Abstract

We successfully fabricate a polymer optical waveguide with multiple graded-index (GI) cores directly on a substrate utilizing the soft-lithography method. A UV-curable polymer (TPIR-202) supplied from Tokyo Ohka Kogyo Co., Ltd. is used, and the GI cores are formed during the curing process of the core region, which is similar to the preform process we previously reported. We experimentally confirm that near parabolic refractive index profiles are formed in the parallel cores (more than 50 channels) with 40 μm x 40 μm size at 250-μm pitch. Although the loss is still as high as 0.1 ~0.3 dB/cm at 850 nm, which is mainly due to scattering loss inherent to the polymer matrix, the scattering loss attributed to the waveguide’s structural irregularity could be sufficiently reduced by a graded refractive index profile. For comparison, we fabricate step-index (SI)-core waveguides with the same materials by means of the same process. Then, we evaluate the inter-channel crosstalk in the SI- and GI-core waveguides under almost the same conditions. It is noteworthy that remarkable crosstalk reduction (5 dB and beyond) is confirmed in the GI-core waveguides, since the propagating modes in GI-cores are tightly confined near the core center and less optical power is found near the core cladding boundary. This significant improvement in the inter-channel crosstalk allows the GI-core waveguides to be utilized for extra high-density on-board optical interconnections.

© 2010 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  6. S. Nakagawa, Y. Taira, H. Numata, K. Kobayashi, K. Terada, and M. Fukui, “High-bandwidth, chip-based optical interconnects on waveguide-integrated SLC for optical off-chip I/O,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on the 59th Electronic Components and Technology Conference, (IEEE 2009) pp. 2086–2091.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Marcuse, Principles of Optical Fiber Measurements, (Academic, 1981).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” J. Quantum. Electron. 45(4), 415–424 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. H. Hsu and T. Ishigure, “High-density channel alignment of graded index core polymer optical waveguide and its crosstalk analysis with ray tracing method,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13368 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-13-13368 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

Y. Takeyoshi and T. Ishigure, “High-density 2 x 4 channel polymer optical waveguide with graded-index circular cores,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(14), 2852–2861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Kosugi and T. Ishigure, “Polymer parallel optical waveguide with graded-index rectangular cores and its dispersion analysis,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15959–15968 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-17-18-15959 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kokubun and M. Koshiba, “Novel multi-core fibers for mode division multiplexing: proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(8), 522–528 (2009), http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/elex/6/8/6_522/_article .
[CrossRef]

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” J. Quantum. Electron. 45(4), 415–424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. C. A. Pitwon, and D. Milward, “Low-cost, precision, self-alignment technique for coupling laser and photodiode arrays to polymer waveguide arrays on multilayer PCBs,” Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(3), 502–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, G. Van Steenberge, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Laser ablated micromirrors for printed circuit board integrated optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(11), 822–824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Kopetz, D. Cai, E. Rabe, and A. Neyer, “PDMS-based optical waveguide layer for integration in electrical–optical circuit boards,” AEU, Int. J. Electron. Commun. 61(3), 163–167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, L. Wang, W. Jiang, and R. T. Chen, “Hard-molded 51 cm long waveguide array with a 150 GHz bandwidth for board-level optical interconnects,” Opt. Lett. 32(6), 677–679 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ishigure and Y. Takeyoshi, “Polymer waveguide with 4-channel graded-index circular cores for parallel optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 15(9), 5843–5850 (2007), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?id=134364 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

1995

T. Ishigure, A. Horibe, E. Nihei, and Y. Koike, “High-bandwidth, high-numerical aperture graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(8), 1686–1691 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baks, C.

Bamiedakis, N.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” J. Quantum. Electron. 45(4), 415–424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beals, J.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” J. Quantum. Electron. 45(4), 415–424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Benner, A. F.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cai, D.

S. Kopetz, D. Cai, E. Rabe, and A. Neyer, “PDMS-based optical waveguide layer for integration in electrical–optical circuit boards,” AEU, Int. J. Electron. Commun. 61(3), 163–167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

Clapp, T. V.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” J. Quantum. Electron. 45(4), 415–424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

DeGroot, J. V.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” J. Quantum. Electron. 45(4), 415–424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Graham, L. A.

Haymes, C.

Hendrickx, N.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, G. Van Steenberge, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Laser ablated micromirrors for printed circuit board integrated optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(11), 822–824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horibe, A.

T. Ishigure, A. Horibe, E. Nihei, and Y. Koike, “High-bandwidth, high-numerical aperture graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(8), 1686–1691 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H. H.

Ignatowski, M.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Imoto, K.

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ishigure, T.

Jewell, J.

Jiang, W.

John, R.

Kash, J.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, E.

Koike, Y.

T. Ishigure, S. Tanaka, E. Kobayashi, and Y. Koike, “Accurate refractive index profiling in a graded-index plastic optical fiber exceeding gigabit transmission rates,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(8), 1449–1456 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Ishigure, A. Horibe, E. Nihei, and Y. Koike, “High-bandwidth, high-numerical aperture graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(8), 1686–1691 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, Y.

Y. Kokubun and M. Koshiba, “Novel multi-core fibers for mode division multiplexing: proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(8), 522–528 (2009), http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/elex/6/8/6_522/_article .
[CrossRef]

Kopetz, S.

S. Kopetz, D. Cai, E. Rabe, and A. Neyer, “PDMS-based optical waveguide layer for integration in electrical–optical circuit boards,” AEU, Int. J. Electron. Commun. 61(3), 163–167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

Y. Kokubun and M. Koshiba, “Novel multi-core fibers for mode division multiplexing: proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(8), 522–528 (2009), http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/elex/6/8/6_522/_article .
[CrossRef]

Kosugi, T.

Kucharski, D.

Kuchta, D. M.

Kwark, Y. H.

Milward, D.

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. C. A. Pitwon, and D. Milward, “Low-cost, precision, self-alignment technique for coupling laser and photodiode arrays to polymer waveguide arrays on multilayer PCBs,” Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(3), 502–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neyer, A.

S. Kopetz, D. Cai, E. Rabe, and A. Neyer, “PDMS-based optical waveguide layer for integration in electrical–optical circuit boards,” AEU, Int. J. Electron. Commun. 61(3), 163–167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nihei, E.

T. Ishigure, A. Horibe, E. Nihei, and Y. Koike, “High-bandwidth, high-numerical aperture graded-index polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(8), 1686–1691 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oka, T.

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, S.

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Papakonstantinou, I.

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. C. A. Pitwon, and D. Milward, “Low-cost, precision, self-alignment technique for coupling laser and photodiode arrays to polymer waveguide arrays on multilayer PCBs,” Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(3), 502–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Penty, R. V.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” J. Quantum. Electron. 45(4), 415–424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pepeljugoski, P.

Pitwon, R. C. A.

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. C. A. Pitwon, and D. Milward, “Low-cost, precision, self-alignment technique for coupling laser and photodiode arrays to polymer waveguide arrays on multilayer PCBs,” Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(3), 502–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rabe, E.

S. Kopetz, D. Cai, E. Rabe, and A. Neyer, “PDMS-based optical waveguide layer for integration in electrical–optical circuit boards,” AEU, Int. J. Electron. Commun. 61(3), 163–167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rein, H.-M.

Ritter, M.

Rogers, D.

Schaub, J.

Schild, A.

Schrödinger, K.

Schuster, C.

Selviah, D. R.

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. C. A. Pitwon, and D. Milward, “Low-cost, precision, self-alignment technique for coupling laser and photodiode arrays to polymer waveguide arrays on multilayer PCBs,” Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(3), 502–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shan, L.

Takeyoshi, Y.

Tanaka, S.

Thienpont, H.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, G. Van Steenberge, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Laser ablated micromirrors for printed circuit board integrated optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(11), 822–824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tsushima, H.

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Van Daele, P.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, G. Van Steenberge, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Laser ablated micromirrors for printed circuit board integrated optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(11), 822–824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Erps, J.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, G. Van Steenberge, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Laser ablated micromirrors for printed circuit board integrated optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(11), 822–824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Steenberge, G.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, G. Van Steenberge, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Laser ablated micromirrors for printed circuit board integrated optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(11), 822–824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

Wang, X.

Watanabe, E.

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

White, I. H.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” J. Quantum. Electron. 45(4), 415–424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimatsu, S.

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

AEU, Int. J. Electron. Commun.

S. Kopetz, D. Cai, E. Rabe, and A. Neyer, “PDMS-based optical waveguide layer for integration in electrical–optical circuit boards,” AEU, Int. J. Electron. Commun. 61(3), 163–167 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Develop.

A. F. Benner, M. Ignatowski, J. Kash, D. M. Kuchta, and M. Ritter, “Exploitation of optical interconnects in future server architectures,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 49(4), 755–775 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

N. Hendrickx, J. Van Erps, G. Van Steenberge, H. Thienpont, and P. Van Daele, “Laser ablated micromirrors for printed circuit board integrated optical interconnections,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 19(11), 822–824 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Electron. Express

Y. Kokubun and M. Koshiba, “Novel multi-core fibers for mode division multiplexing: proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(8), 522–528 (2009), http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/elex/6/8/6_522/_article .
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Quantum. Electron.

N. Bamiedakis, J. Beals, R. V. Penty, I. H. White, J. V. DeGroot, and T. V. Clapp, “Cost-effective multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed on-board optical interconnects,” J. Quantum. Electron. 45(4), 415–424 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

H. Tsushima, E. Watanabe, S. Yoshimatsu, S. Okamoto, T. Oka, and K. Imoto, “Novel manufacturing process of waveguide using selective photobleaching of polysilane films by UV light irradiation,” Proc. SPIE 5246, 119–130 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Adv. Packag.

I. Papakonstantinou, D. R. Selviah, R. C. A. Pitwon, and D. Milward, “Low-cost, precision, self-alignment technique for coupling laser and photodiode arrays to polymer waveguide arrays on multilayer PCBs,” Trans. Adv. Packag. 31(3), 502–511 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Marcuse, Principles of Optical Fiber Measurements, (Academic, 1981).

M. Karppinen, T. Alajoki, A. Tanskanen, K. Kataja, J.-T. Mäkinen, K. Kautio, P. Karioja, M. Immonen, and J. Kivilahti, “Parallel optical interconnect between ceramic BGA packages on FR4 board using embedded waveguides and passive optical alignments,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on the 56th Electronic Components and Technology Conference, (IEEE 2006), pp. 219–225.

S. Nakagawa, Y. Taira, H. Numata, K. Kobayashi, K. Terada, and M. Fukui, “High-bandwidth, chip-based optical interconnects on waveguide-integrated SLC for optical off-chip I/O,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on the 59th Electronic Components and Technology Conference, (IEEE 2009) pp. 2086–2091.

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (3206 KB)     

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the fabrication process of GI-core polymer optical waveguides.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sections of polymer parallel optical waveguides fabricated using the soft lithography (a):110 μm x 110 μm GI core (b): 80 μm x 80 μm SI core (c):40 μm x 40 μm GI core

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Interference fringe pattern observed on a cross-section of slab sample.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a): Refractive index profile in one core of fabricated polymer waveguides with different dopant concentration (b) and the normalized profiles shown in Fig. 4(a).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Refractive index profile of polymer optical waveguides fabricated under different curing conditions (a): measured in horizontal direction, marks are fitted curve to the power-law form (b): measured in vertical direction

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Refractive index profile of 40 μm x 40 μm GI-core polymer optical waveguide illustrated three dimensionally (Media 1).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Near-field patterns from 5-cm length waveguides (a) GI-core waveguide (b) SI-core waveguide

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Propagation loss of SI-core polymer optical waveguides (a): Results of cut-back process (b): Loss spectra of waveguides fabricated under different conditions

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Inter-channel crosstalk measurement results of 1-m length GI- and SI-core waveguides.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 UV exposure time for fabricating polymer optical waveguides

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison of crosstalk value in GI-core and SI-core waveguides under different launch conditions.

Equations (1)

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n ( r ) = n 1 [ 1 2 Δ ( r a ) g ] 1 2       0 r a

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