Abstract

Ultrahigh spatiotemporal resolved pump-probe signal near a gold nano-slit is detected by femtosecond-SNOM. By employing two-color pump-probe configuration and probing at the interband transition wavelength of the gold, signal contributed by surface plasmon polariton is avoided and spatiotemporal evolvement of excited electrons is successfully observed. From the contrast decaying of the periodical distribution of the pump-probe signal, ultrafast diffusion of excited electrons with a time scale of a few hundred femtoseconds is clearly identified. For comparison, such phenomenon cannot be observed by the one-color pump-probe configuration.

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  4. R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, A. Schertel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond near-field optical spectroscopy of implantation patterned semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 61–63 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Guenther, C. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of single quantum dots studied by ultrafast near-field spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(5), 057401 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 50(20), 15337–15348 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond investigation of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 48(16), 12365–12368 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. D. Brorson, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Femtosecond electronic heat-transport dynamics in thin gold films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(17), 1962–1965 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Smith, N. C. R. Holme, B. Orr, R. Kopelman, and T. Norris, “Ultrafast measurement in GaAs thin films using NSOM,” Ultramicroscopy 71(1-4), 213–223 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

K. Imura and H. Okamoto, “Ultrafast photoinduced changes of eigenfunctions of localized plasmon modes in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 041401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. Kubo, N. Pontius, and H. Petek, “Femtosecond microscopy of surface plasmon polariton wave packet evolution at the silver/vacuum interface,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 470–475 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Imaging of surface plasmon and ultrafast dynamics in gold nanorods by near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(42), 16344–16347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

T. Guenther, C. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of single quantum dots studied by ultrafast near-field spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(5), 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeldt, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond pump-probe near-field optical microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(6), 2758–2764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, A. Schertel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond near-field optical spectroscopy of implantation patterned semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 61–63 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

S. Smith, N. C. R. Holme, B. Orr, R. Kopelman, and T. Norris, “Ultrafast measurement in GaAs thin films using NSOM,” Ultramicroscopy 71(1-4), 213–223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, “NSOM the fourth dimension: integrating nanometric spatial and femtosecond time resolution,” Scanning 17, 3–13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 50(20), 15337–15348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond investigation of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 48(16), 12365–12368 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

S. D. Brorson, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Femtosecond electronic heat-transport dynamics in thin gold films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(17), 1962–1965 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Achermann, M.

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeldt, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond pump-probe near-field optical microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(6), 2758–2764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Acioli, L.

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond investigation of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 48(16), 12365–12368 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Acioli, L. H.

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 50(20), 15337–15348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Axt, V. M.

T. Guenther, C. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of single quantum dots studied by ultrafast near-field spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(5), 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ben-Ami, U.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, “NSOM the fourth dimension: integrating nanometric spatial and femtosecond time resolution,” Scanning 17, 3–13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeldt, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond pump-probe near-field optical microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(6), 2758–2764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brorson, S. D.

S. D. Brorson, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Femtosecond electronic heat-transport dynamics in thin gold films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(17), 1962–1965 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diamant, D.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, “NSOM the fourth dimension: integrating nanometric spatial and femtosecond time resolution,” Scanning 17, 3–13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsaesser, T.

T. Guenther, C. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of single quantum dots studied by ultrafast near-field spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(5), 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eshlaghi, S.

T. Guenther, C. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of single quantum dots studied by ultrafast near-field spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(5), 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fish, G.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, “NSOM the fourth dimension: integrating nanometric spatial and femtosecond time resolution,” Scanning 17, 3–13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J. G.

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 50(20), 15337–15348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond investigation of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 48(16), 12365–12368 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Brorson, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Femtosecond electronic heat-transport dynamics in thin gold films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(17), 1962–1965 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glanemann, M.

T. Guenther, C. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of single quantum dots studied by ultrafast near-field spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(5), 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guenther, T.

T. Guenther, C. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of single quantum dots studied by ultrafast near-field spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(5), 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holme, N. C. R.

S. Smith, N. C. R. Holme, B. Orr, R. Kopelman, and T. Norris, “Ultrafast measurement in GaAs thin films using NSOM,” Ultramicroscopy 71(1-4), 213–223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Imura, K.

K. Imura and H. Okamoto, “Ultrafast photoinduced changes of eigenfunctions of localized plasmon modes in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 041401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Imaging of surface plasmon and ultrafast dynamics in gold nanorods by near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(42), 16344–16347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 50(20), 15337–15348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond investigation of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 48(16), 12365–12368 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Brorson, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Femtosecond electronic heat-transport dynamics in thin gold films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(17), 1962–1965 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katz, S.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, “NSOM the fourth dimension: integrating nanometric spatial and femtosecond time resolution,” Scanning 17, 3–13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, A. Schertel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond near-field optical spectroscopy of implantation patterned semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 61–63 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeldt, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond pump-probe near-field optical microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(6), 2758–2764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kopelman, R.

S. Smith, N. C. R. Holme, B. Orr, R. Kopelman, and T. Norris, “Ultrafast measurement in GaAs thin films using NSOM,” Ultramicroscopy 71(1-4), 213–223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kubo, A.

A. Kubo, N. Pontius, and H. Petek, “Femtosecond microscopy of surface plasmon polariton wave packet evolution at the silver/vacuum interface,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 470–475 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuck, N.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, “NSOM the fourth dimension: integrating nanometric spatial and femtosecond time resolution,” Scanning 17, 3–13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, T.

T. Guenther, C. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of single quantum dots studied by ultrafast near-field spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(5), 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, A.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, “NSOM the fourth dimension: integrating nanometric spatial and femtosecond time resolution,” Scanning 17, 3–13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lieberman, K.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, “NSOM the fourth dimension: integrating nanometric spatial and femtosecond time resolution,” Scanning 17, 3–13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lienau, C.

T. Guenther, C. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of single quantum dots studied by ultrafast near-field spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(5), 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lubovsky, L.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, “NSOM the fourth dimension: integrating nanometric spatial and femtosecond time resolution,” Scanning 17, 3–13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ma, R. M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacDonald, K. F.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morier-Genoud, F.

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, A. Schertel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond near-field optical spectroscopy of implantation patterned semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 61–63 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nagahara, T.

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Imaging of surface plasmon and ultrafast dynamics in gold nanorods by near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(42), 16344–16347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nechay, B. A.

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeldt, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond pump-probe near-field optical microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(6), 2758–2764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, A. Schertel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond near-field optical spectroscopy of implantation patterned semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 61–63 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T.

S. Smith, N. C. R. Holme, B. Orr, R. Kopelman, and T. Norris, “Ultrafast measurement in GaAs thin films using NSOM,” Ultramicroscopy 71(1-4), 213–223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, H.

K. Imura and H. Okamoto, “Ultrafast photoinduced changes of eigenfunctions of localized plasmon modes in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 041401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Imaging of surface plasmon and ultrafast dynamics in gold nanorods by near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(42), 16344–16347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Orr, B.

S. Smith, N. C. R. Holme, B. Orr, R. Kopelman, and T. Norris, “Ultrafast measurement in GaAs thin films using NSOM,” Ultramicroscopy 71(1-4), 213–223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petek, H.

A. Kubo, N. Pontius, and H. Petek, “Femtosecond microscopy of surface plasmon polariton wave packet evolution at the silver/vacuum interface,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 470–475 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pontius, N.

A. Kubo, N. Pontius, and H. Petek, “Femtosecond microscopy of surface plasmon polariton wave packet evolution at the silver/vacuum interface,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 470–475 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roth, M.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, “NSOM the fourth dimension: integrating nanometric spatial and femtosecond time resolution,” Scanning 17, 3–13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Saar, A.

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, “NSOM the fourth dimension: integrating nanometric spatial and femtosecond time resolution,” Scanning 17, 3–13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Samson, Z. L.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schertel, A.

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, A. Schertel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond near-field optical spectroscopy of implantation patterned semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 61–63 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Siegner, U.

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeldt, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond pump-probe near-field optical microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(6), 2758–2764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, A. Schertel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond near-field optical spectroscopy of implantation patterned semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 61–63 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S.

S. Smith, N. C. R. Holme, B. Orr, R. Kopelman, and T. Norris, “Ultrafast measurement in GaAs thin films using NSOM,” Ultramicroscopy 71(1-4), 213–223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. K.

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 50(20), 15337–15348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond investigation of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 48(16), 12365–12368 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vallee, F.

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 50(20), 15337–15348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond investigation of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 48(16), 12365–12368 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wieck, A. D.

T. Guenther, C. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of single quantum dots studied by ultrafast near-field spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(5), 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, F. Morier-Genoud, A. Schertel, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond near-field optical spectroscopy of implantation patterned semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(1), 61–63 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

K. Imura, T. Nagahara, and H. Okamoto, “Imaging of surface plasmon and ultrafast dynamics in gold nanorods by near-field microscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. B 108(42), 16344–16347 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

A. Kubo, N. Pontius, and H. Petek, “Femtosecond microscopy of surface plasmon polariton wave packet evolution at the silver/vacuum interface,” Nano Lett. 7(2), 470–475 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

K. Imura and H. Okamoto, “Ultrafast photoinduced changes of eigenfunctions of localized plasmon modes in gold nanorods,” Phys. Rev. B 77(4), 041401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. H. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond-tunable measurement of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 50(20), 15337–15348 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Sun, F. Vallee, L. Acioli, E. P. Ippen, and J. G. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond investigation of electron thermalization in gold,” Phys. Rev. B 48(16), 12365–12368 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. D. Brorson, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Femtosecond electronic heat-transport dynamics in thin gold films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59(17), 1962–1965 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Guenther, C. Lienau, T. Elsaesser, M. Glanemann, V. M. Axt, T. Kuhn, S. Eshlaghi, and A. D. Wieck, “Coherent nonlinear optical response of single quantum dots studied by ultrafast near-field spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 89(5), 057401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

B. A. Nechay, U. Siegner, M. Achermann, H. Bielefeldt, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond pump-probe near-field optical microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70(6), 2758–2764 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scanning (1)

A. Lewis, U. Ben-Ami, N. Kuck, G. Fish, D. Diamant, L. Lubovsky, K. Lieberman, S. Katz, A. Saar, and M. Roth, “NSOM the fourth dimension: integrating nanometric spatial and femtosecond time resolution,” Scanning 17, 3–13 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science 311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

S. Smith, N. C. R. Holme, B. Orr, R. Kopelman, and T. Norris, “Ultrafast measurement in GaAs thin films using NSOM,” Ultramicroscopy 71(1-4), 213–223 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. Raether, Surface plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the two-color pump-probe femtosecond-SNOM system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic view of SPP generation and subsequent interference with the direct transmitted pump light. (b) FEM simulation results of the electric field intensity in the middle of the gold film (with the nano-slit locates at sample position of 0 nm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Pump-probe signals across the nano-slit with time delays from −333 fs to 2.67 ps. (b) Simultaneously measured topography. (c) Pump-probe signals (without offset) at four different time delays of −330 fs, 0 fs, 660 fs and 2 ps, respectively. (d) Extracted contrast between the peak at 2000 nm and the valley at 2300 nm from Fig. 3(a) and corresponding fitting results by single exponential decay.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Green symbols and red symbols show pump-probe curves acquired at sample positions of 2000 nm and 2300 nm in Fig. 3, respectively. (a) Original data and (b) normalized results with respect to the peak intensities. Lines correspond to double exponential fitting results.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pump-probe signals at time delays of 0 fs, 660 fs, 2 ps and 6 ps obtained by scanning the fiber tip across the same nano-slit as in Fig. 3 with one-color pump-probe configuration. The signals are amplified and offset for clarification.

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