Abstract

The effective plasma frequency fp of periodic metallic wires whose characteristic dimensions are comparable to their skin depth has been analyzed. And a relevant analytic model is constructed by considering the skin effect and making a reasonable shape approximation, which is suitable for the case that the cross section of the wire is noncircular. To verify this model, a wires array with rectangle cross section is designed and the corresponding stacked Au-SiO2 nanostrips are fabricated. The experimental and simulational transmittances of the metamaterial have been evaluated with a good agreement, although the presence of quartz substrate and structural imperfections in experiment will have an impact, which validates that the multilayer Au-SiO2 nanostrips could function similarly to a natural bulk metal with discrepancies of fp values less than 8%. It could be confirmed that the theoretic formula is trustworthy in predicting fp for designing and realizing a controllable artificial metal in optical region.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. W. Rotman, “Plasma Simulation by Artificial Dielectrics and Parallel-Plate Media,” IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 10(1), 82–95 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10(22), 4785–4809 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. I. Maslovski, S. A. Tretyakov, and P. A. Belov, “Wire media with negative effective permittivity: A quasi-static model,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 35(1), 47–51 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Silveirinha and C. Fernandes, “A Hybrid Method for the Efficient Calculation of the Band Structure of 3-D Metallic Crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(3), 889–902 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Brand, R. A. Abram, and M. A. Kaliteevski, “Complex photonic band structure and effective plasma frequency of a two-dimensional array of metal rods,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035102 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Wei, H. Shi, Q. Deng, X. Dong, C. Liu, Y. Lu, and C. Du, “Artificial metal with effective plasma frequency in near-infrared region,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3370–3378 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. G. Silveirinha, “Nonlocal homogenization model for a periodic array of epsilon-negative rods,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(4), 046612 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. G. Silveirinha, “Artificial plasma formed by connected metallic wires at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035118 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guérin, and P. Vincent, “A metamaterial for directive emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(21), 213902 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. Liu, Q. Cheng, T. Hand, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of electromagnetic tunneling through an epsilon-near-zero metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023903–023907 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical superlens,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 403–408 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. G. Dolling, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Realization of a three-functional-layer negative-index photonic metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 551–553 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. V. Shrotriya, E. H. Wu, G. Li, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Efficient light harvesting in multiple-device stacked structure for polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 064104 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Boltasseva and V. M. Shalaev, “Fabrication of optical negative-index metamaterials: Recent advances and outlook,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 1–17 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 197401 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. Zhou, E. N. Economon, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Unifying approach to left-handed material design,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3620–3622 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

M. G. Silveirinha, “Artificial plasma formed by connected metallic wires at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

R. Liu, Q. Cheng, T. Hand, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of electromagnetic tunneling through an epsilon-near-zero metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023903–023907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Boltasseva and V. M. Shalaev, “Fabrication of optical negative-index metamaterials: Recent advances and outlook,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 1–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

S. Brand, R. A. Abram, and M. A. Kaliteevski, “Complex photonic band structure and effective plasma frequency of a two-dimensional array of metal rods,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical superlens,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 403–408 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Realization of a three-functional-layer negative-index photonic metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 551–553 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

J. Zhou, E. N. Economon, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Unifying approach to left-handed material design,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3620–3622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Silveirinha, “Nonlocal homogenization model for a periodic array of epsilon-negative rods,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(4), 046612 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Shrotriya, E. H. Wu, G. Li, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Efficient light harvesting in multiple-device stacked structure for polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 064104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (4)

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. Silveirinha and C. Fernandes, “A Hybrid Method for the Efficient Calculation of the Band Structure of 3-D Metallic Crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(3), 889–902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guérin, and P. Vincent, “A metamaterial for directive emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(21), 213902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Maslovski, S. A. Tretyakov, and P. A. Belov, “Wire media with negative effective permittivity: A quasi-static model,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 35(1), 47–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10(22), 4785–4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1962 (1)

W. Rotman, “Plasma Simulation by Artificial Dielectrics and Parallel-Plate Media,” IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 10(1), 82–95 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Abram, R. A.

S. Brand, R. A. Abram, and M. A. Kaliteevski, “Complex photonic band structure and effective plasma frequency of a two-dimensional array of metal rods,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Belov, P. A.

S. I. Maslovski, S. A. Tretyakov, and P. A. Belov, “Wire media with negative effective permittivity: A quasi-static model,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 35(1), 47–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

A. Boltasseva and V. M. Shalaev, “Fabrication of optical negative-index metamaterials: Recent advances and outlook,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 1–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brand, S.

S. Brand, R. A. Abram, and M. A. Kaliteevski, “Complex photonic band structure and effective plasma frequency of a two-dimensional array of metal rods,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brueck, S. R. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

Catrysse, P. B.

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Q.

R. Liu, Q. Cheng, T. Hand, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of electromagnetic tunneling through an epsilon-near-zero metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023903–023907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chettiar, U. K.

Cui, T. J.

R. Liu, Q. Cheng, T. Hand, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of electromagnetic tunneling through an epsilon-near-zero metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023903–023907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cummer, S. A.

R. Liu, Q. Cheng, T. Hand, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of electromagnetic tunneling through an epsilon-near-zero metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023903–023907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, Q.

Dolling, G.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Realization of a three-functional-layer negative-index photonic metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 551–553 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dong, X.

Drachev, V. P.

Du, C.

Durant, S.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical superlens,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 403–408 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Economon, E. N.

Enkrich, C.

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enoch, S.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guérin, and P. Vincent, “A metamaterial for directive emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(21), 213902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, S.

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, W.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, N.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical superlens,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 403–408 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernandes, C.

M. Silveirinha and C. Fernandes, “A Hybrid Method for the Efficient Calculation of the Band Structure of 3-D Metallic Crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(3), 889–902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guérin, N.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guérin, and P. Vincent, “A metamaterial for directive emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(21), 213902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hand, T.

R. Liu, Q. Cheng, T. Hand, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of electromagnetic tunneling through an epsilon-near-zero metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023903–023907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holden, A. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10(22), 4785–4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaliteevski, M. A.

S. Brand, R. A. Abram, and M. A. Kaliteevski, “Complex photonic band structure and effective plasma frequency of a two-dimensional array of metal rods,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035102 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kildishev, A. V.

Koschny, T.

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical superlens,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 403–408 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, G.

V. Shrotriya, E. H. Wu, G. Li, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Efficient light harvesting in multiple-device stacked structure for polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 064104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

G. Dolling, M. Wegener, and S. Linden, “Realization of a three-functional-layer negative-index photonic metamaterial,” Opt. Lett. 32(5), 551–553 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

Liu, R.

R. Liu, Q. Cheng, T. Hand, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of electromagnetic tunneling through an epsilon-near-zero metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023903–023907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical superlens,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 403–408 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Y.

Malloy, K. J.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Markos, P.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Maslovski, S. I.

S. I. Maslovski, S. A. Tretyakov, and P. A. Belov, “Wire media with negative effective permittivity: A quasi-static model,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 35(1), 47–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

R. Liu, Q. Cheng, T. Hand, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of electromagnetic tunneling through an epsilon-near-zero metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023903–023907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osgood, R. M.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panoiu, N. C.

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10(22), 4785–4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pikus, Y.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical superlens,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 403–408 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbins, D. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10(22), 4785–4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rotman, W.

W. Rotman, “Plasma Simulation by Artificial Dielectrics and Parallel-Plate Media,” IRE Trans. Antennas Propag. 10(1), 82–95 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Sabouroux, P.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guérin, and P. Vincent, “A metamaterial for directive emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(21), 213902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schultz, S.

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

A. Boltasseva and V. M. Shalaev, “Fabrication of optical negative-index metamaterials: Recent advances and outlook,” Metamaterials (Amst.) 2(1), 1–17 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 30(24), 3356–3358 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J. T.

J. T. Shen, P. B. Catrysse, and S. Fan, “Mechanism for designing metallic metamaterials with a high index of refraction,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 197401 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, H.

Shrotriya, V.

V. Shrotriya, E. H. Wu, G. Li, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Efficient light harvesting in multiple-device stacked structure for polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 064104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Silveirinha, M.

M. Silveirinha and C. Fernandes, “A Hybrid Method for the Efficient Calculation of the Band Structure of 3-D Metallic Crystals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 52(3), 889–902 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Silveirinha, M. G.

M. G. Silveirinha, “Artificial plasma formed by connected metallic wires at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Silveirinha, “Nonlocal homogenization model for a periodic array of epsilon-negative rods,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(4), 046612 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

R. Liu, Q. Cheng, T. Hand, J. J. Mock, T. J. Cui, S. A. Cummer, and D. R. Smith, “Experimental demonstration of electromagnetic tunneling through an epsilon-near-zero metamaterial at microwave frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(2), 023903–023907 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

J. Zhou, E. N. Economon, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Unifying approach to left-handed material design,” Opt. Lett. 31(24), 3620–3622 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, S. Schultz, P. Markos, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Determination of effective permittivity and permeability of metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. B 65(19), 195104 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, W. J.

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, D. J. Robbins, and W. J. Stewart, “Low frequency plasmons in thin-wire structures,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 10(22), 4785–4809 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, S. Durant, H. Lee, Y. Pikus, N. Fang, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical superlens,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 403–408 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tayeb, G.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guérin, and P. Vincent, “A metamaterial for directive emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(21), 213902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tretyakov, S. A.

S. I. Maslovski, S. A. Tretyakov, and P. A. Belov, “Wire media with negative effective permittivity: A quasi-static model,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 35(1), 47–51 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, P.

S. Enoch, G. Tayeb, P. Sabouroux, N. Guérin, and P. Vincent, “A metamaterial for directive emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(21), 213902 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

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Wei, X.

Wu, E. H.

V. Shrotriya, E. H. Wu, G. Li, Y. Yao, and Y. Yang, “Efficient light harvesting in multiple-device stacked structure for polymer solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 064104 (2006).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

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Nano Lett. (1)

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Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

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M. G. Silveirinha, “Artificial plasma formed by connected metallic wires at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 035118 (2009).
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M. G. Silveirinha, “Nonlocal homogenization model for a periodic array of epsilon-negative rods,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 73(4), 046612 (2006).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

J. B. Pendry, A. J. Holden, W. J. Stewart, and I. Youngs, “Extremely low frequency plasmons in metallic mesostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76(25), 4773–4776 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, W. Fan, N. C. Panoiu, K. J. Malloy, R. M. Osgood, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Experimental demonstration of near-infrared negative-index metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(13), 137404 (2005).
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Science (2)

G. Dolling, C. Enkrich, M. Wegener, C. M. Soukoulis, and S. Linden, “Simultaneous negative phase and group velocity of light in a metamaterial,” Science 312(5775), 892–894 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Fang, H. Lee, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Sub-diffraction-limited optical imaging with a silver superlens,” Science 308(5721), 534–537 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic view of the geometry under consideration. The basic geometrical parameters are wire period a, skin depth δ and effective radius reff .

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

fp values yielded by FDTD simulation and our analytic model (r = 25 nm and reff = 20.7 nm). Dark solid line and red dash line represents fp values by simulation and model, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

fp values yielded by FDTD simulation and our analytic model (w = 70 nm, t = 30 nm and reff = 21.7 nm). Green solid line and purple dash line represents fp values by simulation and model, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Scheme of the multilayer nanostrips. The geometrical parameters are indicated and given by strip width w, strip period p, metal depth t, and SiO2 depth s. (b) Schematic view of the processes of fabricating the Au-SiO2 composite metamaterials.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Top-view electron micrograph of the PMMA patterns with geometrical parameters p = 250 nm, w = 40 nm and thickness 200 nm. The collapsed patterns are shown in the dot frame. (b) Electron micrograph of the good sample fabricated by the etching-based procedure. Inset, magnified view. p = 250 nm, w = 70 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Measured normal-incidence transmittance spectrum (dashed curves) and corresponding simulated results (solid curves) for two orthogonal polarizations. (b) Complex permittivity retrieved from the phase and amplitude data of the simulated transmission and reflection. Solid curves, real parts; dashed curves, imaginary parts. (p = 250 nm, w = 70 nm, s = 40 nm and t = 20 nm).

Equations (10)

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f p 2 = c 0 2 2 π a 2 ln ( a / r )                                     r < < δ
ω p 2 = n ' e f f e 2 ε 0 m e f f
N ' = n ' ρ ( x , z ) d x d z
N ' = π r e f f 2 n '
n ' e f f = N ' a 2 = π r e f f 2 n ' a 2
m e f f = μ π r e f f 2 n ' e 2 2 π ln ( a r e f f )
f p 2 = ( ω p 2 π ) 2 = c 0 2 2 π a 2 ln ( a / r e f f )  
f p 2 = c 0 2 2 π a 2 ε r ln ( a / r e f f )  
N ' = n ' 0 r exp ( r r ' ) / δ 2 π r ' d r ' = n ' δ 2 π ( r δ + δ exp ( r / δ ) )
N ' = n ' 2 w 0 t 2 exp ( t 2 x ) / δ d x

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