber-chip grating coupler.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Bloch modes for one grating period, their transversal profile at z = 0 and input fundamental mode for the grating studied in section 5.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

(a) Inner product ∣〈ϕIN , ϑi 〉∣2 for Bloch modes BMi for gratings with different etch depths tg varying the access waveguide height, taw . (b) Optimum access waveguide height, topt aw , as a function of wavelength, for an etch depth tg = 750nm.

Fig. 5.
Fig. 5.

Complete device 3D model including interconnection waveguide, excitation stage and grating coupler.

Fig. 6.
Fig. 6.

Regions of interest for different etch depths: a) tg = 750nm b) tg = 650nm c) tg = 550nm.

Fig. 7.
Fig. 7.

(a) ∣E(y, z)| for the proposed grating excited with an optimized access waveguide. (b) Gaussian field profile of a standard (SMF-28) optical fiber and near field distribution of the grating (cut along the dashed line shown in Fig. 7a) (c) Misalignment tolerance of the coupler (in-plane displacement).

Fig. 8.
Fig. 8.

(a) Interconnection rib waveguide and fundamental mode (b) Objective field (c) Rib waveguide at the end of inverse taper and fundamental mode.

Fig. 9.
Fig. 9.

(a) Inner product for objective field (Eobj ) and excitation field (Erib ) for inversely tapered rib of width xend (b) Loss of the inverse taper as a function of taper length Ltaper (c) Alignment tolerance between the grating coupler and the inverse taper.

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P fiber = P IN η air η fiber ,
ϑ ( y , z ) = k f k ( y ) e Γ k z = ϑ ( y , z + d ) e Γ o d ,
Γ k = α + j β k = α + j ( 2 π λ n g + 2 π d k ) = Γ o + j 2 π d k ,
θ k = arcsin ( 1 n a ( n g + k λ d ) ) .
d λ ( n a + n g ) < k < d λ ( n a n g ) ,
E ( y , z ) = i c i · ϑ i ( y , z ) ,
ϕ IN ( y ) , ϑ i ( y , 0 ) = ϕ IN ( y ) · ϑ i * ( y , 0 ) d y ,
ϕ IN ( y ) , ϑ i ( y , 0 ) 0 for i 1
t aw opt t w t g .
ϕ 1 + k ρ 1 k ϕ k = i c i ϑ i ( y , 0 )
Y o 1 ϕ ϕ 1 k ρ 1 k Y o k ϕ ϕ k = i c i Y o i ϑ ϑ i ( y , 0 )
c i = ϕ 1 , ϑ i ( y , 0 ) ( 1 + ρ 11 ) +
+ k 1 ρ 1 k ϕ k , ϑ i ( y , 0 )
ρ 1 k = ϕ k , ϕ 1 Y o 1 ϕ Y ok ϕ
k c i ϕ k , ϑ i ( x , 0 ) Y oi ϑ Y ok ϕ
ϕ k , ϑ i ( y , 0 ) 0 k i
c 1 ϕ IN , ϑ 1 ( y , 0 ) ( 1 + ρ 11 )
c i 1 0
ρ 11 Y o 1 ϕ ϕ IN , ϑ 1 2 Y o 1 ϑ Y o 1 ϕ + ϕ IN , ϑ 1 2 Y o 1 ϑ .
E obj ( x , y ) = E ( x ) E ( y ) ,

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