Abstract

We generate the phase-modulated signal by utilizing the chirp characteristics of the directly-modulated reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) for the cost-effective realization of a long-reach wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM PON). We first investigate the relation between the amplitude and phase modulation indices in a directly-modulated RSOA and optimize these modulation indices to maximize the symbol distance on the constellation diagram. The results show that, by operating the RSOA under this optimum condition, we can achieve the excellent receiver sensitivity of −49.8 dBm at 1.25 Gb/s. We implement a long-reach WDM PON by using the phase-modulated RSOAs and self-homodyne receivers, and demonstrate the error-free transmission of 1.25-Gb/s signal over a 110-km long link without using any optical amplifiers.

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  1. M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Burrus, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, and N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1175–1177 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. Y. Kim, S. B. Jun, Y. Takushima, E. S. Son, and Y. C. Chung, “Enhanced performance of RSOA-based WDM PON by using Manchester coding,” J. Opt. Net. 6(6), 624–630 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Y. Cho, Y. J. Lee, H. Y. Choi, A. Murakami, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Effects of reflection in RSOA-based WDM PON utilizing remodulation technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(10), 1286–1295 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, K. Y. Cho, S. J. Park, and Y. C. Chung, “Demonstration of RSOA-based WDM PON employing self-homodyne receiver with high reflection tolerance,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference2009, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America 2009), paper JWA69.
  5. S. J. Park, Y. B. Choi, S. P. Jung, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Hybrid WDM/TDMA-PON using self-homodyne and differential coding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 465–467 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” J. Quantum Electron. 25(11), 2297–2306 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. P. Agrawal, and N. K. Dutta, Long-wavelength semiconductor lasers (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1986), Chap. 2.
  8. M. Osinski and J. Buus, “Linewidth broadening factor in semiconductor lasers – an overview,” J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 9–29 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Suzuki, Y. Noda, Y. Kushiro, and S. Akiba, “Dynamic spectral broadening factor in electroabsorption-type external modulation and direct modulation,” in Optoelectronics Conference1986, Technical Digest, paper A10–1.
  10. Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, and Y. C. Chung, “Measurement of differential phasor diagram of multilevel DPSK signals by using an adjustment-free delay interferometer composed of a 3x3 optical coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(6), 718–730 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. W. Davis, M. J. Pettitt, J. P. King, and S. Wright, “Phase diversity techniques for coherent optical receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(4), 561–572 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  12. ITU-T standard G984.3, “Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (G-PON): transmission convergence layer specification” (2008).

2009

2007

S. Y. Kim, S. B. Jun, Y. Takushima, E. S. Son, and Y. C. Chung, “Enhanced performance of RSOA-based WDM PON by using Manchester coding,” J. Opt. Net. 6(6), 624–630 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Burrus, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, and N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1175–1177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1989

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” J. Quantum Electron. 25(11), 2297–2306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987

M. Osinski and J. Buus, “Linewidth broadening factor in semiconductor lasers – an overview,” J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 9–29 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Davis, M. J. Pettitt, J. P. King, and S. Wright, “Phase diversity techniques for coherent optical receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(4), 561–572 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Agata, A.

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” J. Quantum Electron. 25(11), 2297–2306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Burrus, C. A.

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Burrus, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, and N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1175–1177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Buus, J.

M. Osinski and J. Buus, “Linewidth broadening factor in semiconductor lasers – an overview,” J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 9–29 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cho, K. Y.

K. Y. Cho, Y. J. Lee, H. Y. Choi, A. Murakami, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Effects of reflection in RSOA-based WDM PON utilizing remodulation technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(10), 1286–1295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Park, Y. B. Choi, S. P. Jung, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Hybrid WDM/TDMA-PON using self-homodyne and differential coding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 465–467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. Y.

Choi, Y. B.

S. J. Park, Y. B. Choi, S. P. Jung, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Hybrid WDM/TDMA-PON using self-homodyne and differential coding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 465–467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chung, Y. C.

K. Y. Cho, Y. J. Lee, H. Y. Choi, A. Murakami, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Effects of reflection in RSOA-based WDM PON utilizing remodulation technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(10), 1286–1295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Park, Y. B. Choi, S. P. Jung, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Hybrid WDM/TDMA-PON using self-homodyne and differential coding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 465–467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, and Y. C. Chung, “Measurement of differential phasor diagram of multilevel DPSK signals by using an adjustment-free delay interferometer composed of a 3x3 optical coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(6), 718–730 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Kim, S. B. Jun, Y. Takushima, E. S. Son, and Y. C. Chung, “Enhanced performance of RSOA-based WDM PON by using Manchester coding,” J. Opt. Net. 6(6), 624–630 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Davis, A. W.

A. W. Davis, M. J. Pettitt, J. P. King, and S. Wright, “Phase diversity techniques for coherent optical receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(4), 561–572 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, N. K.

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Burrus, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, and N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1175–1177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feuer, M. D.

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Burrus, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, and N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1175–1177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jun, S. B.

S. Y. Kim, S. B. Jun, Y. Takushima, E. S. Son, and Y. C. Chung, “Enhanced performance of RSOA-based WDM PON by using Manchester coding,” J. Opt. Net. 6(6), 624–630 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jung, S. P.

S. J. Park, Y. B. Choi, S. P. Jung, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Hybrid WDM/TDMA-PON using self-homodyne and differential coding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 465–467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. Y.

S. Y. Kim, S. B. Jun, Y. Takushima, E. S. Son, and Y. C. Chung, “Enhanced performance of RSOA-based WDM PON by using Manchester coding,” J. Opt. Net. 6(6), 624–630 (2007).
[CrossRef]

King, J. P.

A. W. Davis, M. J. Pettitt, J. P. King, and S. Wright, “Phase diversity techniques for coherent optical receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(4), 561–572 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. J.

Murakami, A.

Olsson, N. A.

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” J. Quantum Electron. 25(11), 2297–2306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Osinski, M.

M. Osinski and J. Buus, “Linewidth broadening factor in semiconductor lasers – an overview,” J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 9–29 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

S. J. Park, Y. B. Choi, S. P. Jung, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Hybrid WDM/TDMA-PON using self-homodyne and differential coding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 465–467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Perino, J. S.

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Burrus, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, and N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1175–1177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pettitt, M. J.

A. W. Davis, M. J. Pettitt, J. P. King, and S. Wright, “Phase diversity techniques for coherent optical receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(4), 561–572 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Raybon, G.

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Burrus, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, and N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1175–1177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shunk, S. C.

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Burrus, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, and N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1175–1177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Son, E. S.

S. Y. Kim, S. B. Jun, Y. Takushima, E. S. Son, and Y. C. Chung, “Enhanced performance of RSOA-based WDM PON by using Manchester coding,” J. Opt. Net. 6(6), 624–630 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takushima, Y.

K. Y. Cho, Y. J. Lee, H. Y. Choi, A. Murakami, A. Agata, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Effects of reflection in RSOA-based WDM PON utilizing remodulation technique,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(10), 1286–1295 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Park, Y. B. Choi, S. P. Jung, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Hybrid WDM/TDMA-PON using self-homodyne and differential coding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 465–467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takushima, H. Y. Choi, and Y. C. Chung, “Measurement of differential phasor diagram of multilevel DPSK signals by using an adjustment-free delay interferometer composed of a 3x3 optical coupler,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(6), 718–730 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Kim, S. B. Jun, Y. Takushima, E. S. Son, and Y. C. Chung, “Enhanced performance of RSOA-based WDM PON by using Manchester coding,” J. Opt. Net. 6(6), 624–630 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wiesenfeld, J. M.

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Burrus, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, and N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1175–1177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wright, S.

A. W. Davis, M. J. Pettitt, J. P. King, and S. Wright, “Phase diversity techniques for coherent optical receivers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 5(4), 561–572 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

S. J. Park, Y. B. Choi, S. P. Jung, K. Y. Cho, Y. Takushima, and Y. C. Chung, “Hybrid WDM/TDMA-PON using self-homodyne and differential coding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(7), 465–467 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feuer, J. M. Wiesenfeld, J. S. Perino, C. A. Burrus, G. Raybon, S. C. Shunk, and N. K. Dutta, “Single-port laser-amplifier modulators for local access,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8(9), 1175–1177 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Net.

S. Y. Kim, S. B. Jun, Y. Takushima, E. S. Son, and Y. C. Chung, “Enhanced performance of RSOA-based WDM PON by using Manchester coding,” J. Opt. Net. 6(6), 624–630 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Quantum Electron.

G. P. Agrawal and N. A. Olsson, “Self-phase modulation and spectral broadening of optical pulses in semiconductor laser amplifiers,” J. Quantum Electron. 25(11), 2297–2306 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Osinski and J. Buus, “Linewidth broadening factor in semiconductor lasers – an overview,” J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 9–29 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. Suzuki, Y. Noda, Y. Kushiro, and S. Akiba, “Dynamic spectral broadening factor in electroabsorption-type external modulation and direct modulation,” in Optoelectronics Conference1986, Technical Digest, paper A10–1.

G. P. Agrawal, and N. K. Dutta, Long-wavelength semiconductor lasers (Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1986), Chap. 2.

ITU-T standard G984.3, “Gigabit-capable passive optical networks (G-PON): transmission convergence layer specification” (2008).

S. P. Jung, Y. Takushima, K. Y. Cho, S. J. Park, and Y. C. Chung, “Demonstration of RSOA-based WDM PON employing self-homodyne receiver with high reflection tolerance,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference2009, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America 2009), paper JWA69.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Phasor diagrams of the output signals of the (a) directly-modulated RSOA and (b) ideal phase modulator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effects of the unwanted AM components. (a) Optimum PM and AM indices to achieve the maximum symbol distance. (b) D RSOA/D ideal and the power penalty caused by the unwanted AM components.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured PM index (θ) and calculated symbol distance as a function of the AM index (γ) of the RSOA used in this experiment.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured receiver sensitivities as a function of the RSOA’s γ.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured BER curves as a function of the transmission distance.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E 1 = P a v g / ( 1 + γ 2 ) ( 1 + γ ) exp ( i 2 θ ) and E 0 = P a v g / ( 1 + γ 2 ) ( 1 γ ) ,
D = 2 P a v g [ 1 1 γ 2 1 + γ 2 cos ( 2 θ ) ] .
D RSOA = 2 P a v g / ( 1 + γ 0 2 ) ,
D ideal = 2 P a v g .

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