Abstract

We applied the transformation optics to mimic a black hole of Schwarzschild form. Similar properties of photon sphere were also found numerically for the metamaterial black hole. Several reduced versions of the black hole systems were proposed for easier implementations.

© 2010 Optical Society of America

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  1. U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777–1780 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Tretyakov, P. Alitalo, O. Luukkonen, and C. Simovski, “Broadband electromagnetic cloaking of long cylindrical objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103905 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3, 461–463 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: Application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213901 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Y. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chen, X. Ao, W. Wen, and C. T. Chan, “Design and experimental realization of a broadband transformation media field rotator at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 183903 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Z. L. Mei and T. J. Cui, “Experimental realization of a broadband bend structure using gradient index metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17, 18354–18363 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, and U. Leonhardt, “An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities,” Nat. Mater. 8, 639–642 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, “General relativity in electrical engineering,” N. J. Phys. 8, 247 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. A. Genov, S. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Mimicking celestial mechanics in metamaterials,” Nat. Phys. 5, 687–692 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. E. Narimanov and A. V. Kildishev, “Optical black hole: Broadband omnidirectional light absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041106 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Q. Cheng and T. J. Cui, “An electromagnetic black hole made of metamaterials,” ArXiv: 0910.2159.
  16. A. Greenleaf, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, “Electromagnetic wormholes and virtual magnetic monopoles from metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183901 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Li, R.-X. Miao, and Y. Pang, “Casimir energy, holographic dark energy and electromagnetic metamaterial mimicking de Sitter,” Phys. Lett. B 689, 55–59 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Li, R.-X. Miao, and Y. Pang, “More studies on Metamaterials Mimicking de Sitter space,” Opt. Express 18, 9026–9033 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. T. G. Mackay, and A. Lakhtakia, “Towards a metamaterial simulation of a spinning cosmic string,” ArXiv: 0911.4163.
  20. D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14, 9794–9804 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. We have designed a perfectly matched layer (PML) in the far field outside the black hole to mimic such an open system during the simulations.
  22. U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, “Quantum optics of spatial transformation media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S289 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. W. Hawking, “Black Hole Explosions,” Nature 248, 30–31 (1974).
    [CrossRef]

2010

M. Li, R.-X. Miao, and Y. Pang, “Casimir energy, holographic dark energy and electromagnetic metamaterial mimicking de Sitter,” Phys. Lett. B 689, 55–59 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, R.-X. Miao, and Y. Pang, “More studies on Metamaterials Mimicking de Sitter space,” Opt. Express 18, 9026–9033 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

D. A. Genov, S. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Mimicking celestial mechanics in metamaterials,” Nat. Phys. 5, 687–692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Narimanov and A. V. Kildishev, “Optical black hole: Broadband omnidirectional light absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tretyakov, P. Alitalo, O. Luukkonen, and C. Simovski, “Broadband electromagnetic cloaking of long cylindrical objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103905 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3, 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: Application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chen, X. Ao, W. Wen, and C. T. Chan, “Design and experimental realization of a broadband transformation media field rotator at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 183903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. L. Mei and T. J. Cui, “Experimental realization of a broadband bend structure using gradient index metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17, 18354–18363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, and U. Leonhardt, “An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities,” Nat. Mater. 8, 639–642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

A. Greenleaf, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, “Electromagnetic wormholes and virtual magnetic monopoles from metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, “Quantum optics of spatial transformation media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S289 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14, 9794–9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, “General relativity in electrical engineering,” N. J. Phys. 8, 247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1974

S. W. Hawking, “Black Hole Explosions,” Nature 248, 30–31 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Alitalo, P.

S. Tretyakov, P. Alitalo, O. Luukkonen, and C. Simovski, “Broadband electromagnetic cloaking of long cylindrical objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103905 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ao, X.

H. Y. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chen, X. Ao, W. Wen, and C. T. Chan, “Design and experimental realization of a broadband transformation media field rotator at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 183903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardenas, J.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3, 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. T.

H. Y. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chen, X. Ao, W. Wen, and C. T. Chan, “Design and experimental realization of a broadband transformation media field rotator at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 183903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. Y.

H. Y. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chen, X. Ao, W. Wen, and C. T. Chan, “Design and experimental realization of a broadband transformation media field rotator at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 183903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

H. Y. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chen, X. Ao, W. Wen, and C. T. Chan, “Design and experimental realization of a broadband transformation media field rotator at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 183903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, J. Y.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, T. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. L. Mei and T. J. Cui, “Experimental realization of a broadband bend structure using gradient index metamaterials,” Opt. Express 17, 18354–18363 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabrielli, L. H.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3, 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

D. A. Genov, S. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Mimicking celestial mechanics in metamaterials,” Nat. Phys. 5, 687–692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Greenleaf, A.

A. Greenleaf, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, “Electromagnetic wormholes and virtual magnetic monopoles from metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawking, S. W.

S. W. Hawking, “Black Hole Explosions,” Nature 248, 30–31 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hou, B.

H. Y. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chen, X. Ao, W. Wen, and C. T. Chan, “Design and experimental realization of a broadband transformation media field rotator at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 183903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ji, C.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: Application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Narimanov and A. V. Kildishev, “Optical black hole: Broadband omnidirectional light absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lassas, M.

A. Greenleaf, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, “Electromagnetic wormholes and virtual magnetic monopoles from metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leonhardt, U.

Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, and U. Leonhardt, “An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities,” Nat. Mater. 8, 639–642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, “Quantum optics of spatial transformation media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S289 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, “General relativity in electrical engineering,” N. J. Phys. 8, 247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Leonhardt, “Optical conformal mapping,” Science 312, 1777–1780 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M.

M. Li, R.-X. Miao, and Y. Pang, “Casimir energy, holographic dark energy and electromagnetic metamaterial mimicking de Sitter,” Phys. Lett. B 689, 55–59 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, R.-X. Miao, and Y. Pang, “More studies on Metamaterials Mimicking de Sitter space,” Opt. Express 18, 9026–9033 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3, 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luukkonen, O.

S. Tretyakov, P. Alitalo, O. Luukkonen, and C. Simovski, “Broadband electromagnetic cloaking of long cylindrical objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103905 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Y. G.

Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, and U. Leonhardt, “An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities,” Nat. Mater. 8, 639–642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mei, Z. L.

Miao, R.-X.

M. Li, R.-X. Miao, and Y. Pang, “More studies on Metamaterials Mimicking de Sitter space,” Opt. Express 18, 9026–9033 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Li, R.-X. Miao, and Y. Pang, “Casimir energy, holographic dark energy and electromagnetic metamaterial mimicking de Sitter,” Phys. Lett. B 689, 55–59 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narimanov, E. E.

E. E. Narimanov and A. V. Kildishev, “Optical black hole: Broadband omnidirectional light absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ong, C. K.

Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, and U. Leonhardt, “An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities,” Nat. Mater. 8, 639–642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pang, Y.

M. Li, R.-X. Miao, and Y. Pang, “Casimir energy, holographic dark energy and electromagnetic metamaterial mimicking de Sitter,” Phys. Lett. B 689, 55–59 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Li, R.-X. Miao, and Y. Pang, “More studies on Metamaterials Mimicking de Sitter space,” Opt. Express 18, 9026–9033 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14, 9794–9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Philbin, T. G.

U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, “Quantum optics of spatial transformation media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S289 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, “General relativity in electrical engineering,” N. J. Phys. 8, 247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, C. B.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3, 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schurig, D.

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14, 9794–9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: Application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simovski, C.

S. Tretyakov, P. Alitalo, O. Luukkonen, and C. Simovski, “Broadband electromagnetic cloaking of long cylindrical objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103905 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

R. Liu, C. Ji, J. J. Mock, J. Y. Chin, T. J. Cui, and D. R. Smith, “Broadband ground-plane cloak,” Science 323, 366–369 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312, 1780–1782 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. B. Pendry, and D. R. Smith, “Calculation of material properties and ray tracing in transformation media,” Opt. Express 14, 9794–9804 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: Application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolyaninova, V. N.

I. I. Smolyaninov, V. N. Smolyaninova, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Anisotropic metamaterials emulated by tapered waveguides: Application to optical cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213901 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314, 977–980 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tretyakov, S.

S. Tretyakov, P. Alitalo, O. Luukkonen, and C. Simovski, “Broadband electromagnetic cloaking of long cylindrical objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103905 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyc, T.

Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, and U. Leonhardt, “An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities,” Nat. Mater. 8, 639–642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uhlmann, G.

A. Greenleaf, M. Lassas, and G. Uhlmann, “Electromagnetic wormholes and virtual magnetic monopoles from metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 183901 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, W.

H. Y. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chen, X. Ao, W. Wen, and C. T. Chan, “Design and experimental realization of a broadband transformation media field rotator at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 183903 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

D. A. Genov, S. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Mimicking celestial mechanics in metamaterials,” Nat. Phys. 5, 687–692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

D. A. Genov, S. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Mimicking celestial mechanics in metamaterials,” Nat. Phys. 5, 687–692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. E. Narimanov and A. V. Kildishev, “Optical black hole: Broadband omnidirectional light absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 041106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, “Quantum optics of spatial transformation media,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 9, S289 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys.

U. Leonhardt and T. G. Philbin, “General relativity in electrical engineering,” N. J. Phys. 8, 247 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

Y. G. Ma, C. K. Ong, T. Tyc, and U. Leonhardt, “An omnidirectional retroreflector based on the transmutation of dielectric singularities,” Nat. Mater. 8, 639–642 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8, 568–571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3, 461–463 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys.

D. A. Genov, S. Zhang, and X. Zhang, “Mimicking celestial mechanics in metamaterials,” Nat. Phys. 5, 687–692 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Lett. B

M. Li, R.-X. Miao, and Y. Pang, “Casimir energy, holographic dark energy and electromagnetic metamaterial mimicking de Sitter,” Phys. Lett. B 689, 55–59 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Tretyakov, P. Alitalo, O. Luukkonen, and C. Simovski, “Broadband electromagnetic cloaking of long cylindrical objects,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 103905 (2009).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Y. Chen, B. Hou, S. Chen, X. Ao, W. Wen, and C. T. Chan, “Design and experimental realization of a broadband transformation media field rotator at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 183903 (2009).
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Science

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We have designed a perfectly matched layer (PML) in the far field outside the black hole to mimic such an open system during the simulations.

T. G. Mackay, and A. Lakhtakia, “Towards a metamaterial simulation of a spinning cosmic string,” ArXiv: 0911.4163.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) The emitting rays of a point source located on the photon sphere at (1.5L 1,0) for a real black hole. The blue dashed circle outlines the photon sphere while the blue solid circle is the event horizon. The green lines (outside the dashed circle) demonstrate the rays that can escape from the black hole while the red lines (inside the dashed circle and outside the solid circle) show the ones absorbed. (b) The electric fields outside the event horizon when a line source is located on the photon cylinder described by Eqs. (7) and (8). The dashed circle outlines the photon cylinder while the solid circle is the event horizon. The incident wavelength is λ = 0.25L. The simulation was carried out by using the COMSOL Multiphysics finite element-based electromagnetics solver.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

The magnetic field amplitude |H⃗| near the black hole from Eqs. (7) and (8) for different incident Gaussian beams with beam centers at (a) (2L,0), (b) (2.5L,0), (c) (3L,0), (d) (3.5L,0). The incident wavelengths and the beam widths are λ = w = 0.25L. The beams are incident at an angle of 60 deg from x-axis. The simulation was carried out by using the COMSOL Multiphysics finite element-based electromagnetics solver.

Equations (13)

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ε ij = μ ij = g γ g ij g 00 ,
ds 2 = ( 1 2 GM rc 2 ) c 2 dt 2 ( 1 2 GM rc 2 ) 1 dr 2 r 2 d Ω 2 ,
ds 2 = ( 1 L r ) c 2 dt 2 ( 1 L r ) 1 dr 2 r 2 d θ 2 dz 2 ,
ε ij = μ ij = 1 1 L r ( 1 L r x 2 r 2 L r xy r 2 0 L r xy r 2 1 L r y 2 r 2 0 0 0 1 ) ,
ε r = μ r = 1 , ε θ = μ θ = ε z = μ z = ( 1 L r ) 1 .
ε r = μ r = 1 , ε θ = μ θ = ε φ = μ φ = ( 1 L r ) 1 ,
μ r = 1 , μ θ = ε z = ( 1 L 1 r ) 1 , r > L ,
μ r = 1 , μ θ = ε z = ( 1 L 1 r ) 1 ( 1 + i ) , 0 < r < L ,
d ω dt = ω x i dx i dt + ω k i dk i dt = ω x i ω k i ω k i ω x i = 0 ,
d s 2 = α ( 1 L r ) c 2 dt 2 α 1 ( 1 L r ) 1 dr 2 r 2 d θ 2 dz 2 ,
ε r = μ r = 1 , ε θ = μ θ = ε z = μ z = ( α α L r ) 1 ,
r ( r ˜ ) = 16 r ˜ 2 + 8 r ˜ L + L 2 16 r ˜ ,
n ( r ˜ ) = ( 4 r ˜ + L ) 3 16 r ˜ 2 ( 4 r ˜ L ) ,

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