Abstract

Two dimensional (2D) periodic microstructures composed of short periodic ripples, long periodic ripples and micro-holes are fabricated on ZnO crystals via the interference of two femtosecond laser beams. The relative reflectivity and transmissivity of visible light of these 2D microstructures decrease to the values of 30% and 20%, respectively. Theoretical and experimental studies indicate that besides the effects of increased surface area, the decrease of reflectivity is influenced greatly by the Mie scattering of surface microstructures, and the transmissivity, by the damage of crystalline structures.

© 2010 OSA

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2009 (6)

H. Iwase, S. Kokubo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Suppression of ripples on ablated Ni surface via a polarization grating,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4388–4396 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Jia, T. Q. Jia, L. E. Ding, P. X. Xiong, L. Deng, Z. R. Sun, Z. G. Wang, J. R. Qiu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Complex periodic micro/nanostructures on 6H-SiC crystal induced by the interference of three femtosecond laser beams,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 788–790 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Qi, K. Nishii, and Y. Namba, “Regular subwavelength surface structures induced by femtosecond laser pulses on stainless steel,” Opt. Lett. 34(12), 1846–1848 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Mahmood, M. Sivakumar, K. Venkatakrishnan, and B. Tan, “Enhancement of optical absorption of silicon fibrous nanostructure produced using femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 034107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, Y. Dai, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Coherent linking of periodic nano-ripples on a ZnO crystal surface induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(2), 423–426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (6)

T. Q. Jia, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, R. A. Ganeev, H. Kuroda, J. R. Qiu, X. Wang, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Fabrication of two-dimensional periodic nanostructures by two-beam interference of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1874–1878 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12-13), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Large area uniform nanostructures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19354–19365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Origin of periodicity in nanostructuring on thin film surfaces ablated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16265–16271 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shen, J. E. Carey, C. H. Crouch, M. Kandyla, H. A. Stone, and E. Mazur, “High-density regular arrays of nanometer-scale rods formed on silicon surfaces via femtosecond laser irradiation in water,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2087–2091 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Hsu, T. Crawford, C. Maunders, G. Botton, and H. Haugen, “Cross-sectional study of periodic surface structures on gallium phosphide induced by ultrashort laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (4)

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, and H. Misawa, “In-bulk and surface structuring of sapphire by femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6539–6544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Q. Z. Zhao, F. Ciobanu, S. Malzer, and L. J. Wang, “Enhancement of optical absorption and photocurrent of 6H-SiC by laser surface nanostructuring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18(50), 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, and X. W. Sun, “Raman spectroscopy and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4583–4586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, X. X. Li,, S. Z. Xu, H. Y. Sun, D. H. Feng, C. B. Li, X. F. Wang, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, and H. Kuroda, “Ultraviolet-infrared femtosecond laser-induced damage in fused silica and CaF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73(5), 054105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin film of TiN and DLC,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(6), 983–985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, “Modification of dielectric surfaces with ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 352–357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1983 (1)

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1973 (1)

D. Emmony, R. Howson, and L. Willis, “Laser mirror damage in germanium at 10.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23(11), 598 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor Surface Damage Produced by Ruby Lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 3688 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Alivov, Ya. I.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Avrutin, V.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Baba, M.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birnbaum, M.

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor Surface Damage Produced by Ruby Lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 3688 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bonse, J.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Botton, G.

E. Hsu, T. Crawford, C. Maunders, G. Botton, and H. Haugen, “Cross-sectional study of periodic surface structures on gallium phosphide induced by ultrashort laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, P.

Carey, J. E.

M. Shen, J. E. Carey, C. H. Crouch, M. Kandyla, H. A. Stone, and E. Mazur, “High-density regular arrays of nanometer-scale rods formed on silicon surfaces via femtosecond laser irradiation in water,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2087–2091 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. X.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, X. X. Li,, S. Z. Xu, H. Y. Sun, D. H. Feng, C. B. Li, X. F. Wang, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, and H. Kuroda, “Ultraviolet-infrared femtosecond laser-induced damage in fused silica and CaF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73(5), 054105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Large area uniform nanostructures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19354–19365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18(50), 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-J.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ciobanu, F.

Q. Z. Zhao, F. Ciobanu, S. Malzer, and L. J. Wang, “Enhancement of optical absorption and photocurrent of 6H-SiC by laser surface nanostructuring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costache, F.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, “Modification of dielectric surfaces with ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 352–357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, T.

E. Hsu, T. Crawford, C. Maunders, G. Botton, and H. Haugen, “Cross-sectional study of periodic surface structures on gallium phosphide induced by ultrashort laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Crouch, C. H.

M. Shen, J. E. Carey, C. H. Crouch, M. Kandyla, H. A. Stone, and E. Mazur, “High-density regular arrays of nanometer-scale rods formed on silicon surfaces via femtosecond laser irradiation in water,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2087–2091 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Y.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, Y. Dai, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Coherent linking of periodic nano-ripples on a ZnO crystal surface induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(2), 423–426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Das, S. K.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deng, L.

Ding, L. E.

Dogan, S.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dufft, D.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Emmony, D.

D. Emmony, R. Howson, and L. Willis, “Laser mirror damage in germanium at 10.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23(11), 598 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D. H.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, X. X. Li,, S. Z. Xu, H. Y. Sun, D. H. Feng, C. B. Li, X. F. Wang, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, and H. Kuroda, “Ultraviolet-infrared femtosecond laser-induced damage in fused silica and CaF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73(5), 054105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ganeev, R. A.

Gothoskar, P.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grunwald, R.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X. D.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, Y. Dai, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Coherent linking of periodic nano-ripples on a ZnO crystal surface induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(2), 423–426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12-13), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, and X. W. Sun, “Raman spectroscopy and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4583–4586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hang, Y.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, Y. Dai, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Coherent linking of periodic nano-ripples on a ZnO crystal surface induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(2), 423–426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12-13), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, and X. W. Sun, “Raman spectroscopy and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4583–4586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H.

E. Hsu, T. Crawford, C. Maunders, G. Botton, and H. Haugen, “Cross-sectional study of periodic surface structures on gallium phosphide induced by ultrashort laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

He, X. K.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, X. X. Li,, S. Z. Xu, H. Y. Sun, D. H. Feng, C. B. Li, X. F. Wang, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, and H. Kuroda, “Ultraviolet-infrared femtosecond laser-induced damage in fused silica and CaF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73(5), 054105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Henyk, M.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, “Modification of dielectric surfaces with ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 352–357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howson, R.

D. Emmony, R. Howson, and L. Willis, “Laser mirror damage in germanium at 10.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23(11), 598 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, E.

E. Hsu, T. Crawford, C. Maunders, G. Botton, and H. Haugen, “Cross-sectional study of periodic surface structures on gallium phosphide induced by ultrashort laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Large area uniform nanostructures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19354–19365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18(50), 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, X. X. Li,, S. Z. Xu, H. Y. Sun, D. H. Feng, C. B. Li, X. F. Wang, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, and H. Kuroda, “Ultraviolet-infrared femtosecond laser-induced damage in fused silica and CaF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73(5), 054105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Iwase, H.

Jia, T. Q.

X. Jia, T. Q. Jia, L. E. Ding, P. X. Xiong, L. Deng, Z. R. Sun, Z. G. Wang, J. R. Qiu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Complex periodic micro/nanostructures on 6H-SiC crystal induced by the interference of three femtosecond laser beams,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 788–790 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Q. Jia, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, R. A. Ganeev, H. Kuroda, J. R. Qiu, X. Wang, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Fabrication of two-dimensional periodic nanostructures by two-beam interference of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1874–1878 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18(50), 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, X. X. Li,, S. Z. Xu, H. Y. Sun, D. H. Feng, C. B. Li, X. F. Wang, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, and H. Kuroda, “Ultraviolet-infrared femtosecond laser-induced damage in fused silica and CaF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73(5), 054105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jia, X.

Juodkazis, S.

H. Iwase, S. Kokubo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Suppression of ripples on ablated Ni surface via a polarization grating,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4388–4396 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, and H. Misawa, “In-bulk and surface structuring of sapphire by femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6539–6544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kandyla, M.

M. Shen, J. E. Carey, C. H. Crouch, M. Kandyla, H. A. Stone, and E. Mazur, “High-density regular arrays of nanometer-scale rods formed on silicon surfaces via femtosecond laser irradiation in water,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2087–2091 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karger, A.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiuchi, J.

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin film of TiN and DLC,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(6), 983–985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kokubo, S.

Kuroda, H.

T. Q. Jia, M. Baba, M. Suzuki, R. A. Ganeev, H. Kuroda, J. R. Qiu, X. Wang, R. Li, and Z. Xu, “Fabrication of two-dimensional periodic nanostructures by two-beam interference of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 16(3), 1874–1878 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, X. X. Li,, S. Z. Xu, H. Y. Sun, D. H. Feng, C. B. Li, X. F. Wang, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, and H. Kuroda, “Ultraviolet-infrared femtosecond laser-induced damage in fused silica and CaF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73(5), 054105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levinson, J. A.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. B.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, X. X. Li,, S. Z. Xu, H. Y. Sun, D. H. Feng, C. B. Li, X. F. Wang, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, and H. Kuroda, “Ultraviolet-infrared femtosecond laser-induced damage in fused silica and CaF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73(5), 054105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, R.

Li, R. X.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, Y. Dai, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Coherent linking of periodic nano-ripples on a ZnO crystal surface induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(2), 423–426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12-13), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, and X. W. Sun, “Raman spectroscopy and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4583–4586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, X. X. Li,, S. Z. Xu, H. Y. Sun, D. H. Feng, C. B. Li, X. F. Wang, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, and H. Kuroda, “Ultraviolet-infrared femtosecond laser-induced damage in fused silica and CaF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73(5), 054105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li,, X. X.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, X. X. Li,, S. Z. Xu, H. Y. Sun, D. H. Feng, C. B. Li, X. F. Wang, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, and H. Kuroda, “Ultraviolet-infrared femtosecond laser-induced damage in fused silica and CaF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73(5), 054105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. M.

Lu, B.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, Y. Dai, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Coherent linking of periodic nano-ripples on a ZnO crystal surface induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(2), 423–426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12-13), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H. L.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12-13), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, and X. W. Sun, “Raman spectroscopy and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4583–4586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mahmood, A. S.

A. S. Mahmood, M. Sivakumar, K. Venkatakrishnan, and B. Tan, “Enhancement of optical absorption of silicon fibrous nanostructure produced using femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 034107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Malzer, S.

Q. Z. Zhao, F. Ciobanu, S. Malzer, and L. J. Wang, “Enhancement of optical absorption and photocurrent of 6H-SiC by laser surface nanostructuring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maunders, C.

E. Hsu, T. Crawford, C. Maunders, G. Botton, and H. Haugen, “Cross-sectional study of periodic surface structures on gallium phosphide induced by ultrashort laser pulse irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 221112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

M. Shen, J. E. Carey, C. H. Crouch, M. Kandyla, H. A. Stone, and E. Mazur, “High-density regular arrays of nanometer-scale rods formed on silicon surfaces via femtosecond laser irradiation in water,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2087–2091 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Misawa, H.

H. Iwase, S. Kokubo, S. Juodkazis, and H. Misawa, “Suppression of ripples on ablated Ni surface via a polarization grating,” Opt. Express 17(6), 4388–4396 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, and H. Misawa, “In-bulk and surface structuring of sapphire by femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6539–6544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyaji, G.

Miyazaki, K.

G. Miyaji and K. Miyazaki, “Origin of periodicity in nanostructuring on thin film surfaces ablated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 16(20), 16265–16271 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin film of TiN and DLC,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(6), 983–985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç, H.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Munz, M.

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Namba, Y.

Nishii, K.

Nishimura, K.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, and H. Misawa, “In-bulk and surface structuring of sapphire by femtosecond pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(15), 6539–6544 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Özgür, Ü.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Preston, J. S.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Qi, L.

Qiu, J. R.

Rajeev, P. P.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reif, J.

F. Costache, M. Henyk, and J. Reif, “Modification of dielectric surfaces with ultra-short laser pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 186(1-4), 352–357 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reshchikov, M. A.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rosenfeld, A.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M.

M. Shen, J. E. Carey, C. H. Crouch, M. Kandyla, H. A. Stone, and E. Mazur, “High-density regular arrays of nanometer-scale rods formed on silicon surfaces via femtosecond laser irradiation in water,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2087–2091 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simova, E.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sipe, J. E.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sivakumar, M.

A. S. Mahmood, M. Sivakumar, K. Venkatakrishnan, and B. Tan, “Enhancement of optical absorption of silicon fibrous nanostructure produced using femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 034107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stone, H. A.

M. Shen, J. E. Carey, C. H. Crouch, M. Kandyla, H. A. Stone, and E. Mazur, “High-density regular arrays of nanometer-scale rods formed on silicon surfaces via femtosecond laser irradiation in water,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2087–2091 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sturm, H.

J. Bonse, M. Munz, and H. Sturm, “Structure formation on the surface of indium phosphide irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(1), 013538 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. Y.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, X. X. Li,, S. Z. Xu, H. Y. Sun, D. H. Feng, C. B. Li, X. F. Wang, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, and H. Kuroda, “Ultraviolet-infrared femtosecond laser-induced damage in fused silica and CaF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73(5), 054105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, Y. Dai, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Coherent linking of periodic nano-ripples on a ZnO crystal surface induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(2), 423–426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12-13), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, and X. W. Sun, “Raman spectroscopy and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4583–4586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z. R.

Suzuki, M.

Tan, B.

A. S. Mahmood, M. Sivakumar, K. Venkatakrishnan, and B. Tan, “Enhancement of optical absorption of silicon fibrous nanostructure produced using femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 034107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teke, A.

Ü. Özgür, Ya. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 041301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Venkatakrishnan, K.

A. S. Mahmood, M. Sivakumar, K. Venkatakrishnan, and B. Tan, “Enhancement of optical absorption of silicon fibrous nanostructure produced using femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(3), 034107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. J.

Q. Z. Zhao, F. Ciobanu, S. Malzer, and L. J. Wang, “Enhancement of optical absorption and photocurrent of 6H-SiC by laser surface nanostructuring,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121107 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Wang, X. F.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, X. X. Li,, S. Z. Xu, H. Y. Sun, D. H. Feng, C. B. Li, X. F. Wang, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, and H. Kuroda, “Ultraviolet-infrared femtosecond laser-induced damage in fused silica and CaF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73(5), 054105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. G.

Willis, L.

D. Emmony, R. Howson, and L. Willis, “Laser mirror damage in germanium at 10.6 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23(11), 598 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, P. X.

Xu, N. S.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Large area uniform nanostructures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19354–19365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18(50), 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S. Z.

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, X. X. Li,, S. Z. Xu, H. Y. Sun, D. H. Feng, C. B. Li, X. F. Wang, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, and H. Kuroda, “Ultraviolet-infrared femtosecond laser-induced damage in fused silica and CaF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73(5), 054105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Xu, Z. Z.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, Y. Dai, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Coherent linking of periodic nano-ripples on a ZnO crystal surface induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(2), 423–426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Jia, T. Q. Jia, L. E. Ding, P. X. Xiong, L. Deng, Z. R. Sun, Z. G. Wang, J. R. Qiu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Complex periodic micro/nanostructures on 6H-SiC crystal induced by the interference of three femtosecond laser beams,” Opt. Lett. 34(6), 788–790 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12-13), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Large area uniform nanostructures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19354–19365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18(50), 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, and X. W. Sun, “Raman spectroscopy and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4583–4586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Q. Jia, H. X. Chen, M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, X. X. Li,, S. Z. Xu, H. Y. Sun, D. H. Feng, C. B. Li, X. F. Wang, R. X. Li, Z. Z. Xu, X. K. He, and H. Kuroda, “Ultraviolet-infrared femtosecond laser-induced damage in fused silica and CaF2 crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 73(5), 054105 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yasumaru, N.

N. Yasumaru, K. Miyazaki, and J. Kiuchi, “Femtosecond-laser-induced nanostructure formed on hard thin film of TiN and DLC,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(6), 983–985 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. F.

J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, H. M. van Driel, and J. E. Sipe, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. II. Experiments on Ge, Si, Al, and brass,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1155–1172 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Younkin, R.

C. Wu, C. H. Crouch, L. Zhao, J. E. Carey, R. Younkin, J. A. Levinson, E. Mazur, R. M. Farrell, P. Gothoskar, and A. Karger, “Near-unity below-band-gap absorption by microstructured silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(13), 1850 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yu, B. K.

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, Y. Dai, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Coherent linking of periodic nano-ripples on a ZnO crystal surface induced by femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 94(2), 423–426 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, B. Lu, and X. W. Sun, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structure on ZnO,” Mater. Lett. 62(12-13), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Guo, R. X. Li, Y. Hang, Z. Z. Xu, B. K. Yu, H. L. Ma, and X. W. Sun, “Raman spectroscopy and luminescent properties of ZnO nanostructures fabricated by femtosecond laser pulses,” Mater. Lett. 61(23-24), 4583–4586 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, F. L.

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “Large area uniform nanostructures fabricated by direct femtosecond laser ablation,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19354–19365 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Huang, F. L. Zhao, T. Q. Jia, Y. Cheng, N. S. Xu, and Z. Z. Xu, “A uniform 290 nm periodic square structure on ZnO fabricated by two-beam femtosecond laser ablation,” Nanotechnology 18(50), 505301 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Sketch of two-beam interference; (b) Calculated intensity pattern of two-beam interference in xy plane; (c) sketch of measurement of reflection and transmission spectra.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of 2D periodic microstructures of the center part of ablation areas. The laser conditions of single beam are: (a) 0.1 J/cm2, 50 pulses, (b) 0.4 J/cm2, 10 pulses, (c) 0.4 J/cm2, 50 pulses, and (d) 0.4 J/cm2, 100 pulses. The double arrow in (a) indicates the laser polarization.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Reflection spectra, (b) transmission spectra, (c) relative reflectivity and (d) relative transmissivity of 2D periodic microstructures irradiated by different pulse numbers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Spectra of reflectivity, transmissivity and absorptivity of unstructured surface; (b) absorptivity of 2D periodic microstructures as functions of laser fluences and pulse numbers. For comparison, the absorptivity of ablation area induced by single laser beam is shown in (c).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) FDTD model for Mie scattering of surface periodic structures, and the simulation results of relative reflectivity and transmissivity for (b) SP ripples, (c) LP ripples and (d) interference gratings.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Micro-Raman spectra at different positions of an ablation area after 70 pulses irradiation with laser fluence of 0.4J/cm2.

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