Abstract

We demonstrate the fabrication of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) on 3-Dimensional curved surfaces by capillary force lithography (CFL). Curved gratings with a period of 20μm and 820nm have been successfully fabricated in polymer on concave surfaces by CFL. The experiment results indicate that the capillary force lithography is an effective method to replicate DOEs on curved surfaces with a very high fidelity and a relatively fast speed. In addition, we found that the growth rate of the polymer in the sub-microfabrication is much faster and the step height is much closer to the master than that in the microfabrication for CFL, which makes CFL more attractive in the fabrication of DOEs with a sub-microscale or even nanoscale feature size than a microscale feature size.

© 2010 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K.-H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312(5773), 557–561 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Xie, Z. Lu, F. Li, J. Zhao, and Z. Weng, “Lithographic fabrication of large diffractive optical elements on a concave lens surface,” Opt. Express 10(20), 1043–1047 (2002).
    [PubMed]
  4. Y. Xie, Z. Lu, and F. Li, “Fabrication of large diffractive optical elements in thick film on a concave lens surface,” Opt. Express 11(9), 992–995 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. R. Childs and R. G. Nuzzo, “Patterning of thin-film microstructures on non-planar substrate surface using decal transfer lithography,” Adv. Mater. 16(15), 1323–1327 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. R. Childs and R. G. Nuzzo, “Decal transfer microlithography: a new soft-lithographic patterning method,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(45), 13583–13596 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Ruchhoeft, M. Colburn, B. Choi, H. Nounu, S. Johnson, T. Bailey, S. Damle, M. Stewart, J. Ekerdt, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. C. Wolfe, and C. G. Willson, “Patterning curved surfaces: Template generation by ion beam proximity lithography and relief transfer by step and flash imprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 2965–2969 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Xie, Z. Lu, and F. Li, “Lithographic fabrication of large curved hologram by laser writer,” Opt. Express 12(9), 1810–1814 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. H. Liu, Z. Lu, F. Li, Y. Xie, S. Kan, and S. Wang, “Using curved hologram to test large-aperture convex surface,” Opt. Express 12(14), 3251–3256 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28(1), 153–184 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Y. Suh, Y. S. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “Capillary force lithography,” Adv. Mater. 13(18), 1386–1389 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Y. Suh and H. H. Lee, “Capillary force lithography: large-area patterning, self-organization, and anisotropic dewetting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12(6-7), 405–413 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3136 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Polymer microsturctures formed by moulding in capillaries,” Nature 376(6541), 581–584 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Y. Khang and H. H. Lee, “Pressure-assisted capillary force lithography,” Adv. Mater. 16(2), 176–179 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  17. X. Yu, Z. Wang, R. Xing, S. Luan, and Y. Han, “Solvent assisted capillary force lithography,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(24), 11099–11103 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Y. Suh, M. C. Park, and P. Kim, “Capillary force lithography: a versatile tool for structured biomaterials interface towards cell and tissue engineering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2699–2712 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Kwak, H. E. Jeong, and K. Y. Suh, “Fabrication of monolithic bridge structures by vacuum-assisted capillary-force lithography,” Small 5(7), 790–794 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. Y. Suh, P. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “Capillary kinetics of thin polymer films in permeable microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 4019–4021 (2004).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

K. Y. Suh, M. C. Park, and P. Kim, “Capillary force lithography: a versatile tool for structured biomaterials interface towards cell and tissue engineering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2699–2712 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Kwak, H. E. Jeong, and K. Y. Suh, “Fabrication of monolithic bridge structures by vacuum-assisted capillary-force lithography,” Small 5(7), 790–794 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

K.-H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312(5773), 557–561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

X. Yu, Z. Wang, R. Xing, S. Luan, and Y. Han, “Solvent assisted capillary force lithography,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(24), 11099–11103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (5)

D. Y. Khang and H. H. Lee, “Pressure-assisted capillary force lithography,” Adv. Mater. 16(2), 176–179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Suh, P. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “Capillary kinetics of thin polymer films in permeable microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 4019–4021 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Childs and R. G. Nuzzo, “Patterning of thin-film microstructures on non-planar substrate surface using decal transfer lithography,” Adv. Mater. 16(15), 1323–1327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Xie, Z. Lu, and F. Li, “Lithographic fabrication of large curved hologram by laser writer,” Opt. Express 12(9), 1810–1814 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, Z. Lu, F. Li, Y. Xie, S. Kan, and S. Wang, “Using curved hologram to test large-aperture convex surface,” Opt. Express 12(14), 3251–3256 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (3)

W. R. Childs and R. G. Nuzzo, “Decal transfer microlithography: a new soft-lithographic patterning method,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(45), 13583–13596 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Xie, Z. Lu, F. Li, J. Zhao, and Z. Weng, “Lithographic fabrication of large diffractive optical elements on a concave lens surface,” Opt. Express 10(20), 1043–1047 (2002).
[PubMed]

K. Y. Suh and H. H. Lee, “Capillary force lithography: large-area patterning, self-organization, and anisotropic dewetting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12(6-7), 405–413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Y. Suh, Y. S. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “Capillary force lithography,” Adv. Mater. 13(18), 1386–1389 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

P. Ruchhoeft, M. Colburn, B. Choi, H. Nounu, S. Johnson, T. Bailey, S. Damle, M. Stewart, J. Ekerdt, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. C. Wolfe, and C. G. Willson, “Patterning curved surfaces: Template generation by ion beam proximity lithography and relief transfer by step and flash imprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 2965–2969 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28(1), 153–184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Polymer microsturctures formed by moulding in capillaries,” Nature 376(6541), 581–584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, T.

P. Ruchhoeft, M. Colburn, B. Choi, H. Nounu, S. Johnson, T. Bailey, S. Damle, M. Stewart, J. Ekerdt, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. C. Wolfe, and C. G. Willson, “Patterning curved surfaces: Template generation by ion beam proximity lithography and relief transfer by step and flash imprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 2965–2969 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Childs, W. R.

W. R. Childs and R. G. Nuzzo, “Patterning of thin-film microstructures on non-planar substrate surface using decal transfer lithography,” Adv. Mater. 16(15), 1323–1327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Childs and R. G. Nuzzo, “Decal transfer microlithography: a new soft-lithographic patterning method,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(45), 13583–13596 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, B.

P. Ruchhoeft, M. Colburn, B. Choi, H. Nounu, S. Johnson, T. Bailey, S. Damle, M. Stewart, J. Ekerdt, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. C. Wolfe, and C. G. Willson, “Patterning curved surfaces: Template generation by ion beam proximity lithography and relief transfer by step and flash imprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 2965–2969 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. M.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Colburn, M.

P. Ruchhoeft, M. Colburn, B. Choi, H. Nounu, S. Johnson, T. Bailey, S. Damle, M. Stewart, J. Ekerdt, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. C. Wolfe, and C. G. Willson, “Patterning curved surfaces: Template generation by ion beam proximity lithography and relief transfer by step and flash imprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 2965–2969 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Damle, S.

P. Ruchhoeft, M. Colburn, B. Choi, H. Nounu, S. Johnson, T. Bailey, S. Damle, M. Stewart, J. Ekerdt, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. C. Wolfe, and C. G. Willson, “Patterning curved surfaces: Template generation by ion beam proximity lithography and relief transfer by step and flash imprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 2965–2969 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ekerdt, J.

P. Ruchhoeft, M. Colburn, B. Choi, H. Nounu, S. Johnson, T. Bailey, S. Damle, M. Stewart, J. Ekerdt, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. C. Wolfe, and C. G. Willson, “Patterning curved surfaces: Template generation by ion beam proximity lithography and relief transfer by step and flash imprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 2965–2969 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Geddes, J. B.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, Y.

X. Yu, Z. Wang, R. Xing, S. Luan, and Y. Han, “Solvent assisted capillary force lithography,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(24), 11099–11103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, Y.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, H. E.

R. Kwak, H. E. Jeong, and K. Y. Suh, “Fabrication of monolithic bridge structures by vacuum-assisted capillary-force lithography,” Small 5(7), 790–794 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeong, K.-H.

K.-H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312(5773), 557–561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, S.

P. Ruchhoeft, M. Colburn, B. Choi, H. Nounu, S. Johnson, T. Bailey, S. Damle, M. Stewart, J. Ekerdt, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. C. Wolfe, and C. G. Willson, “Patterning curved surfaces: Template generation by ion beam proximity lithography and relief transfer by step and flash imprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 2965–2969 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kan, S.

Khang, D. Y.

D. Y. Khang and H. H. Lee, “Pressure-assisted capillary force lithography,” Adv. Mater. 16(2), 176–179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E.

E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Polymer microsturctures formed by moulding in capillaries,” Nature 376(6541), 581–584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

K.-H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312(5773), 557–561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, P.

K. Y. Suh, M. C. Park, and P. Kim, “Capillary force lithography: a versatile tool for structured biomaterials interface towards cell and tissue engineering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2699–2712 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Suh, P. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “Capillary kinetics of thin polymer films in permeable microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 4019–4021 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

K. Y. Suh, Y. S. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “Capillary force lithography,” Adv. Mater. 13(18), 1386–1389 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ko, H. C.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, P. R.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, R.

R. Kwak, H. E. Jeong, and K. Y. Suh, “Fabrication of monolithic bridge structures by vacuum-assisted capillary-force lithography,” Small 5(7), 790–794 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H. H.

D. Y. Khang and H. H. Lee, “Pressure-assisted capillary force lithography,” Adv. Mater. 16(2), 176–179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Suh, P. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “Capillary kinetics of thin polymer films in permeable microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 4019–4021 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Suh and H. H. Lee, “Capillary force lithography: large-area patterning, self-organization, and anisotropic dewetting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12(6-7), 405–413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Suh, Y. S. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “Capillary force lithography,” Adv. Mater. 13(18), 1386–1389 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lee, L. P.

K.-H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312(5773), 557–561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, F.

Liu, H.

Lu, Z.

Luan, S.

X. Yu, Z. Wang, R. Xing, S. Luan, and Y. Han, “Solvent assisted capillary force lithography,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(24), 11099–11103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Malyarchuk, V.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nounu, H.

P. Ruchhoeft, M. Colburn, B. Choi, H. Nounu, S. Johnson, T. Bailey, S. Damle, M. Stewart, J. Ekerdt, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. C. Wolfe, and C. G. Willson, “Patterning curved surfaces: Template generation by ion beam proximity lithography and relief transfer by step and flash imprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 2965–2969 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nuzzo, R. G.

W. R. Childs and R. G. Nuzzo, “Patterning of thin-film microstructures on non-planar substrate surface using decal transfer lithography,” Adv. Mater. 16(15), 1323–1327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Childs and R. G. Nuzzo, “Decal transfer microlithography: a new soft-lithographic patterning method,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(45), 13583–13596 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, M. C.

K. Y. Suh, M. C. Park, and P. Kim, “Capillary force lithography: a versatile tool for structured biomaterials interface towards cell and tissue engineering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2699–2712 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Renstrom, P. J.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, J. A.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruchhoeft, P.

P. Ruchhoeft, M. Colburn, B. Choi, H. Nounu, S. Johnson, T. Bailey, S. Damle, M. Stewart, J. Ekerdt, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. C. Wolfe, and C. G. Willson, “Patterning curved surfaces: Template generation by ion beam proximity lithography and relief transfer by step and flash imprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 2965–2969 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sreenivasan, S. V.

P. Ruchhoeft, M. Colburn, B. Choi, H. Nounu, S. Johnson, T. Bailey, S. Damle, M. Stewart, J. Ekerdt, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. C. Wolfe, and C. G. Willson, “Patterning curved surfaces: Template generation by ion beam proximity lithography and relief transfer by step and flash imprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 2965–2969 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, M.

P. Ruchhoeft, M. Colburn, B. Choi, H. Nounu, S. Johnson, T. Bailey, S. Damle, M. Stewart, J. Ekerdt, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. C. Wolfe, and C. G. Willson, “Patterning curved surfaces: Template generation by ion beam proximity lithography and relief transfer by step and flash imprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 2965–2969 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stoykovich, M. P.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suh, K. Y.

K. Y. Suh, M. C. Park, and P. Kim, “Capillary force lithography: a versatile tool for structured biomaterials interface towards cell and tissue engineering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2699–2712 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Kwak, H. E. Jeong, and K. Y. Suh, “Fabrication of monolithic bridge structures by vacuum-assisted capillary-force lithography,” Small 5(7), 790–794 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Suh, P. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “Capillary kinetics of thin polymer films in permeable microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 4019–4021 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Suh and H. H. Lee, “Capillary force lithography: large-area patterning, self-organization, and anisotropic dewetting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12(6-7), 405–413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Suh, Y. S. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “Capillary force lithography,” Adv. Mater. 13(18), 1386–1389 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, Z. Lu, F. Li, Y. Xie, S. Kan, and S. Wang, “Using curved hologram to test large-aperture convex surface,” Opt. Express 12(14), 3251–3256 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

X. Yu, Z. Wang, R. Xing, S. Luan, and Y. Han, “Solvent assisted capillary force lithography,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(24), 11099–11103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weng, Z.

Whitesides, G. M.

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28(1), 153–184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Polymer microsturctures formed by moulding in capillaries,” Nature 376(6541), 581–584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Willson, C. G.

P. Ruchhoeft, M. Colburn, B. Choi, H. Nounu, S. Johnson, T. Bailey, S. Damle, M. Stewart, J. Ekerdt, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. C. Wolfe, and C. G. Willson, “Patterning curved surfaces: Template generation by ion beam proximity lithography and relief transfer by step and flash imprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 2965–2969 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, J. C.

P. Ruchhoeft, M. Colburn, B. Choi, H. Nounu, S. Johnson, T. Bailey, S. Damle, M. Stewart, J. Ekerdt, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. C. Wolfe, and C. G. Willson, “Patterning curved surfaces: Template generation by ion beam proximity lithography and relief transfer by step and flash imprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 2965–2969 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28(1), 153–184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Polymer microsturctures formed by moulding in capillaries,” Nature 376(6541), 581–584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, J.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, Y.

Xing, R.

X. Yu, Z. Wang, R. Xing, S. Luan, and Y. Han, “Solvent assisted capillary force lithography,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(24), 11099–11103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.-J.

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, X.

X. Yu, Z. Wang, R. Xing, S. Luan, and Y. Han, “Solvent assisted capillary force lithography,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(24), 11099–11103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

K. Y. Suh and H. H. Lee, “Capillary force lithography: large-area patterning, self-organization, and anisotropic dewetting,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 12(6-7), 405–413 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Suh, M. C. Park, and P. Kim, “Capillary force lithography: a versatile tool for structured biomaterials interface towards cell and tissue engineering,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(17), 2699–2712 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (3)

D. Y. Khang and H. H. Lee, “Pressure-assisted capillary force lithography,” Adv. Mater. 16(2), 176–179 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Suh, Y. S. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “Capillary force lithography,” Adv. Mater. 13(18), 1386–1389 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. R. Childs and R. G. Nuzzo, “Patterning of thin-film microstructures on non-planar substrate surface using decal transfer lithography,” Adv. Mater. 16(15), 1323–1327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

Y. Xia and G. M. Whitesides, “Soft lithography,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 28(1), 153–184 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint of sub-25 nm vias and trenches in polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3114–3136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Suh, P. Kim, and H. H. Lee, “Capillary kinetics of thin polymer films in permeable microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(18), 4019–4021 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

W. R. Childs and R. G. Nuzzo, “Decal transfer microlithography: a new soft-lithographic patterning method,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 124(45), 13583–13596 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

P. Ruchhoeft, M. Colburn, B. Choi, H. Nounu, S. Johnson, T. Bailey, S. Damle, M. Stewart, J. Ekerdt, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. C. Wolfe, and C. G. Willson, “Patterning curved surfaces: Template generation by ion beam proximity lithography and relief transfer by step and flash imprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 17(6), 2965–2969 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

H. C. Ko, M. P. Stoykovich, J. Song, V. Malyarchuk, W. M. Choi, C.-J. Yu, J. B. Geddes, J. Xiao, S. Wang, Y. Huang, and J. A. Rogers, “A hemispherical electronic eye camera based on compressible silicon optoelectronics,” Nature 454(7205), 748–753 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kim, Y. Xia, and G. M. Whitesides, “Polymer microsturctures formed by moulding in capillaries,” Nature 376(6541), 581–584 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Polymer (Guildf.) (1)

X. Yu, Z. Wang, R. Xing, S. Luan, and Y. Han, “Solvent assisted capillary force lithography,” Polymer (Guildf.) 46(24), 11099–11103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Imprint lithography with 25-nanometer resolution,” Science 272(5258), 85–87 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Jeong, J. Kim, and L. P. Lee, “Biologically inspired artificial compound eyes,” Science 312(5773), 557–561 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small (1)

R. Kwak, H. E. Jeong, and K. Y. Suh, “Fabrication of monolithic bridge structures by vacuum-assisted capillary-force lithography,” Small 5(7), 790–794 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A schematic diagram of fabrication of micro/nano-structures on a curved surface by CFL.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) AFM measured 3D and 2D surface profiles of the master shown in Fig. 1; (b) 3D and 2D surface profiles of the fabricated microstructure measured by AFM.

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A panorama of the master with micro-concentric circular grating fabricated on its 3-D curved surface by laser direct writing and (b) Image of the 30 × magnified image of the grating under microscope and (c)Image of the 200 × magnified image of the grating.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The step height versus the annealing time in the process of fabricating microstructures by CFL.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) AFM image of the original nano-grating structures (b) AFM image of the sample fabricated by CFL.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The relationship between the height of the sub-microsized pattern and the annealing time.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured optical transmission of the fabricated DOE shown in Fig. 3

Metrics