Abstract

We designed, manufactured and characterized two birefringent microstructured fibers that feature a 5-fold increase in polarimetric sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure compared to the earlier reported values for microstructured fibers. We demonstrate a good agreement between the finite element simulations and the experimental values for the polarimetric sensitivity to pressure and to temperature. The sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure has a negative sign and exceeds −43 rad/MPa × m at 1.55 μm for both fibers. In combination with the very low sensitivity to temperature, this makes our fibers the candidates of choice for the development of microstructured fiber based hydrostatic pressure measurement systems.

© 2010 OSA

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2010 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (5)

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008, 1–20 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Fu, H. Y. Tam, L. Y. Shao, X. Dong, P. K. Wai, C. Lu, and S. K. Khijwania, “Pressure sensor realized with polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber-based Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47(15), 2835–2839 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Shinde and H. K. Gahir, “Dynamic pressure sensing study using photonic crystal fiber: Application to tsunami sensing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 279–281 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and Ph. Roy, “Curvature sensor using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with two asymmetric hole regions in a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47(13), 2520–2523 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

2006 (3)

Ch. Jewart, K. P. Chen, B. McMillen, M. M. Bails, S. P. Levitan, J. Canning, and I. V. Avdeev, “Sensitivity enhancement of fiber Bragg gratings to transverse stress by using microstructural fibers,” Opt. Lett. 31(15), 2260–2262 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, T. Eftimov, and W. Urbanczyk, “A photonic crystal fiber sensor for pressure measurements,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(4), 1119–1123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, C. W. Smelser, and J. Broeng, “Femtosecond IR laser fabrication of Bragg gratings in photonic crystal fibers and tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1837–1839 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2004 (8)

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Effects of hydrostatic pressure on phase and group modal birefringence in microstructured holey fibers,” Appl. Opt. 43(24), 4739–4744 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Bohnert, A. Frank, E. Rochat, K. Haroud, and H. Brändle, “Polarimetric fiber laser sensor for hydrostatic pressure,” Appl. Opt. 43(1), 41–48 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Folkenberg, M. D. Nielsen, N. A. Mortensen, C. Jakobsen, and H. R. Simonsen, “Polarization maintaining large mode area photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express 12(5), 956–960 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-5-956 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Kim and J. U. Kang, “Sagnac loop interferometer based on polarization maintaining photonic crystal fiber with reduced temperature sensitivity,” Opt. Express 12(19), 4490–4495 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-19-4490 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. L. Zhao, X. Yang, Ch. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarymetic sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241(4-6), 339–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Fini, “Microstructured fibers for sensing in gases and liquids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(6), 1120–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Jensen, L. H. Pedersen, P. E. Hoiby, L. B. Nielsen, T. P. Hansen, J. R. Folkenberg, J. Riishede, D. Noordegraaf, K. Nielsen, A. Carlsen, and A. Bjarklev, “Photonic crystal fiber based evanescent-wave sensor for detection of biomolecules in aqueous solutions,” Opt. Lett. 29(17), 1974–1976 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (5)

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, and P. J. Bennett, “Developing holey fibers for evanescent field devices,” Electron. Lett. 35(14), 1188–1189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, P. S. Westbrook, R. S. Windeler, S. Spälter, and T. A. Strasser, “Grating resonances in air-silica microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 24(21), 1460–1462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 208–209 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Clowes, S. Syngellakis, and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure sensitivity of side-hole optical fiber sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 857–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

1982 (1)

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, “Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 53–58 (1982).

Araújo, F. M.

O. Frazão, J. P. Carvalho, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and J. L. Santos, “Discrimination of strain and temperature using Bragg gratings in microstructured and standard optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16(10), 2109–2113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arriaga, J.

Avdeev, I. V.

Bails, M. M.

Bandyopadhyay, S.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008, 1–20 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baptista, J. M.

Bartelt, H.

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, T. Nasilowski, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, M. Rothhardt, Ch. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg Grating Inscription in GeO2-doped Microstructured Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Becker, M.

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, T. Nasilowski, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, M. Rothhardt, Ch. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg Grating Inscription in GeO2-doped Microstructured Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, P. J.

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, and P. J. Bennett, “Developing holey fibers for evanescent field devices,” Electron. Lett. 35(14), 1188–1189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berghmans, F.

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, T. Nasilowski, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, M. Rothhardt, Ch. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg Grating Inscription in GeO2-doped Microstructured Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Gołojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3055–3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

Bjarklev, A.

Bock, W. J.

Bohnert, K.

Brändle, H.

Broeng, J.

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, C. W. Smelser, and J. Broeng, “Femtosecond IR laser fabrication of Bragg gratings in photonic crystal fibers and tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1837–1839 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 588–590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

Carlsen, A.

Carvalho, J. P.

O. Frazão, J. P. Carvalho, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and J. L. Santos, “Discrimination of strain and temperature using Bragg gratings in microstructured and standard optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16(10), 2109–2113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chah, K.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, T. Eftimov, and W. Urbanczyk, “A photonic crystal fiber sensor for pressure measurements,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(4), 1119–1123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. P.

Chmielewska, E.

Chojetzki, Ch.

Chung, Y.

Ciprian, D.

Clowes, J. R.

J. R. Clowes, S. Syngellakis, and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure sensitivity of side-hole optical fiber sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 857–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cook, K.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008, 1–20 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Croucher, J. A.

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 208–209 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cusano, A.

Dabkiewicz, Ph.

Demokan, M. S.

C. H. L. Zhao, X. Yang, Ch. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ding, H.

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, C. W. Smelser, and J. Broeng, “Femtosecond IR laser fabrication of Bragg gratings in photonic crystal fibers and tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1837–1839 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X.

Eftimov, T.

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, T. Eftimov, and W. Urbanczyk, “A photonic crystal fiber sensor for pressure measurements,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(4), 1119–1123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B.

Eggleton, B. J.

Ferreira, L. A.

O. Frazão, J. P. Carvalho, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and J. L. Santos, “Discrimination of strain and temperature using Bragg gratings in microstructured and standard optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16(10), 2109–2113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fini, J. M.

J. M. Fini, “Microstructured fibers for sensing in gases and liquids,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 15(6), 1120–1128 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Folkenberg, J. R.

Frank, A.

Frazão, O.

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and Ph. Roy, “Curvature sensor using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with two asymmetric hole regions in a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47(13), 2520–2523 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Frazão, J. P. Carvalho, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and J. L. Santos, “Discrimination of strain and temperature using Bragg gratings in microstructured and standard optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16(10), 2109–2113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fu, H. Y.

Fujita, M.

Gahir, H. K.

Y. S. Shinde and H. K. Gahir, “Dynamic pressure sensing study using photonic crystal fiber: Application to tsunami sensing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 279–281 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Geernaert, T.

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, T. Nasilowski, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, M. Rothhardt, Ch. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg Grating Inscription in GeO2-doped Microstructured Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Golojuch, G.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Gołojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3055–3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gomez-Rojas, L.

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 208–209 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grobnic, D.

C. M. Jewart, Q. Wang, J. Canning, D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, and K. P. Chen, “Ultrafast femtosecond-laser-induced fiber Bragg gratings in air-hole microstructured fibers for high-temperature pressure sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1443–1445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, C. W. Smelser, and J. Broeng, “Femtosecond IR laser fabrication of Bragg gratings in photonic crystal fibers and tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1837–1839 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Groothoff, N.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008, 1–20 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Han, W.-T.

Han, Y.-G.

Handerek, V. A.

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 208–209 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, T. P.

Haroud, K.

Hlubina, P.

Hoiby, P. E.

Holdsworth, J.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008, 1–20 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Iadicicco, A.

Imoto, N.

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, “Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 53–58 (1982).

Jakobsen, C.

Jensen, J. B.

Jensen, J. R.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 588–590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jewart, C. M.

Jewart, Ch.

Jin, W.

C. H. L. Zhao, X. Yang, Ch. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kanellopoulos, S.

J. A. Croucher, L. Gomez-Rojas, S. Kanellopoulos, and V. A. Handerek, “Approach to highly sensitive pressure measurements using side-hole fibre,” Electron. Lett. 34(2), 208–209 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

Kawanishi, S.

Kerbage, C.

Khijwania, S. K.

Kim, B. H.

Kim, D. H.

Klimek, J.

Knight, J. C.

Knudsen, E.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 588–590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, H.

Levitan, S. P.

Libori, S. E. B.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 588–590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, A.

Lu, C.

Lu, Ch.

C. H. L. Zhao, X. Yang, Ch. Lu, W. Jin, and M. S. Demokan, “Temperature-insensitive interferometer using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber loop mirror,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(11), 2535–2537 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Makara, M.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Gołojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3055–3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mangan, B. J.

Martelli, C.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008, 1–20 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Martynkien, T.

McMillen, B.

Mergo, P.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Gołojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3055–3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S. J.

C. M. Jewart, Q. Wang, J. Canning, D. Grobnic, S. J. Mihailov, and K. P. Chen, “Ultrafast femtosecond-laser-induced fiber Bragg gratings in air-hole microstructured fibers for high-temperature pressure sensing,” Opt. Lett. 35(9), 1443–1445 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, C. W. Smelser, and J. Broeng, “Femtosecond IR laser fabrication of Bragg gratings in photonic crystal fibers and tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1837–1839 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, and P. J. Bennett, “Developing holey fibers for evanescent field devices,” Electron. Lett. 35(14), 1188–1189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moon, D. S.

Mortensen, N. A.

Nasilowski, T.

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, T. Nasilowski, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, M. Rothhardt, Ch. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg Grating Inscription in GeO2-doped Microstructured Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Gołojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3055–3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nawrocka, M. S.

Nielsen, K.

Nielsen, L. B.

Nielsen, M. D.

Noda, J.

Noordegraaf, D.

Okamoto, K.

Olszewski, J.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Gołojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3055–3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ortigosa-Blanch, A.

Osgood, R. M.

Paladino, D.

Pedersen, L. H.

Pohl, A.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008, 1–20 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poturaj, K.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

T. M. Monro, D. J. Richardson, and P. J. Bennett, “Developing holey fibers for evanescent field devices,” Electron. Lett. 35(14), 1188–1189 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Riishede, J.

Rochat, E.

Rothhardt, M.

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, T. Nasilowski, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, M. Rothhardt, Ch. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg Grating Inscription in GeO2-doped Microstructured Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roy, Ph.

Russell, P. St. J.

Sakai, J.

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, “Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 53–58 (1982).

Santos, J. L.

O. Frazão, J. M. Baptista, J. L. Santos, and Ph. Roy, “Curvature sensor using a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber with two asymmetric hole regions in a Sagnac interferometer,” Appl. Opt. 47(13), 2520–2523 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Frazão, J. P. Carvalho, L. A. Ferreira, F. M. Araújo, and J. L. Santos, “Discrimination of strain and temperature using Bragg gratings in microstructured and standard optical fibres,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16(10), 2109–2113 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shao, L. Y.

Shinde, Y. S.

Y. S. Shinde and H. K. Gahir, “Dynamic pressure sensing study using photonic crystal fiber: Application to tsunami sensing,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(4), 279–281 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, H.

T. P. Hansen, J. Broeng, S. E. B. Libori, E. Knudsen, A. Bjarklev, J. R. Jensen, and H. Simonsen, “Highly birefringent index guiding photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13(6), 588–590 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Simonsen, H. R.

Smelser, C. W.

S. J. Mihailov, D. Grobnic, H. Ding, C. W. Smelser, and J. Broeng, “Femtosecond IR laser fabrication of Bragg gratings in photonic crystal fibers and tapers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(17), 1837–1839 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spälter, S.

Statkiewicz, G.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Gołojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3055–3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarymetic sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241(4-6), 339–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steel, M. J.

Stevenson, M.

J. Canning, N. Groothoff, K. Cook, C. Martelli, A. Pohl, J. Holdsworth, S. Bandyopadhyay, and M. Stevenson, “Gratings in structured optical fibres,” Laser Chem. 2008, 1–20 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Strasser, T. A.

Sun, G.

Suzuki, K.

Syngellakis, S.

J. R. Clowes, S. Syngellakis, and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure sensitivity of side-hole optical fiber sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10(6), 857–859 (1998).
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Szpulak, M.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Gołojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3055–3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, and W. Urbanczyk, “Modeling and measurement of temperature sensitivity in birefringent photonic crystal holey fibers,” Appl. Opt. 44(36), 7780–7788 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Effects of hydrostatic pressure on phase and group modal birefringence in microstructured holey fibers,” Appl. Opt. 43(24), 4739–4744 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, K.

Tam, H. Y.

Tanaka, M.

Terryn, H.

Thienpont, H.

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, T. Nasilowski, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, M. Rothhardt, Ch. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg Grating Inscription in GeO2-doped Microstructured Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Gołojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3055–3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuchiya, H.

N. Imoto, N. Yoshizawa, J. Sakai, and H. Tsuchiya, “Birefringence in single-mode optical fiber due to elliptical core deformation and stress anisotropy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18, 53–58 (1982).

Ulrich, R.

Urbanczyk, W.

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, T. Nasilowski, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, M. Rothhardt, Ch. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg Grating Inscription in GeO2-doped Microstructured Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Gołojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3055–3060 (2007).
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W. J. Bock, J. Chen, T. Eftimov, and W. Urbanczyk, “A photonic crystal fiber sensor for pressure measurements,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(4), 1119–1123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, M. Szpulak, and W. Urbanczyk, “Modeling and measurement of temperature sensitivity in birefringent photonic crystal holey fibers,” Appl. Opt. 44(36), 7780–7788 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Szpulak, G. Statkiewicz, J. Olszewski, T. Martynkien, W. Urbańczyk, J. Wójcik, M. Makara, J. Klimek, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Experimental and theoretical investigations of birefringent holey fibers with a triple defect,” Appl. Opt. 44(13), 2652–2658 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Statkiewicz, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Measurements of modal birefringence and polarymetic sensitivity of the birefringent holey fiber to hydrostatic pressure and strain,” Opt. Commun. 241(4-6), 339–348 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Szpulak, T. Martynkien, and W. Urbanczyk, “Effects of hydrostatic pressure on phase and group modal birefringence in microstructured holey fibers,” Appl. Opt. 43(24), 4739–4744 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Chmielewska, W. Urbańczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Measurement of pressure and temperature sensitivities of a Bragg grating imprinted in a highly birefringent side-hole fiber,” Appl. Opt. 42(31), 6284–6291 (2003).
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W. Urbanczyk, M. S. Nawrocka, and W. J. Bock, “Digital demodulation system for low-coherence interferometric sensors based on highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 40(36), 6618–6625 (2001).
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W. Urbanczyk, T. Martynkien, and W. J. Bock, “Dispersion effects in elliptical-core highly birefringent fibers,” Appl. Opt. 40(12), 1911–1920 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wai, P. K.

Wang, Q.

Westbrook, P. S.

Windeler, R. S.

Wojcik, J.

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, T. Nasilowski, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, M. Rothhardt, Ch. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg Grating Inscription in GeO2-doped Microstructured Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Gołojuch, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Measurements of polarimetric sensitivity to temperature in birefringent holey fibers,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 18(10), 3055–3060 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wójcik, J.

Xie, H. M.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

SEM images of the fabricated fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the system for measuring sensitivity of the phase modal birefringence to hydrostatic pressure and temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral dependence of phase (B) and group (G) modal birefringence measured (dots) and calculated (lines) in the investigated fibers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarimetric sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure and temperature measured vs. wavelength in fiber A (a,c) and in fiber B (b,d). The measurements results are indicated by dots while the solid lines represent the results of simulations.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Material constants used in numerical simulations.

Equations (4)

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d B d T = B T = 300 o C B T = 20 o C Δ T ,
K T = 2 π λ ( d B d T + B α ) ,
K P = 2 π λ ( B p=20MPa B p=0MPa p ) .
K P = Δ φ ( Δ p ) L Δ p = 2 π L Δ M Δ p ,

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