Abstract

Using highly coherent radiation at a wavelength of 13.9 nm from a Ag-plasma soft X-ray laser, we constructed a pump-and-probe interferometer based on a double Lloyd's mirror system. The spatial resolutions are evaluated with a test pattern, showing 1.8-μm lateral resolution, and 1-nm depth sensitivity. This instrument enables a single-shot observation of the surface morphology with a 7-ps time-resolution. We succeeded in observing a nanometer scale surface dilation of Pt films at the early stage of the ablation process initiated by a 70 fs near infrared pump pulse.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2009

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, “Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17669–17677 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, T. Ohba, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, T. Kaihori, K. Nagashima, and A. Sugiyama, “Demonstration of submicro Joule, spatially coherent soft-X-ray laser pumped by 0.1 Hertz, 10 Joule, picosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 120212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. Nishikino, N. Hasegawa, T. Kawachi, H. Yamatani, K. Sukegawa, and K. Nagashima, “Characterization of a high-brilliance soft x-ray laser at 13.9 nm by use of an oscillator-amplifier configuration,” Appl. Opt. 47(8), 1129–1134 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, E. Granados, F. Pedaci, D. Alessi, B. Luther, M. Berrill, and J. J. Rocca, “Phase-coherent, injection-seeded table-top soft-X-ray lasers at 18.9 nm and 13.9 nm,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 94–98 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. Baum, D.-S. Yang, and A. H. Zewail, “4D visualization of transitional structures in phase transformations by electron diffraction,” Science 318(5851), 788–792 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

Y. Izawa, Y. Setuhara, M. Hashida, M. Fujita, and Y. Izawa, “Ablation and amorphization of crystalline Si by femtosecond and picosecond laser irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(7), 5791–5794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, “Ultrafast imaging interferometry at femtosecond laser-excited surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(9), 1954–1964 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 035005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond time-resolved interferometric microscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(4), 483–489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Rethfeld and K. Sokolowski-Tinten, “von D. der Linde, and S. I. Anisimov, “Timescales in the response of materials to femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79, 767–769 (2004).

2003

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Kado, M. Kishimoto, K. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, “X-ray laser beam with diffraction-limited divergence generated with two gain media,” Opt. Lett. 28(18), 1680–1682 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Blome, J. Blums, A. Cavalleri, C. Dietrich, A. Tarasevitch, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, M. Kammler, M. Horn-von-Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond X-ray measurement of coherent lattice vibrations near the Lindemann stability limit,” Nature 422(6929), 287–289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Mater. 1(4), 217–224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

K. Nasu, H. Ping, and H. Mizouchi, “Photoinduced structural phase transitions and their dynamics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(35), 201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond Structural Dynamics in VO2 during an Ultrafast Solid-Solid Phase Transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

D. von der Linde and K. Sokolowski-Tinten, “The physical mechanisms of short-pulse laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154–155(1-4), 1–10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Rksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast X-ray diffraction,” Nature 398(6725), 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Rocca, C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, and K. Kanizay, “Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a plasma with a tabletop laser and a Lloyd’s mirror,” Opt. Lett. 24(6), 420–422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(1), 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994

P. Stampfli and K. Bennemann, “Time dependence of the laser-induced femtosecond lattice instability of Si and GaAs: Role of longitudinal optical distortions,” Phys. Rev. B 49(11), 7299–7305 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Larsen and S. M. Lane, “HYADES - A plasma hydrodynamic code for dense plasma studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 51(1-2), 179–186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1982

Alessi, D.

Y. Wang, E. Granados, F. Pedaci, D. Alessi, B. Luther, M. Berrill, and J. J. Rocca, “Phase-coherent, injection-seeded table-top soft-X-ray lasers at 18.9 nm and 13.9 nm,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 94–98 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. H.

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, “Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17669–17677 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anisimov, S. I.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(1), 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bajt, S.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barty, A.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barty, C. P. J.

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Rksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast X-ray diffraction,” Nature 398(6725), 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Baum, P.

P. Baum, D.-S. Yang, and A. H. Zewail, “4D visualization of transitional structures in phase transformations by electron diffraction,” Science 318(5851), 788–792 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennemann, K.

P. Stampfli and K. Bennemann, “Time dependence of the laser-induced femtosecond lattice instability of Si and GaAs: Role of longitudinal optical distortions,” Phys. Rev. B 49(11), 7299–7305 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berrill, M.

Y. Wang, E. Granados, F. Pedaci, D. Alessi, B. Luther, M. Berrill, and J. J. Rocca, “Phase-coherent, injection-seeded table-top soft-X-ray lasers at 18.9 nm and 13.9 nm,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 94–98 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bialkowski, J.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(1), 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blome, C.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Blome, J. Blums, A. Cavalleri, C. Dietrich, A. Tarasevitch, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, M. Kammler, M. Horn-von-Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond X-ray measurement of coherent lattice vibrations near the Lindemann stability limit,” Nature 422(6929), 287–289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blums, J.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Blome, J. Blums, A. Cavalleri, C. Dietrich, A. Tarasevitch, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, M. Kammler, M. Horn-von-Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond X-ray measurement of coherent lattice vibrations near the Lindemann stability limit,” Nature 422(6929), 287–289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bogan, M. J.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boutet, S.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cavalleri, A.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Blome, J. Blums, A. Cavalleri, C. Dietrich, A. Tarasevitch, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, M. Kammler, M. Horn-von-Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond X-ray measurement of coherent lattice vibrations near the Lindemann stability limit,” Nature 422(6929), 287–289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond Structural Dynamics in VO2 during an Ultrafast Solid-Solid Phase Transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Rksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast X-ray diffraction,” Nature 398(6725), 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(1), 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

W. Chao, J. Kim, S. Rekawa, P. Fischer, and E. H. Anderson, “Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(20), 17669–17677 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapman, H. N.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dietrich, C.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Blome, J. Blums, A. Cavalleri, C. Dietrich, A. Tarasevitch, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, M. Kammler, M. Horn-von-Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond X-ray measurement of coherent lattice vibrations near the Lindemann stability limit,” Nature 422(6929), 287–289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, J.

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 035005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Düsterer, S.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ehrke, H.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Filevich, J.

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 035005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, P.

Forget, P.

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond Structural Dynamics in VO2 during an Ultrafast Solid-Solid Phase Transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Förster, E.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Blome, J. Blums, A. Cavalleri, C. Dietrich, A. Tarasevitch, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, M. Kammler, M. Horn-von-Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond X-ray measurement of coherent lattice vibrations near the Lindemann stability limit,” Nature 422(6929), 287–289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frank, M.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

Y. Izawa, Y. Setuhara, M. Hashida, M. Fujita, and Y. Izawa, “Ablation and amorphization of crystalline Si by femtosecond and picosecond laser irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(7), 5791–5794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Granados, E.

Y. Wang, E. Granados, F. Pedaci, D. Alessi, B. Luther, M. Berrill, and J. J. Rocca, “Phase-coherent, injection-seeded table-top soft-X-ray lasers at 18.9 nm and 13.9 nm,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 94–98 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, T.

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Rksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast X-ray diffraction,” Nature 398(6725), 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hajdu, J.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasegawa, N.

Hashida, M.

Y. Izawa, Y. Setuhara, M. Hashida, M. Fujita, and Y. Izawa, “Ablation and amorphization of crystalline Si by femtosecond and picosecond laser irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(7), 5791–5794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hau-Riege, S.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Horn-von-Hoegen, M.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Blome, J. Blums, A. Cavalleri, C. Dietrich, A. Tarasevitch, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, M. Kammler, M. Horn-von-Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond X-ray measurement of coherent lattice vibrations near the Lindemann stability limit,” Nature 422(6929), 287–289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 035005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Izawa, Y.

Y. Izawa, Y. Setuhara, M. Hashida, M. Fujita, and Y. Izawa, “Ablation and amorphization of crystalline Si by femtosecond and picosecond laser irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(7), 5791–5794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Izawa, Y. Setuhara, M. Hashida, M. Fujita, and Y. Izawa, “Ablation and amorphization of crystalline Si by femtosecond and picosecond laser irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(7), 5791–5794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, R.

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Rksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast X-ray diffraction,” Nature 398(6725), 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kado, M.

Kaihori, T.

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, T. Ohba, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, T. Kaihori, K. Nagashima, and A. Sugiyama, “Demonstration of submicro Joule, spatially coherent soft-X-ray laser pumped by 0.1 Hertz, 10 Joule, picosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 120212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kammler, M.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Blome, J. Blums, A. Cavalleri, C. Dietrich, A. Tarasevitch, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, M. Kammler, M. Horn-von-Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond X-ray measurement of coherent lattice vibrations near the Lindemann stability limit,” Nature 422(6929), 287–289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanizay, K.

Kato, Y.

Kawachi, T.

Keenan, R.

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 035005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kieffer, J. C.

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond Structural Dynamics in VO2 during an Ultrafast Solid-Solid Phase Transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
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Kim, J.

Kishimoto, M.

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, T. Ohba, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, T. Kaihori, K. Nagashima, and A. Sugiyama, “Demonstration of submicro Joule, spatially coherent soft-X-ray laser pumped by 0.1 Hertz, 10 Joule, picosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 120212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Kado, M. Kishimoto, K. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, “X-ray laser beam with diffraction-limited divergence generated with two gain media,” Opt. Lett. 28(18), 1680–1682 (2003).
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J. T. Larsen and S. M. Lane, “HYADES - A plasma hydrodynamic code for dense plasma studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 51(1-2), 179–186 (1994).
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Larsen, J. T.

J. T. Larsen and S. M. Lane, “HYADES - A plasma hydrodynamic code for dense plasma studies,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 51(1-2), 179–186 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liddle, J. A.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft X-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature 435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, J. M.

Luther, B.

Y. Wang, E. Granados, F. Pedaci, D. Alessi, B. Luther, M. Berrill, and J. J. Rocca, “Phase-coherent, injection-seeded table-top soft-X-ray lasers at 18.9 nm and 13.9 nm,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 94–98 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marchesini, S.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marconi, M. C.

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 035005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Rocca, C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, and K. Kanizay, “Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a plasma with a tabletop laser and a Lloyd’s mirror,” Opt. Lett. 24(6), 420–422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Mater. 1(4), 217–224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(1), 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mizouchi, H.

K. Nasu, H. Ping, and H. Mizouchi, “Photoinduced structural phase transitions and their dynamics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(35), 201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S. J.

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 035005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, C. H.

Nagashima, K.

Nasu, K.

K. Nasu, H. Ping, and H. Mizouchi, “Photoinduced structural phase transitions and their dynamics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(35), 201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nilsen, J.

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 035005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishikino, M.

Ochi, Y.

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, T. Ohba, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, T. Kaihori, K. Nagashima, and A. Sugiyama, “Demonstration of submicro Joule, spatially coherent soft-X-ray laser pumped by 0.1 Hertz, 10 Joule, picosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 120212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ohba, T.

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, T. Ohba, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, T. Kaihori, K. Nagashima, and A. Sugiyama, “Demonstration of submicro Joule, spatially coherent soft-X-ray laser pumped by 0.1 Hertz, 10 Joule, picosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 120212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Oparin, A.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(1), 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pedaci, F.

Y. Wang, E. Granados, F. Pedaci, D. Alessi, B. Luther, M. Berrill, and J. J. Rocca, “Phase-coherent, injection-seeded table-top soft-X-ray lasers at 18.9 nm and 13.9 nm,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 94–98 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ping, H.

K. Nasu, H. Ping, and H. Mizouchi, “Photoinduced structural phase transitions and their dynamics,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 13(35), 201 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ráksi, F.

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond Structural Dynamics in VO2 during an Ultrafast Solid-Solid Phase Transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rekawa, S.

Rethfeld, B.

B. Rethfeld and K. Sokolowski-Tinten, “von D. der Linde, and S. I. Anisimov, “Timescales in the response of materials to femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79, 767–769 (2004).

Rksi, F.

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Rksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast X-ray diffraction,” Nature 398(6725), 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, J. J.

Y. Wang, E. Granados, F. Pedaci, D. Alessi, B. Luther, M. Berrill, and J. J. Rocca, “Phase-coherent, injection-seeded table-top soft-X-ray lasers at 18.9 nm and 13.9 nm,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 94–98 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 035005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Rocca, C. H. Moreno, M. C. Marconi, and K. Kanizay, “Soft-x-ray laser interferometry of a plasma with a tabletop laser and a Lloyd’s mirror,” Opt. Lett. 24(6), 420–422 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rose-Petruck, C.

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Rksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast X-ray diffraction,” Nature 398(6725), 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Scofield, J. H.

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 035005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seibert, M. M.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Setuhara, Y.

Y. Izawa, Y. Setuhara, M. Hashida, M. Fujita, and Y. Izawa, “Ablation and amorphization of crystalline Si by femtosecond and picosecond laser irradiation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 45(7), 5791–5794 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shlyaptsev, V. N.

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 035005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siders, C. W.

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond Structural Dynamics in VO2 during an Ultrafast Solid-Solid Phase Transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Rksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast X-ray diffraction,” Nature 398(6725), 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. F.

J. Filevich, J. J. Rocca, M. C. Marconi, S. J. Moon, J. Nilsen, J. H. Scofield, J. Dunn, R. F. Smith, R. Keenan, J. R. Hunter, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Observation of a multiply ionized plasma with index of refraction greater than one,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(3), 035005 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, “Ultrafast imaging interferometry at femtosecond laser-excited surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(9), 1954–1964 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond time-resolved interferometric microscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(4), 483–489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Rethfeld and K. Sokolowski-Tinten, “von D. der Linde, and S. I. Anisimov, “Timescales in the response of materials to femtosecond laser excitation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79, 767–769 (2004).

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Blome, J. Blums, A. Cavalleri, C. Dietrich, A. Tarasevitch, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, M. Kammler, M. Horn-von-Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond X-ray measurement of coherent lattice vibrations near the Lindemann stability limit,” Nature 422(6929), 287–289 (2003).
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D. von der Linde and K. Sokolowski-Tinten, “The physical mechanisms of short-pulse laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154–155(1-4), 1–10 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, J. Bialkowski, A. Cavalleri, D. von der Linde, A. Oparin, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and S. I. Anisimov, “Transient states of matter during short pulse laser ablation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(1), 224–227 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J. A.

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond Structural Dynamics in VO2 during an Ultrafast Solid-Solid Phase Transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Rksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast X-ray diffraction,” Nature 398(6725), 310–312 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stampfli, P.

P. Stampfli and K. Bennemann, “Time dependence of the laser-induced femtosecond lattice instability of Si and GaAs: Role of longitudinal optical distortions,” Phys. Rev. B 49(11), 7299–7305 (1994).
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Stojanovic, N.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, A.

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, T. Ohba, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, T. Kaihori, K. Nagashima, and A. Sugiyama, “Demonstration of submicro Joule, spatially coherent soft-X-ray laser pumped by 0.1 Hertz, 10 Joule, picosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 120212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sukegawa, K.

Sundaram, S. K.

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Mater. 1(4), 217–224 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

Y. Ochi, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Nishikino, T. Ohba, M. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, T. Kaihori, K. Nagashima, and A. Sugiyama, “Demonstration of submicro Joule, spatially coherent soft-X-ray laser pumped by 0.1 Hertz, 10 Joule, picosecond laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 48(12), 120212 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Tanaka, M. Nishikino, T. Kawachi, N. Hasegawa, M. Kado, M. Kishimoto, K. Nagashima, and Y. Kato, “X-ray laser beam with diffraction-limited divergence generated with two gain media,” Opt. Lett. 28(18), 1680–1682 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tarasevitch, A.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Blome, J. Blums, A. Cavalleri, C. Dietrich, A. Tarasevitch, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, M. Kammler, M. Horn-von-Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond X-ray measurement of coherent lattice vibrations near the Lindemann stability limit,” Nature 422(6929), 287–289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Temnov, V. V.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, “Ultrafast imaging interferometry at femtosecond laser-excited surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(9), 1954–1964 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond time-resolved interferometric microscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(4), 483–489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tobey, R.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tóth, C.

A. Cavalleri, C. Tóth, C. W. Siders, J. A. Squier, F. Ráksi, P. Forget, and J. C. Kieffer, “Femtosecond Structural Dynamics in VO2 during an Ultrafast Solid-Solid Phase Transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 237401 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treusch, R.

A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Uschmann, I.

K. Sokolowski-Tinten, C. Blome, J. Blums, A. Cavalleri, C. Dietrich, A. Tarasevitch, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, M. Kammler, M. Horn-von-Hoegen, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond X-ray measurement of coherent lattice vibrations near the Lindemann stability limit,” Nature 422(6929), 287–289 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von der Linde, D.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, “Ultrafast imaging interferometry at femtosecond laser-excited surfaces,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23(9), 1954–1964 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, and D. von der Linde, “Femtosecond time-resolved interferometric microscopy,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 78(4), 483–489 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Rksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast X-ray diffraction,” Nature 398(6725), 310–312 (1999).
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P. Baum, D.-S. Yang, and A. H. Zewail, “4D visualization of transitional structures in phase transformations by electron diffraction,” Science 318(5851), 788–792 (2007).
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Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

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D. von der Linde and K. Sokolowski-Tinten, “The physical mechanisms of short-pulse laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 154–155(1-4), 1–10 (2000).
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A. Barty, S. Boutet, M. J. Bogan, S. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, N. Stojanovic, R. Tobey, H. Ehrke, A. Cavalleri, S. Düsterer, M. Frank, S. Bajt, B. W. Woods, M. M. Seibert, J. Hajdu, R. Treusch, and H. N. Chapman, “Ultrafast single-shot diffraction imaging of nanoscale dynamics,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 415–419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, E. Granados, F. Pedaci, D. Alessi, B. Luther, M. Berrill, and J. J. Rocca, “Phase-coherent, injection-seeded table-top soft-X-ray lasers at 18.9 nm and 13.9 nm,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 94–98 (2008).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rose-Petruck, R. Jimenez, T. Guo, A. Cavalleri, C. W. Siders, F. Rksi, J. A. Squier, B. C. Walker, K. R. Wilson, and C. P. J. Barty, “Picosecond-milliangstrom lattice dynamics measured by ultrafast X-ray diffraction,” Nature 398(6725), 310–312 (1999).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the soft X-ray laser (SXRL) interferometer. (b) Principle of interferometry based on the double Lloyd's mirror system. δ is the angle between Lloyd's mirrors 1 and 2. (c) Details of the optical arrangement on the sample. Here, θ is the grazing incidence angle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM image of the test patterns with a depth of 6 nm and various line widths. Shown are 8- and 6-μm single lines and pairs of 4-, 2-, 1.5-, 1- and 0.5-μm lines from the left. (b) Single-shot interferogram of the test pattern. (c) Retrieved landscape. (d) Cross section of the test pattern along the dotted white line in (a) measured by AFM. (e) Cross section of the retrieved landscape shown in (c) along the dotted white line. The blue arrow on the right side of (b) shows the direction of the incident soft X-ray.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Interferograms of the Pt films on fused silica plate. (a) before irradiation, (b) at t = t0 + 50 ps, (c) after irradiation. (d) Microscope images (field size 150 μm×150 μm) of the sample surface after ablation corresponding to Figs. (b) and (c). (e)-(h): Time-resolved interferograms. The same image is shown in (b) and (g) for a convenient comparison. The red closed curves represent the ablation areas observed by an optical microscope. Pumping energies are 112.4, 112.8, 130 and 240 μJ for (e), (f), (g) and (h), respectively. The blue arrow shows the direction of the incident soft X-ray (common to all figures).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Single-shot interferograms and retrieved landscapes for t = t0 + 50 ps (a, b) and t = (d, e). The interferogram at t = is an average of the images taken with three soft X-ray pulses for the same spot after ablation. The red enclosure in 4a, as well as the gray silhouettes in 4b and 4e, show the ablated areas observed by an optical microscope after irradiation. The green curves in 4a are the calculated fringe patterns based on the Gaussian dome (c) for t = t0 + 50 ps. The colored contours in 4d represent the simulated fringes based on the Dektak image (f) for t = . The cross sections along the white dotted lines in (b) and (e) are shown in Fig. 5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The cross-sections of the landscapes along the dotted white line connecting A,B, C and D in Figs. 4(b) and 4(e) are shown. The origin of the abscissa is defined at point A. The vertical dotted lines B and C correspond to the boundary of the preablation and ablation areas, respectively.

Equations (2)

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X = L λ 2 a     sin δ ,
Δ X X = 2 h λ sin θ ,

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