Abstract

A deep ultraviolet off-axis digital holographic microscope (DHM) is presented. The microscope has been arranged with as least as possible optical elements in the imaging path to avoid aberration due to the non-perfect optical elements. A high resolution approach has been implemented in the setup using oblique illumination to overcome the limitation introduced by the optical system. To examine the resolution of the system a nano-structured template has been designed and the result confirms the submicron and nanoscale resolution of the arranged DHM setup.

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References

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2008 (5)

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

F. Zhang, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Reconstruction algorithm for high-numerical-aperture holograms with diffraction-limited resolution,” Opt. Lett. 31(11), 1633–1635 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, “Synthetic aperture fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 168102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Optical sectioning deep inside live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy,” Science 305(5686), 1007–1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (1)

C. Liu, Z. Liu, F. Bo, Y. Wang, and J. Zhu, “Super-resolution digital holographic imaging method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3143–3145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

1985 (1)

1967 (1)

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161(4098), 777–778 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alexandrov, S. A.

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, “Synthetic aperture fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 168102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aslund, N.

Bates, M.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bo, F.

C. Liu, Z. Liu, F. Bo, Y. Wang, and J. Zhu, “Super-resolution digital holographic imaging method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3143–3145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carlsson, K.

Colomb, T.

Coppola, G.

Cuche, E.

Danielsson, P. E.

De Nicola, S.

Del Bene, F.

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Optical sectioning deep inside live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy,” Science 305(5686), 1007–1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Depeursinge, C.

Emery, Y.

Ferraro, P.

Ferreira, C.

Finizio, A.

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161(4098), 777–778 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García, J.

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Grilli, S.

Gutzler, T.

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, “Synthetic aperture fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 168102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hell, S. W.

Hillman, T. R.

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, “Synthetic aperture fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 168102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huisken, J.

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Optical sectioning deep inside live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy,” Science 305(5686), 1007–1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ida, T.

I. Yamaguchi, T. Ida, and M. Yokota, “Measurement of Surface Shape and Position by Phase-Shifting Digital Holography,” Strain 44(5), 349–356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

Lawrence, R. W.

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Lenz, R.

Liljeborg, A.

Liu, C.

C. Liu, Z. Liu, F. Bo, Y. Wang, and J. Zhu, “Super-resolution digital holographic imaging method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3143–3145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Liu, Z.

C. Liu, Z. Liu, F. Bo, Y. Wang, and J. Zhu, “Super-resolution digital holographic imaging method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3143–3145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Magistretti, P. J.

Majlöf, L.

Marquet, P.

Martínez-León, L.

Merola, F.

Micó, V.

Osten, W.

Paturzo, M.

Pedrini, G.

Pierattini, G.

Rappaz, B.

Rust, M. J.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sampson, D. D.

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, “Synthetic aperture fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 168102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stelzer, E. H. K.

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Optical sectioning deep inside live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy,” Science 305(5686), 1007–1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swoger, J.

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Optical sectioning deep inside live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy,” Science 305(5686), 1007–1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tajahuerce, E.

Wang, Y.

C. Liu, Z. Liu, F. Bo, Y. Wang, and J. Zhu, “Super-resolution digital holographic imaging method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3143–3145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wichmann, J.

Wittbrodt, J.

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Optical sectioning deep inside live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy,” Science 305(5686), 1007–1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaguchi, I.

I. Yamaguchi, T. Ida, and M. Yokota, “Measurement of Surface Shape and Position by Phase-Shifting Digital Holography,” Strain 44(5), 349–356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 22(16), 1268–1270 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokota, M.

I. Yamaguchi, T. Ida, and M. Yokota, “Measurement of Surface Shape and Position by Phase-Shifting Digital Holography,” Strain 44(5), 349–356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, C.

Zalevsky, Z.

Zhai, H.

Zhang, F.

Zhang, T.

Zhu, J.

C. Liu, Z. Liu, F. Bo, Y. Wang, and J. Zhu, “Super-resolution digital holographic imaging method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3143–3145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, X.

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Liu, Z. Liu, F. Bo, Y. Wang, and J. Zhu, “Super-resolution digital holographic imaging method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(17), 3143–3145 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman and R. W. Lawrence, “Digital image formation from electronically detected holograms,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11(3), 77–79 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Methods (1)

M. J. Rust, M. Bates, and X. Zhuang, “Sub-diffraction-limit imaging by stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM),” Nat. Methods 3(10), 793–796 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

D. Gabor, “A new microscopic principle,” Nature 161(4098), 777–778 (1948).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (8)

C. Yuan, H. Zhai, and H. Liu, “Angular multiplexing in pulsed digital holography for aperture synthesis,” Opt. Lett. 33(20), 2356–2358 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ferraro, G. Coppola, S. De Nicola, A. Finizio, and G. Pierattini, “Digital holographic microscope with automatic focus tracking by detecting sample displacement in real time,” Opt. Lett. 28(14), 1257–1259 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Zhang, G. Pedrini, and W. Osten, “Reconstruction algorithm for high-numerical-aperture holograms with diffraction-limited resolution,” Opt. Lett. 31(11), 1633–1635 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell and J. Wichmann, “Breaking the diffraction resolution limit by stimulated emission: stimulated-emission-depletion fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 19(11), 780–782 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Carlsson, P. E. Danielsson, R. Lenz, A. Liljeborg, L. Majlöf, and N. Aslund, “Three-dimensional microscopy using a confocal laser scanning microscope,” Opt. Lett. 10(2), 53–55 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Yamaguchi and T. Zhang, “Phase-shifting digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 22(16), 1268–1270 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Javidi and E. Tajahuerce, “Three-dimensional object recognition by use of digital holography,” Opt. Lett. 25(9), 610–612 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, P. J. Magistretti, E. Cuche, Y. Emery, T. Colomb, and C. Depeursinge, “Digital holographic microscopy: a noninvasive contrast imaging technique allowing quantitative visualization of living cells with subwavelength axial accuracy,” Opt. Lett. 30(5), 468–470 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. A. Alexandrov, T. R. Hillman, T. Gutzler, and D. D. Sampson, “Synthetic aperture fourier holographic optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(16), 168102 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. Huisken, J. Swoger, F. Del Bene, J. Wittbrodt, and E. H. K. Stelzer, “Optical sectioning deep inside live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy,” Science 305(5686), 1007–1009 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strain (1)

I. Yamaguchi, T. Ida, and M. Yokota, “Measurement of Surface Shape and Position by Phase-Shifting Digital Holography,” Strain 44(5), 349–356 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

L. Yaroslavsky, Digital Holography and Digital Image Processing: Principles, Methods, Algorithms, (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic of the off-axis digital holographic microscope setup. ‘L’ and ‘M’ stand for ‘Lens’ and ‘Mirror’, respectively. Insight: The custom designed objective, right: aspheric lens system, left: the objective holder which is also designed to adjust the reference beam using a built-in mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The diagram shows the principle of oblique illumination method. (a) Direct (on-axis) illumination: in the given example the 0th, 1st and −1st components are collected by the objective, (b) oblique illumination: 2nd component is replaced by the −1st component and consequently, the 0th, 1st, and 2nd components are guided to the aperture of the objective, (c) the schematic of the oblique illumination setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image of the nano-structured template, (b) a typical recorded digital hologram and (c) its Fourier transform, (d) the reconstructed amplitude and (e) phase of the object illuminated with on-axis illumination, (f) the reconstructed amplitude and (g) phase of the object illuminated with oblique illumination along “y” axis, (h) the reconstructed amplitude and (i) phase of the object illuminated with oblique illumination along “x” axis, (j) the final image obtained by combining the reconstructed amplitude images taken using oblique illumination from four symmetric directions, (k) the image taken by a conventional optical microscope with NA = 0.75, × 100 objective. The scale bar is 3 µm in (a), (d), (j) and (k).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A fine comparison of the SEM image of the template (right-center) and the image obtained using our DHM setup (left-center). (a) The magnified DHM image of the 300 nm sized structures, (b) the inversed intensity profile along the dashed line in Fig. 4a, (c) the magnified SEM image showing the 300 nm sized structures, (d) The magnified DHM image of the 250 nm sized structures, (e) the inversed intensity profile along the dashed line in Fig. 4d, (f) the magnified SEM image showing the 250 nm sized structures. The scale bar is 3 µm in the centered images.

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