Abstract

A flexible microdome-grooved Gd2O2S:Tb scintillator is simulated, fabricated, and characterized for digital radiography applications. According to Monte Carlo simulation results, the dome-grooved structure has a high spatial resolution, which is verified by X-ray image performance of the scintillator. The proposed scintillator has lower X-ray sensitivity than a nonstructured scintillator but almost two times higher spatial resolution at high spatial frequency. Through evaluation of the X-ray performance of the fabricated scintillators, we confirm that the microdome-grooved scintillator can be applied to next-generation flexible digital radiography systems requiring high spatial resolution.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

I. D. Jung, M. K. Cho, S. M. Lee, K. M. Bae, P. G. Jung, C. H. Lee, J. M. Lee, S. Yun, H. K. Kim, S. S. Kim, and J. S. Ko, “Flexible Gd2O2S:Tb scintillators pixelated with polyethylene microstructures for digital x-ray image sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(1), 015014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X.-J. Huang, D.-H. Kim, M. Im, J.-H. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, and Y.-K. Choi, ““Lock-and-key” geometry effect of patterned surfaces: wettability and switching of adhesive force,” Small 5(1), 90–94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, L. E. Antonuk, Y. El-Mohri, and Q. Zhao, “A Monte Carlo investigation of Swank noise for thick, segmented, crystalline scintillators for radiotherapy imaging,” Med. Phys. 36(7), 3227–3238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (6)

X.-J. Huang, J.-H. Lee, J.-W. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, and Y.-K. Choi, “A one-step route to a perfectly ordered wafer-scale microbowl array for size-dependent superhydrophobicity,” Small 4(2), 211–216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Ng, W. S. Wong, M. L. Chabinyc, S. Sambandan, and R. A. Street, “Flexible image sensor array with bulk heterojunction organic photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 213303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Blakesley and R. Speller, “Modeling the imaging performance of prototype organic x-ray imagers,” Med. Phys. 35(1), 225–239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Keivanidis, N. C. Greenham, H. Sirringhaus, R. H. Friend, J. C. Blakesley, and R. Speller, “M.C. -Quiles, T. Agostinelli, D.D.C. Bradley, J. Nelson, "X-ray stability and response of polymeric photodiodes for imaging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 023304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Hull, S. Du, T. Niedermayr, S. Payne, N. Cherepy, A. Drobshoff, and L. Fabris, “Light collection optimization in scintillator-based gamma-ray spectrometers,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588(3), 384–388 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Simon, K. J. Engel, B. Menser, X. Badel, and J. Linnros, “X-ray imaging performance of scintillator-filled silicon pore arrays,” Med. Phys. 35(3), 968–981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. T. Dobbins, E. Samei, N. T. Ranger, and Y. Chen, “Intercomparison of methods for image quality characterization. II. Noise power spectrum,” Med. Phys. 33(5), 1466–1475 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

R. A. Street, W. S. Wong, S. Ready, R. Lujan, A. C. Arias, M. L. Chabinyc, A. Salleo, R. Apte, and L. E. Antonuk, “Printed Active-Matrix TFT Arrays for X-Ray Imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5745, 7–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Sawant, L. E. Antonuk, Y. El-Mohri, Y. Li, Z. Su, Y. Wang, J. Yamamoto, Q. Zhao, H. Du, J. Daniel, and R. Street, “Segmented phosphors: MEMS-based high quantum efficiency detectors for megavoltage x-ray imaging,” Med. Phys. 32(2), 553–565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

A. Badano, R. M. Gagne, B. D. Gallas, R. J. Jennings, J. S. Boswell, and K. J. Myers, “Lubberts effect in columnar phosphors,” Med. Phys. 31(11), 3122–3131 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-I. Chang and J.-B. Yoon, “Shape-controlled, high fill-factor microlens arrays fabricated by a 3D diffuser lithography and plastic replication method,” Opt. Express 12(25), 6366–6371 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

F. Cayouette, C. Moisan, N. Zhang, and C. J. Thompson, “Monte-Carlo Modeling of Scintillator Crystal Performance for Stratified PET Detectors with DETECT2000,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(3), 624–628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, A. Avila-Muñoz, S. Tao, Z. Gu, A. Nathan, and J. A. Rowlands, “Resolution enhancement and performance characteristics of large area a-Si:H x-ray imager with a high aspect ratio SU-8 micromould,” Proc. SPIE 4925, 156–165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Badel, A. Galeckas, J. Linnros, P. Kleimann, C. Fröjdh, and C. S. Petersson, “Improvement of an X-ray imaging detector based on a scintillating guides screen,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 487(1-2), 129–135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

V. V. Nagarkar, T. K. Gupta, S. R. Miller, Y. Klugerman, M. R. Squillante, and G. Entine, “Structured CsI(Tl) Scintillators for X-ray Imaging Applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 492–496 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Samei, M. J. Flynn, and D. A. Reimann, “A method for measuring the presampled MTF of digital radiographic systems using an edge test device,” Med. Phys. 25(1), 102–113 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Siewerdsen, L. E. Antonuk, Y. el-Mohri, J. Yorkston, W. Huang, and I. A. Cunningham, “Signal, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency of indirect-detection flat-panel imagers for diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 25(5), 614–628 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

C. E. Metz, R. F. Wagner, K. Doi, D. G. Brown, R. M. Nishikawa, and K. J. Myers, “Toward consensus on quantitative assessment of medical imaging systems,” Med. Phys. 22(7), 1057–1061 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

B. Wowk, S. Shalev, and T. Radcliffe, “Grooved phosphor screens for on-line portal imaging,” Med. Phys. 20(6), 1641–1651 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1963 (1)

R. Shaw, “The equivalent quantum efficiency of the photographic process,” J. Photogr. Sci. 11, 199–204 (1963).

Antonuk, L. E.

Y. Wang, L. E. Antonuk, Y. El-Mohri, and Q. Zhao, “A Monte Carlo investigation of Swank noise for thick, segmented, crystalline scintillators for radiotherapy imaging,” Med. Phys. 36(7), 3227–3238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Street, W. S. Wong, S. Ready, R. Lujan, A. C. Arias, M. L. Chabinyc, A. Salleo, R. Apte, and L. E. Antonuk, “Printed Active-Matrix TFT Arrays for X-Ray Imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5745, 7–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Sawant, L. E. Antonuk, Y. El-Mohri, Y. Li, Z. Su, Y. Wang, J. Yamamoto, Q. Zhao, H. Du, J. Daniel, and R. Street, “Segmented phosphors: MEMS-based high quantum efficiency detectors for megavoltage x-ray imaging,” Med. Phys. 32(2), 553–565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Siewerdsen, L. E. Antonuk, Y. el-Mohri, J. Yorkston, W. Huang, and I. A. Cunningham, “Signal, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency of indirect-detection flat-panel imagers for diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 25(5), 614–628 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Apte, R.

R. A. Street, W. S. Wong, S. Ready, R. Lujan, A. C. Arias, M. L. Chabinyc, A. Salleo, R. Apte, and L. E. Antonuk, “Printed Active-Matrix TFT Arrays for X-Ray Imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5745, 7–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arias, A. C.

R. A. Street, W. S. Wong, S. Ready, R. Lujan, A. C. Arias, M. L. Chabinyc, A. Salleo, R. Apte, and L. E. Antonuk, “Printed Active-Matrix TFT Arrays for X-Ray Imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5745, 7–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Avila-Muñoz, A.

Y. Zhou, A. Avila-Muñoz, S. Tao, Z. Gu, A. Nathan, and J. A. Rowlands, “Resolution enhancement and performance characteristics of large area a-Si:H x-ray imager with a high aspect ratio SU-8 micromould,” Proc. SPIE 4925, 156–165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Badano, A.

A. Badano, R. M. Gagne, B. D. Gallas, R. J. Jennings, J. S. Boswell, and K. J. Myers, “Lubberts effect in columnar phosphors,” Med. Phys. 31(11), 3122–3131 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badel, X.

M. Simon, K. J. Engel, B. Menser, X. Badel, and J. Linnros, “X-ray imaging performance of scintillator-filled silicon pore arrays,” Med. Phys. 35(3), 968–981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Badel, A. Galeckas, J. Linnros, P. Kleimann, C. Fröjdh, and C. S. Petersson, “Improvement of an X-ray imaging detector based on a scintillating guides screen,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 487(1-2), 129–135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bae, K. M.

I. D. Jung, M. K. Cho, S. M. Lee, K. M. Bae, P. G. Jung, C. H. Lee, J. M. Lee, S. Yun, H. K. Kim, S. S. Kim, and J. S. Ko, “Flexible Gd2O2S:Tb scintillators pixelated with polyethylene microstructures for digital x-ray image sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(1), 015014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blakesley, J. C.

J. C. Blakesley and R. Speller, “Modeling the imaging performance of prototype organic x-ray imagers,” Med. Phys. 35(1), 225–239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Keivanidis, N. C. Greenham, H. Sirringhaus, R. H. Friend, J. C. Blakesley, and R. Speller, “M.C. -Quiles, T. Agostinelli, D.D.C. Bradley, J. Nelson, "X-ray stability and response of polymeric photodiodes for imaging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 023304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boswell, J. S.

A. Badano, R. M. Gagne, B. D. Gallas, R. J. Jennings, J. S. Boswell, and K. J. Myers, “Lubberts effect in columnar phosphors,” Med. Phys. 31(11), 3122–3131 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, D. G.

C. E. Metz, R. F. Wagner, K. Doi, D. G. Brown, R. M. Nishikawa, and K. J. Myers, “Toward consensus on quantitative assessment of medical imaging systems,” Med. Phys. 22(7), 1057–1061 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cayouette, F.

F. Cayouette, C. Moisan, N. Zhang, and C. J. Thompson, “Monte-Carlo Modeling of Scintillator Crystal Performance for Stratified PET Detectors with DETECT2000,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(3), 624–628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chabinyc, M. L.

T. N. Ng, W. S. Wong, M. L. Chabinyc, S. Sambandan, and R. A. Street, “Flexible image sensor array with bulk heterojunction organic photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 213303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Street, W. S. Wong, S. Ready, R. Lujan, A. C. Arias, M. L. Chabinyc, A. Salleo, R. Apte, and L. E. Antonuk, “Printed Active-Matrix TFT Arrays for X-Ray Imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5745, 7–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-I.

Chen, Y.

J. T. Dobbins, E. Samei, N. T. Ranger, and Y. Chen, “Intercomparison of methods for image quality characterization. II. Noise power spectrum,” Med. Phys. 33(5), 1466–1475 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cherepy, N.

G. Hull, S. Du, T. Niedermayr, S. Payne, N. Cherepy, A. Drobshoff, and L. Fabris, “Light collection optimization in scintillator-based gamma-ray spectrometers,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588(3), 384–388 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, M. K.

I. D. Jung, M. K. Cho, S. M. Lee, K. M. Bae, P. G. Jung, C. H. Lee, J. M. Lee, S. Yun, H. K. Kim, S. S. Kim, and J. S. Ko, “Flexible Gd2O2S:Tb scintillators pixelated with polyethylene microstructures for digital x-ray image sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(1), 015014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y.-K.

X.-J. Huang, D.-H. Kim, M. Im, J.-H. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, and Y.-K. Choi, ““Lock-and-key” geometry effect of patterned surfaces: wettability and switching of adhesive force,” Small 5(1), 90–94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X.-J. Huang, J.-H. Lee, J.-W. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, and Y.-K. Choi, “A one-step route to a perfectly ordered wafer-scale microbowl array for size-dependent superhydrophobicity,” Small 4(2), 211–216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, I. A.

J. H. Siewerdsen, L. E. Antonuk, Y. el-Mohri, J. Yorkston, W. Huang, and I. A. Cunningham, “Signal, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency of indirect-detection flat-panel imagers for diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 25(5), 614–628 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daniel, J.

A. Sawant, L. E. Antonuk, Y. El-Mohri, Y. Li, Z. Su, Y. Wang, J. Yamamoto, Q. Zhao, H. Du, J. Daniel, and R. Street, “Segmented phosphors: MEMS-based high quantum efficiency detectors for megavoltage x-ray imaging,” Med. Phys. 32(2), 553–565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dobbins, J. T.

J. T. Dobbins, E. Samei, N. T. Ranger, and Y. Chen, “Intercomparison of methods for image quality characterization. II. Noise power spectrum,” Med. Phys. 33(5), 1466–1475 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doi, K.

C. E. Metz, R. F. Wagner, K. Doi, D. G. Brown, R. M. Nishikawa, and K. J. Myers, “Toward consensus on quantitative assessment of medical imaging systems,” Med. Phys. 22(7), 1057–1061 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drobshoff, A.

G. Hull, S. Du, T. Niedermayr, S. Payne, N. Cherepy, A. Drobshoff, and L. Fabris, “Light collection optimization in scintillator-based gamma-ray spectrometers,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588(3), 384–388 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Du, H.

A. Sawant, L. E. Antonuk, Y. El-Mohri, Y. Li, Z. Su, Y. Wang, J. Yamamoto, Q. Zhao, H. Du, J. Daniel, and R. Street, “Segmented phosphors: MEMS-based high quantum efficiency detectors for megavoltage x-ray imaging,” Med. Phys. 32(2), 553–565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Du, S.

G. Hull, S. Du, T. Niedermayr, S. Payne, N. Cherepy, A. Drobshoff, and L. Fabris, “Light collection optimization in scintillator-based gamma-ray spectrometers,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588(3), 384–388 (2008).
[CrossRef]

El-Mohri, Y.

Y. Wang, L. E. Antonuk, Y. El-Mohri, and Q. Zhao, “A Monte Carlo investigation of Swank noise for thick, segmented, crystalline scintillators for radiotherapy imaging,” Med. Phys. 36(7), 3227–3238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sawant, L. E. Antonuk, Y. El-Mohri, Y. Li, Z. Su, Y. Wang, J. Yamamoto, Q. Zhao, H. Du, J. Daniel, and R. Street, “Segmented phosphors: MEMS-based high quantum efficiency detectors for megavoltage x-ray imaging,” Med. Phys. 32(2), 553–565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Siewerdsen, L. E. Antonuk, Y. el-Mohri, J. Yorkston, W. Huang, and I. A. Cunningham, “Signal, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency of indirect-detection flat-panel imagers for diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 25(5), 614–628 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engel, K. J.

M. Simon, K. J. Engel, B. Menser, X. Badel, and J. Linnros, “X-ray imaging performance of scintillator-filled silicon pore arrays,” Med. Phys. 35(3), 968–981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Entine, G.

V. V. Nagarkar, T. K. Gupta, S. R. Miller, Y. Klugerman, M. R. Squillante, and G. Entine, “Structured CsI(Tl) Scintillators for X-ray Imaging Applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 492–496 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fabris, L.

G. Hull, S. Du, T. Niedermayr, S. Payne, N. Cherepy, A. Drobshoff, and L. Fabris, “Light collection optimization in scintillator-based gamma-ray spectrometers,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588(3), 384–388 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Flynn, M. J.

E. Samei, M. J. Flynn, and D. A. Reimann, “A method for measuring the presampled MTF of digital radiographic systems using an edge test device,” Med. Phys. 25(1), 102–113 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Friend, R. H.

P. E. Keivanidis, N. C. Greenham, H. Sirringhaus, R. H. Friend, J. C. Blakesley, and R. Speller, “M.C. -Quiles, T. Agostinelli, D.D.C. Bradley, J. Nelson, "X-ray stability and response of polymeric photodiodes for imaging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 023304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fröjdh, C.

X. Badel, A. Galeckas, J. Linnros, P. Kleimann, C. Fröjdh, and C. S. Petersson, “Improvement of an X-ray imaging detector based on a scintillating guides screen,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 487(1-2), 129–135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gagne, R. M.

A. Badano, R. M. Gagne, B. D. Gallas, R. J. Jennings, J. S. Boswell, and K. J. Myers, “Lubberts effect in columnar phosphors,” Med. Phys. 31(11), 3122–3131 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galeckas, A.

X. Badel, A. Galeckas, J. Linnros, P. Kleimann, C. Fröjdh, and C. S. Petersson, “Improvement of an X-ray imaging detector based on a scintillating guides screen,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 487(1-2), 129–135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gallas, B. D.

A. Badano, R. M. Gagne, B. D. Gallas, R. J. Jennings, J. S. Boswell, and K. J. Myers, “Lubberts effect in columnar phosphors,” Med. Phys. 31(11), 3122–3131 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greenham, N. C.

P. E. Keivanidis, N. C. Greenham, H. Sirringhaus, R. H. Friend, J. C. Blakesley, and R. Speller, “M.C. -Quiles, T. Agostinelli, D.D.C. Bradley, J. Nelson, "X-ray stability and response of polymeric photodiodes for imaging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 023304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Z.

Y. Zhou, A. Avila-Muñoz, S. Tao, Z. Gu, A. Nathan, and J. A. Rowlands, “Resolution enhancement and performance characteristics of large area a-Si:H x-ray imager with a high aspect ratio SU-8 micromould,” Proc. SPIE 4925, 156–165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, T. K.

V. V. Nagarkar, T. K. Gupta, S. R. Miller, Y. Klugerman, M. R. Squillante, and G. Entine, “Structured CsI(Tl) Scintillators for X-ray Imaging Applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 492–496 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

J. H. Siewerdsen, L. E. Antonuk, Y. el-Mohri, J. Yorkston, W. Huang, and I. A. Cunningham, “Signal, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency of indirect-detection flat-panel imagers for diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 25(5), 614–628 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X.-J.

X.-J. Huang, D.-H. Kim, M. Im, J.-H. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, and Y.-K. Choi, ““Lock-and-key” geometry effect of patterned surfaces: wettability and switching of adhesive force,” Small 5(1), 90–94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X.-J. Huang, J.-H. Lee, J.-W. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, and Y.-K. Choi, “A one-step route to a perfectly ordered wafer-scale microbowl array for size-dependent superhydrophobicity,” Small 4(2), 211–216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hull, G.

G. Hull, S. Du, T. Niedermayr, S. Payne, N. Cherepy, A. Drobshoff, and L. Fabris, “Light collection optimization in scintillator-based gamma-ray spectrometers,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588(3), 384–388 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Im, M.

X.-J. Huang, D.-H. Kim, M. Im, J.-H. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, and Y.-K. Choi, ““Lock-and-key” geometry effect of patterned surfaces: wettability and switching of adhesive force,” Small 5(1), 90–94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, R. J.

A. Badano, R. M. Gagne, B. D. Gallas, R. J. Jennings, J. S. Boswell, and K. J. Myers, “Lubberts effect in columnar phosphors,” Med. Phys. 31(11), 3122–3131 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, I. D.

I. D. Jung, M. K. Cho, S. M. Lee, K. M. Bae, P. G. Jung, C. H. Lee, J. M. Lee, S. Yun, H. K. Kim, S. S. Kim, and J. S. Ko, “Flexible Gd2O2S:Tb scintillators pixelated with polyethylene microstructures for digital x-ray image sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(1), 015014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jung, P. G.

I. D. Jung, M. K. Cho, S. M. Lee, K. M. Bae, P. G. Jung, C. H. Lee, J. M. Lee, S. Yun, H. K. Kim, S. S. Kim, and J. S. Ko, “Flexible Gd2O2S:Tb scintillators pixelated with polyethylene microstructures for digital x-ray image sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(1), 015014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Keivanidis, P. E.

P. E. Keivanidis, N. C. Greenham, H. Sirringhaus, R. H. Friend, J. C. Blakesley, and R. Speller, “M.C. -Quiles, T. Agostinelli, D.D.C. Bradley, J. Nelson, "X-ray stability and response of polymeric photodiodes for imaging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 023304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-H.

X.-J. Huang, D.-H. Kim, M. Im, J.-H. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, and Y.-K. Choi, ““Lock-and-key” geometry effect of patterned surfaces: wettability and switching of adhesive force,” Small 5(1), 90–94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

I. D. Jung, M. K. Cho, S. M. Lee, K. M. Bae, P. G. Jung, C. H. Lee, J. M. Lee, S. Yun, H. K. Kim, S. S. Kim, and J. S. Ko, “Flexible Gd2O2S:Tb scintillators pixelated with polyethylene microstructures for digital x-ray image sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(1), 015014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. S.

I. D. Jung, M. K. Cho, S. M. Lee, K. M. Bae, P. G. Jung, C. H. Lee, J. M. Lee, S. Yun, H. K. Kim, S. S. Kim, and J. S. Ko, “Flexible Gd2O2S:Tb scintillators pixelated with polyethylene microstructures for digital x-ray image sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(1), 015014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kleimann, P.

X. Badel, A. Galeckas, J. Linnros, P. Kleimann, C. Fröjdh, and C. S. Petersson, “Improvement of an X-ray imaging detector based on a scintillating guides screen,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 487(1-2), 129–135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Klugerman, Y.

V. V. Nagarkar, T. K. Gupta, S. R. Miller, Y. Klugerman, M. R. Squillante, and G. Entine, “Structured CsI(Tl) Scintillators for X-ray Imaging Applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 492–496 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ko, J. S.

I. D. Jung, M. K. Cho, S. M. Lee, K. M. Bae, P. G. Jung, C. H. Lee, J. M. Lee, S. Yun, H. K. Kim, S. S. Kim, and J. S. Ko, “Flexible Gd2O2S:Tb scintillators pixelated with polyethylene microstructures for digital x-ray image sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(1), 015014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

I. D. Jung, M. K. Cho, S. M. Lee, K. M. Bae, P. G. Jung, C. H. Lee, J. M. Lee, S. Yun, H. K. Kim, S. S. Kim, and J. S. Ko, “Flexible Gd2O2S:Tb scintillators pixelated with polyethylene microstructures for digital x-ray image sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(1), 015014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. M.

I. D. Jung, M. K. Cho, S. M. Lee, K. M. Bae, P. G. Jung, C. H. Lee, J. M. Lee, S. Yun, H. K. Kim, S. S. Kim, and J. S. Ko, “Flexible Gd2O2S:Tb scintillators pixelated with polyethylene microstructures for digital x-ray image sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(1), 015014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-H.

X.-J. Huang, D.-H. Kim, M. Im, J.-H. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, and Y.-K. Choi, ““Lock-and-key” geometry effect of patterned surfaces: wettability and switching of adhesive force,” Small 5(1), 90–94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X.-J. Huang, J.-H. Lee, J.-W. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, and Y.-K. Choi, “A one-step route to a perfectly ordered wafer-scale microbowl array for size-dependent superhydrophobicity,” Small 4(2), 211–216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.-W.

X.-J. Huang, J.-H. Lee, J.-W. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, and Y.-K. Choi, “A one-step route to a perfectly ordered wafer-scale microbowl array for size-dependent superhydrophobicity,” Small 4(2), 211–216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. M.

I. D. Jung, M. K. Cho, S. M. Lee, K. M. Bae, P. G. Jung, C. H. Lee, J. M. Lee, S. Yun, H. K. Kim, S. S. Kim, and J. S. Ko, “Flexible Gd2O2S:Tb scintillators pixelated with polyethylene microstructures for digital x-ray image sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(1), 015014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

A. Sawant, L. E. Antonuk, Y. El-Mohri, Y. Li, Z. Su, Y. Wang, J. Yamamoto, Q. Zhao, H. Du, J. Daniel, and R. Street, “Segmented phosphors: MEMS-based high quantum efficiency detectors for megavoltage x-ray imaging,” Med. Phys. 32(2), 553–565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linnros, J.

M. Simon, K. J. Engel, B. Menser, X. Badel, and J. Linnros, “X-ray imaging performance of scintillator-filled silicon pore arrays,” Med. Phys. 35(3), 968–981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Badel, A. Galeckas, J. Linnros, P. Kleimann, C. Fröjdh, and C. S. Petersson, “Improvement of an X-ray imaging detector based on a scintillating guides screen,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 487(1-2), 129–135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lujan, R.

R. A. Street, W. S. Wong, S. Ready, R. Lujan, A. C. Arias, M. L. Chabinyc, A. Salleo, R. Apte, and L. E. Antonuk, “Printed Active-Matrix TFT Arrays for X-Ray Imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5745, 7–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Menser, B.

M. Simon, K. J. Engel, B. Menser, X. Badel, and J. Linnros, “X-ray imaging performance of scintillator-filled silicon pore arrays,” Med. Phys. 35(3), 968–981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metz, C. E.

C. E. Metz, R. F. Wagner, K. Doi, D. G. Brown, R. M. Nishikawa, and K. J. Myers, “Toward consensus on quantitative assessment of medical imaging systems,” Med. Phys. 22(7), 1057–1061 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, S. R.

V. V. Nagarkar, T. K. Gupta, S. R. Miller, Y. Klugerman, M. R. Squillante, and G. Entine, “Structured CsI(Tl) Scintillators for X-ray Imaging Applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 492–496 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moisan, C.

F. Cayouette, C. Moisan, N. Zhang, and C. J. Thompson, “Monte-Carlo Modeling of Scintillator Crystal Performance for Stratified PET Detectors with DETECT2000,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(3), 624–628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Myers, K. J.

A. Badano, R. M. Gagne, B. D. Gallas, R. J. Jennings, J. S. Boswell, and K. J. Myers, “Lubberts effect in columnar phosphors,” Med. Phys. 31(11), 3122–3131 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Metz, R. F. Wagner, K. Doi, D. G. Brown, R. M. Nishikawa, and K. J. Myers, “Toward consensus on quantitative assessment of medical imaging systems,” Med. Phys. 22(7), 1057–1061 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagarkar, V. V.

V. V. Nagarkar, T. K. Gupta, S. R. Miller, Y. Klugerman, M. R. Squillante, and G. Entine, “Structured CsI(Tl) Scintillators for X-ray Imaging Applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 492–496 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nathan, A.

Y. Zhou, A. Avila-Muñoz, S. Tao, Z. Gu, A. Nathan, and J. A. Rowlands, “Resolution enhancement and performance characteristics of large area a-Si:H x-ray imager with a high aspect ratio SU-8 micromould,” Proc. SPIE 4925, 156–165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ng, T. N.

T. N. Ng, W. S. Wong, M. L. Chabinyc, S. Sambandan, and R. A. Street, “Flexible image sensor array with bulk heterojunction organic photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 213303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Niedermayr, T.

G. Hull, S. Du, T. Niedermayr, S. Payne, N. Cherepy, A. Drobshoff, and L. Fabris, “Light collection optimization in scintillator-based gamma-ray spectrometers,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588(3), 384–388 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nishikawa, R. M.

C. E. Metz, R. F. Wagner, K. Doi, D. G. Brown, R. M. Nishikawa, and K. J. Myers, “Toward consensus on quantitative assessment of medical imaging systems,” Med. Phys. 22(7), 1057–1061 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Payne, S.

G. Hull, S. Du, T. Niedermayr, S. Payne, N. Cherepy, A. Drobshoff, and L. Fabris, “Light collection optimization in scintillator-based gamma-ray spectrometers,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 588(3), 384–388 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Petersson, C. S.

X. Badel, A. Galeckas, J. Linnros, P. Kleimann, C. Fröjdh, and C. S. Petersson, “Improvement of an X-ray imaging detector based on a scintillating guides screen,” Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 487(1-2), 129–135 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Radcliffe, T.

B. Wowk, S. Shalev, and T. Radcliffe, “Grooved phosphor screens for on-line portal imaging,” Med. Phys. 20(6), 1641–1651 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranger, N. T.

J. T. Dobbins, E. Samei, N. T. Ranger, and Y. Chen, “Intercomparison of methods for image quality characterization. II. Noise power spectrum,” Med. Phys. 33(5), 1466–1475 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ready, S.

R. A. Street, W. S. Wong, S. Ready, R. Lujan, A. C. Arias, M. L. Chabinyc, A. Salleo, R. Apte, and L. E. Antonuk, “Printed Active-Matrix TFT Arrays for X-Ray Imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5745, 7–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Reimann, D. A.

E. Samei, M. J. Flynn, and D. A. Reimann, “A method for measuring the presampled MTF of digital radiographic systems using an edge test device,” Med. Phys. 25(1), 102–113 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rowlands, J. A.

Y. Zhou, A. Avila-Muñoz, S. Tao, Z. Gu, A. Nathan, and J. A. Rowlands, “Resolution enhancement and performance characteristics of large area a-Si:H x-ray imager with a high aspect ratio SU-8 micromould,” Proc. SPIE 4925, 156–165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Salleo, A.

R. A. Street, W. S. Wong, S. Ready, R. Lujan, A. C. Arias, M. L. Chabinyc, A. Salleo, R. Apte, and L. E. Antonuk, “Printed Active-Matrix TFT Arrays for X-Ray Imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5745, 7–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sambandan, S.

T. N. Ng, W. S. Wong, M. L. Chabinyc, S. Sambandan, and R. A. Street, “Flexible image sensor array with bulk heterojunction organic photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 213303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Samei, E.

J. T. Dobbins, E. Samei, N. T. Ranger, and Y. Chen, “Intercomparison of methods for image quality characterization. II. Noise power spectrum,” Med. Phys. 33(5), 1466–1475 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Samei, M. J. Flynn, and D. A. Reimann, “A method for measuring the presampled MTF of digital radiographic systems using an edge test device,” Med. Phys. 25(1), 102–113 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sawant, A.

A. Sawant, L. E. Antonuk, Y. El-Mohri, Y. Li, Z. Su, Y. Wang, J. Yamamoto, Q. Zhao, H. Du, J. Daniel, and R. Street, “Segmented phosphors: MEMS-based high quantum efficiency detectors for megavoltage x-ray imaging,” Med. Phys. 32(2), 553–565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalev, S.

B. Wowk, S. Shalev, and T. Radcliffe, “Grooved phosphor screens for on-line portal imaging,” Med. Phys. 20(6), 1641–1651 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, R.

R. Shaw, “The equivalent quantum efficiency of the photographic process,” J. Photogr. Sci. 11, 199–204 (1963).

Siewerdsen, J. H.

J. H. Siewerdsen, L. E. Antonuk, Y. el-Mohri, J. Yorkston, W. Huang, and I. A. Cunningham, “Signal, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency of indirect-detection flat-panel imagers for diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 25(5), 614–628 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simon, M.

M. Simon, K. J. Engel, B. Menser, X. Badel, and J. Linnros, “X-ray imaging performance of scintillator-filled silicon pore arrays,” Med. Phys. 35(3), 968–981 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirringhaus, H.

P. E. Keivanidis, N. C. Greenham, H. Sirringhaus, R. H. Friend, J. C. Blakesley, and R. Speller, “M.C. -Quiles, T. Agostinelli, D.D.C. Bradley, J. Nelson, "X-ray stability and response of polymeric photodiodes for imaging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 023304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Speller, R.

P. E. Keivanidis, N. C. Greenham, H. Sirringhaus, R. H. Friend, J. C. Blakesley, and R. Speller, “M.C. -Quiles, T. Agostinelli, D.D.C. Bradley, J. Nelson, "X-ray stability and response of polymeric photodiodes for imaging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 023304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Blakesley and R. Speller, “Modeling the imaging performance of prototype organic x-ray imagers,” Med. Phys. 35(1), 225–239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Squillante, M. R.

V. V. Nagarkar, T. K. Gupta, S. R. Miller, Y. Klugerman, M. R. Squillante, and G. Entine, “Structured CsI(Tl) Scintillators for X-ray Imaging Applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 492–496 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Street, R.

A. Sawant, L. E. Antonuk, Y. El-Mohri, Y. Li, Z. Su, Y. Wang, J. Yamamoto, Q. Zhao, H. Du, J. Daniel, and R. Street, “Segmented phosphors: MEMS-based high quantum efficiency detectors for megavoltage x-ray imaging,” Med. Phys. 32(2), 553–565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Street, R. A.

T. N. Ng, W. S. Wong, M. L. Chabinyc, S. Sambandan, and R. A. Street, “Flexible image sensor array with bulk heterojunction organic photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 213303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Street, W. S. Wong, S. Ready, R. Lujan, A. C. Arias, M. L. Chabinyc, A. Salleo, R. Apte, and L. E. Antonuk, “Printed Active-Matrix TFT Arrays for X-Ray Imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5745, 7–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Su, Z.

A. Sawant, L. E. Antonuk, Y. El-Mohri, Y. Li, Z. Su, Y. Wang, J. Yamamoto, Q. Zhao, H. Du, J. Daniel, and R. Street, “Segmented phosphors: MEMS-based high quantum efficiency detectors for megavoltage x-ray imaging,” Med. Phys. 32(2), 553–565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tao, S.

Y. Zhou, A. Avila-Muñoz, S. Tao, Z. Gu, A. Nathan, and J. A. Rowlands, “Resolution enhancement and performance characteristics of large area a-Si:H x-ray imager with a high aspect ratio SU-8 micromould,” Proc. SPIE 4925, 156–165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, C. J.

F. Cayouette, C. Moisan, N. Zhang, and C. J. Thompson, “Monte-Carlo Modeling of Scintillator Crystal Performance for Stratified PET Detectors with DETECT2000,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(3), 624–628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R. F.

C. E. Metz, R. F. Wagner, K. Doi, D. G. Brown, R. M. Nishikawa, and K. J. Myers, “Toward consensus on quantitative assessment of medical imaging systems,” Med. Phys. 22(7), 1057–1061 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, L. E. Antonuk, Y. El-Mohri, and Q. Zhao, “A Monte Carlo investigation of Swank noise for thick, segmented, crystalline scintillators for radiotherapy imaging,” Med. Phys. 36(7), 3227–3238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sawant, L. E. Antonuk, Y. El-Mohri, Y. Li, Z. Su, Y. Wang, J. Yamamoto, Q. Zhao, H. Du, J. Daniel, and R. Street, “Segmented phosphors: MEMS-based high quantum efficiency detectors for megavoltage x-ray imaging,” Med. Phys. 32(2), 553–565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, W. S.

T. N. Ng, W. S. Wong, M. L. Chabinyc, S. Sambandan, and R. A. Street, “Flexible image sensor array with bulk heterojunction organic photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 213303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Street, W. S. Wong, S. Ready, R. Lujan, A. C. Arias, M. L. Chabinyc, A. Salleo, R. Apte, and L. E. Antonuk, “Printed Active-Matrix TFT Arrays for X-Ray Imaging,” Proc. SPIE 5745, 7–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wowk, B.

B. Wowk, S. Shalev, and T. Radcliffe, “Grooved phosphor screens for on-line portal imaging,” Med. Phys. 20(6), 1641–1651 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, J.

A. Sawant, L. E. Antonuk, Y. El-Mohri, Y. Li, Z. Su, Y. Wang, J. Yamamoto, Q. Zhao, H. Du, J. Daniel, and R. Street, “Segmented phosphors: MEMS-based high quantum efficiency detectors for megavoltage x-ray imaging,” Med. Phys. 32(2), 553–565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, J.-B.

X.-J. Huang, D.-H. Kim, M. Im, J.-H. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, and Y.-K. Choi, ““Lock-and-key” geometry effect of patterned surfaces: wettability and switching of adhesive force,” Small 5(1), 90–94 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X.-J. Huang, J.-H. Lee, J.-W. Lee, J.-B. Yoon, and Y.-K. Choi, “A one-step route to a perfectly ordered wafer-scale microbowl array for size-dependent superhydrophobicity,” Small 4(2), 211–216 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-I. Chang and J.-B. Yoon, “Shape-controlled, high fill-factor microlens arrays fabricated by a 3D diffuser lithography and plastic replication method,” Opt. Express 12(25), 6366–6371 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yorkston, J.

J. H. Siewerdsen, L. E. Antonuk, Y. el-Mohri, J. Yorkston, W. Huang, and I. A. Cunningham, “Signal, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency of indirect-detection flat-panel imagers for diagnostic radiology,” Med. Phys. 25(5), 614–628 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S.

I. D. Jung, M. K. Cho, S. M. Lee, K. M. Bae, P. G. Jung, C. H. Lee, J. M. Lee, S. Yun, H. K. Kim, S. S. Kim, and J. S. Ko, “Flexible Gd2O2S:Tb scintillators pixelated with polyethylene microstructures for digital x-ray image sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(1), 015014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, N.

F. Cayouette, C. Moisan, N. Zhang, and C. J. Thompson, “Monte-Carlo Modeling of Scintillator Crystal Performance for Stratified PET Detectors with DETECT2000,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(3), 624–628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Q.

Y. Wang, L. E. Antonuk, Y. El-Mohri, and Q. Zhao, “A Monte Carlo investigation of Swank noise for thick, segmented, crystalline scintillators for radiotherapy imaging,” Med. Phys. 36(7), 3227–3238 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sawant, L. E. Antonuk, Y. El-Mohri, Y. Li, Z. Su, Y. Wang, J. Yamamoto, Q. Zhao, H. Du, J. Daniel, and R. Street, “Segmented phosphors: MEMS-based high quantum efficiency detectors for megavoltage x-ray imaging,” Med. Phys. 32(2), 553–565 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, A. Avila-Muñoz, S. Tao, Z. Gu, A. Nathan, and J. A. Rowlands, “Resolution enhancement and performance characteristics of large area a-Si:H x-ray imager with a high aspect ratio SU-8 micromould,” Proc. SPIE 4925, 156–165 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T. N. Ng, W. S. Wong, M. L. Chabinyc, S. Sambandan, and R. A. Street, “Flexible image sensor array with bulk heterojunction organic photodiode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(21), 213303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. E. Keivanidis, N. C. Greenham, H. Sirringhaus, R. H. Friend, J. C. Blakesley, and R. Speller, “M.C. -Quiles, T. Agostinelli, D.D.C. Bradley, J. Nelson, "X-ray stability and response of polymeric photodiodes for imaging applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 023304 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. (2)

F. Cayouette, C. Moisan, N. Zhang, and C. J. Thompson, “Monte-Carlo Modeling of Scintillator Crystal Performance for Stratified PET Detectors with DETECT2000,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 49(3), 624–628 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Nagarkar, T. K. Gupta, S. R. Miller, Y. Klugerman, M. R. Squillante, and G. Entine, “Structured CsI(Tl) Scintillators for X-ray Imaging Applications,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 45(3), 492–496 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

I. D. Jung, M. K. Cho, S. M. Lee, K. M. Bae, P. G. Jung, C. H. Lee, J. M. Lee, S. Yun, H. K. Kim, S. S. Kim, and J. S. Ko, “Flexible Gd2O2S:Tb scintillators pixelated with polyethylene microstructures for digital x-ray image sensors,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 19(1), 015014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Photogr. Sci. (1)

R. Shaw, “The equivalent quantum efficiency of the photographic process,” J. Photogr. Sci. 11, 199–204 (1963).

Med. Phys. (10)

A. Badano, R. M. Gagne, B. D. Gallas, R. J. Jennings, J. S. Boswell, and K. J. Myers, “Lubberts effect in columnar phosphors,” Med. Phys. 31(11), 3122–3131 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Blakesley and R. Speller, “Modeling the imaging performance of prototype organic x-ray imagers,” Med. Phys. 35(1), 225–239 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Digital X-ray detector and two different types of scintillator. (a) Schematic illustration of an indirect conversion type X-ray image detector. (b) Sketch of the conventional scintillator. (c) Sketch of a pixel-structured scintillator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation conditions and results of microdome-grooved and nonstructured scintillators. (a) Configuration for simulation of dome-grooved scintillator. (b) Configuration for simulation of nonstructured scintillator. (c) LCE (solid) and LCE in pixel (open) of scintillators according to light generation height. (d) Relative PSF of scintillators according to distance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fabrication process of the dome-grooved scintillator; diffuser lithography (a), seed layer deposition (b), Ni micromold fabrication (c), polymer microreplication (d), reflector coating (e), and GOS filling (f).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Captured images of the dome-grooved scintillator. (a) Inclined SEM microgaph of the fabricated dome-grooved microstructure (1000×). (b) Cross-sectional SEM micrograph of fabricated flexible dome-grooved scintillator (1000×). (c) Photograph of the fabricated dome-grooved flexible scintillator with a total size of 40 × 30 mm2, and (d) an image showing bending of the scintillator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

X-ray imaging performance of the fabricated dome-grooved (square), nonstructured (circle), and Min-R2000 (triangle) scintillators in terms of sensitivity, MTF, NPS, and DQE. (a) X-ray sensitivity according to X-ray input dose. (b) MTF, (c) NPS, and (d) DQE according to spatial frequency at a representative X-ray input dose of 308.83 μGy.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

X-ray images of resolution bar pattern obtained from (a) fabricated dome-grooved, (b) fabricated nonstructured, and (c) Min-R2000 commercial scintillators. The display levels of X-ray images obtained from the two fabricated scintillators were adjusted to correspond with that of the Min-R2000.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Configurations and design parameters of dome-grooved and nonstructured scintillators.

Equations (2)

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D Q E ( f ) = S 2 MTF 2 ( f ) NPS ( f ) × q ¯ 0
D Q E ( 0 ) = η × I

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