Abstract

A terahertz-absorbing thin-film stack, containing a dielectric Bragg reflector and a thin chromium metal film, was fabricated on a silicon substrate for applications in bi-material terahertz (THz) sensors. The Bragg reflector is to be used for optical readout of sensor deformation under THz illumination. The THz absorption characteristics of the thin-film composite were measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The absorption of the structure was calculated both analytically and by finite element modeling and the two approaches agreed well. Finite element modeling provides a convenient way to extract the amount of power dissipation in each layer and is used to quantify the THz absorption in the multi-layer stack. The calculation and the model were verified by experimentally characterizing the multi-layer stack in the 3-5 THz range. The measured and simulated absorption characteristics show a reasonably good agreement. It was found that the composite film absorbed about 20% of the incident THz power. The model was used to optimize the thickness of the chromium film for achieving high THz absorption and found that about 50% absorption can be achieved when film thickness is around 9 nm.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68(6), 1085–1094 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. E. Orlova, R. C. Zhukavin, S. G. Pavlov, and V. N. Shastin, “Far-infrared active media based on shallow impurity state transitions in silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 210(2), 859–863 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Analysis of Pulsed THz Imaging Using Optical Character Recognition,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(1), 3–8 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. N. Behnken, “Real-Time Terahertz Imaging Using a Quantum Cascade Laser and Uncooled Microbolometer Focal Plane Array,” (NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, 2008).
  7. A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 x 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. Grbovic, “Imaging by Detection of Infrared Photons using Arrays of Uncooled Micromechanical Detectors,” in Department of Physics and Astronomy(University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 2008).
  9. D. Grbovic, and G. Karunasiri, “Fabrication of Bi-material MEMS detector arrays for THz imaging,” Proc. SPIE, (2009), p. 731108.
  10. P. Lecaruyer, E. Maillart, M. Canva, and J. Rolland, “Generalization of the Rouard method to an absorbing thin-film stack and application to surface plasmon resonance,” Appl. Opt. 45(33), 8419–8423 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. I. Pankove, Optical processes in semiconductors (Dover Publications, 1975).
  12. P. Lorrian, D. R. Corson, Electromagnetic Fields aand Waves, p.470 (W.H. Freeman & Company, 1970).
  13. N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (1)

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Analysis of Pulsed THz Imaging Using Optical Character Recognition,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(1), 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

P. Lecaruyer, E. Maillart, M. Canva, and J. Rolland, “Generalization of the Rouard method to an absorbing thin-film stack and application to surface plasmon resonance,” Appl. Opt. 45(33), 8419–8423 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 x 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68(6), 1085–1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

E. E. Orlova, R. C. Zhukavin, S. G. Pavlov, and V. N. Shastin, “Far-infrared active media based on shallow impurity state transitions in silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 210(2), 859–863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, D. D.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baraniuk, R. G.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68(6), 1085–1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bjarnason, J. E.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Analysis of Pulsed THz Imaging Using Optical Character Recognition,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(1), 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E. R.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Analysis of Pulsed THz Imaging Using Optical Character Recognition,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(1), 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Calawa, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Canva, M.

Cole, B. E.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinatale, W. F.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Duerr, E. K.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Analysis of Pulsed THz Imaging Using Optical Character Recognition,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(1), 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68(6), 1085–1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, M. P.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Analysis of Pulsed THz Imaging Using Optical Character Recognition,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(1), 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 x 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68(6), 1085–1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 x 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Laman, N.

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lecaruyer, P.

Lee, A. W. M.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 x 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Linfield, E. H.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maillart, E.

McIntosh, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mittleman, D. M.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68(6), 1085–1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Molvar, K. A.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Neelamani, R.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68(6), 1085–1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Orlova, E. E.

E. E. Orlova, R. C. Zhukavin, S. G. Pavlov, and V. N. Shastin, “Far-infrared active media based on shallow impurity state transitions in silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 210(2), 859–863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, S. G.

E. E. Orlova, R. C. Zhukavin, S. G. Pavlov, and V. N. Shastin, “Far-infrared active media based on shallow impurity state transitions in silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 210(2), 859–863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pepper, M.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pye, R. J.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reno, J. L.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 x 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, J.

Rudd, J. V.

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68(6), 1085–1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shastin, V. N.

E. E. Orlova, R. C. Zhukavin, S. G. Pavlov, and V. N. Shastin, “Far-infrared active media based on shallow impurity state transitions in silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 210(2), 859–863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R. S.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Analysis of Pulsed THz Imaging Using Optical Character Recognition,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(1), 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, Z. D.

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Analysis of Pulsed THz Imaging Using Optical Character Recognition,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(1), 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verghese, S.

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, V. P.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, B. S.

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 x 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhukavin, R. C.

E. E. Orlova, R. C. Zhukavin, S. G. Pavlov, and V. N. Shastin, “Far-infrared active media based on shallow impurity state transitions in silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 210(2), 859–863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

D. M. Mittleman, M. Gupta, R. Neelamani, R. G. Baraniuk, J. V. Rudd, and M. Koch, “Recent advances in terahertz imaging,” Appl. Phys. B 68(6), 1085–1094 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Verghese, K. A. McIntosh, S. Calawa, W. F. Dinatale, E. K. Duerr, and K. A. Molvar, “Generation and detection of coherent terahertz waves using two photomixers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Laman and D. Grischkowsky, “Terahertz conductivity of thin metal films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(5), 051105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

A. W. M. Lee, B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, and J. L. Reno, “Real-time imaging using a 4.3-THz quantum cascade laser and a 320 x 240 microbolometer focal-plane array,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(13), 1415–1417 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

Z. D. Taylor, R. S. Singh, E. R. Brown, J. E. Bjarnason, M. P. Hanson, and A. C. Gossard, “Analysis of Pulsed THz Imaging Using Optical Character Recognition,” IEEE Sens. J. 9(1), 3–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (1)

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, and M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47(21), 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. (1)

E. E. Orlova, R. C. Zhukavin, S. G. Pavlov, and V. N. Shastin, “Far-infrared active media based on shallow impurity state transitions in silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 210(2), 859–863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

B. N. Behnken, “Real-Time Terahertz Imaging Using a Quantum Cascade Laser and Uncooled Microbolometer Focal Plane Array,” (NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, 2008).

D. Grbovic, “Imaging by Detection of Infrared Photons using Arrays of Uncooled Micromechanical Detectors,” in Department of Physics and Astronomy(University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 2008).

D. Grbovic, and G. Karunasiri, “Fabrication of Bi-material MEMS detector arrays for THz imaging,” Proc. SPIE, (2009), p. 731108.

J. I. Pankove, Optical processes in semiconductors (Dover Publications, 1975).

P. Lorrian, D. R. Corson, Electromagnetic Fields aand Waves, p.470 (W.H. Freeman & Company, 1970).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the multi-layer stack designed for high reflection in red and high absorption in the THz range.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The solid and dashed lines respectively represent reflectance and transmittance modeled using COMSOL while the scatter points represent the corresponding theoretically calculated quantities

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of the ratio of the heat dissipated within the thin-film stack and the total heat dissipated within both the thin-film stack and the Si substrate.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of the experimental configuration used for measuring the transmittance coefficient and (b) configuration used for reflection coefficient measurement. In the transmission measurement, the sample was kept at the same angle as the reflectance measurement.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured and simulated transmission and reflection coefficients of the thin-film stack including the Si substrate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dashed plot represents theoretically obtained (and simulated) absorption. Solid plot represents the absorption obtained experimentally

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Plots of the modeled and experimental absorptions after multiplication by scaling factors from Fig. 5.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Absorption as a function of Cr layer thickness.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n * = n i k ,
n 2 = 1 2 ( ε r + ε r 2 + σ 2 4 π 2 ε 0 2 f 2 )
k 2 = 1 2 ( ε r + ε r 2 + σ 2 4 π 2 ε 0 2 f 2 )
n c r * = ( 1 i ) σ 4 π ε 0 f

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