Abstract

Three primary color (red, green and blue) filters consisting of subwavelength triangular-lattice hole arrays in an aluminum film on glass were simulated and fabricated. A silicon dioxide cap layer, deposited on the patterned aluminum film, was found to almost double the transmission efficiency for all the filters. The measured peak transmittance for each color filter was above 30%, exhibiting a wavelength spectrum with a full-width at half-maximum of approximately 100 nm. Simulation results of various structures with different cap layers revealed the enhanced coupling between surface plasmon resonances at both sides of the metal film in a symmetrical configuration. It was found that gratings with as few as three periods were sufficient to demonstrate filtering. The effect of metal thickness and hole size was investigated in detail.

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References

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2010

S. Collin, G. Vincent, R. Haïdar, N. Bardou, S. Rommeluère, and J. L. Pelouard, “Nearly perfect Fano transmission resonances through nanoslits drilled in a metallic membrane,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(2), 027401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

2006

Y. Cho, Y. K. Choi, and S. H. Sohn, “Optical properties of neodymium-containing polymethylmethacrylate films for the organic light emitting diode color filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kanamori, M. Shimono, and K. Hane, “Fabrication of transmission color filters using silicon subwavelength gratings on quartz substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2126–2128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990

Bardou, N.

S. Collin, G. Vincent, R. Haïdar, N. Bardou, S. Rommeluère, and J. L. Pelouard, “Nearly perfect Fano transmission resonances through nanoslits drilled in a metallic membrane,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(2), 027401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, Y.

Y. Cho, Y. K. Choi, and S. H. Sohn, “Optical properties of neodymium-containing polymethylmethacrylate films for the organic light emitting diode color filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. K.

Y. Cho, Y. K. Choi, and S. H. Sohn, “Optical properties of neodymium-containing polymethylmethacrylate films for the organic light emitting diode color filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Collin, S.

S. Collin, G. Vincent, R. Haïdar, N. Bardou, S. Rommeluère, and J. L. Pelouard, “Nearly perfect Fano transmission resonances through nanoslits drilled in a metallic membrane,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(2), 027401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doroski, D.

Ebbesen, T. W.

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Genet, C.

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghaemi, H. F.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grupp, D. E.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haïdar, R.

S. Collin, G. Vincent, R. Haïdar, N. Bardou, S. Rommeluère, and J. L. Pelouard, “Nearly perfect Fano transmission resonances through nanoslits drilled in a metallic membrane,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(2), 027401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hane, K.

Y. Kanamori, M. Shimono, and K. Hane, “Fabrication of transmission color filters using silicon subwavelength gratings on quartz substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2126–2128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Horsley, D. A.

Johnson, K. M.

Kanamori, Y.

Y. Kanamori, M. Shimono, and K. Hane, “Fabrication of transmission color filters using silicon subwavelength gratings on quartz substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2126–2128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

Laux, E.

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.-S.

Lee, K.-D.

Lee, S.-S.

Lezec, H. J.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pelouard, J. L.

S. Collin, G. Vincent, R. Haïdar, N. Bardou, S. Rommeluère, and J. L. Pelouard, “Nearly perfect Fano transmission resonances through nanoslits drilled in a metallic membrane,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(2), 027401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rommeluère, S.

S. Collin, G. Vincent, R. Haïdar, N. Bardou, S. Rommeluère, and J. L. Pelouard, “Nearly perfect Fano transmission resonances through nanoslits drilled in a metallic membrane,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(2), 027401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, G. D.

Shimono, M.

Y. Kanamori, M. Shimono, and K. Hane, “Fabrication of transmission color filters using silicon subwavelength gratings on quartz substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2126–2128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Skauli, T.

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, J. L.

Sohn, S. H.

Y. Cho, Y. K. Choi, and S. H. Sohn, “Optical properties of neodymium-containing polymethylmethacrylate films for the organic light emitting diode color filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Talin, A. A.

Thio, T.

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, G.

S. Collin, G. Vincent, R. Haïdar, N. Bardou, S. Rommeluère, and J. L. Pelouard, “Nearly perfect Fano transmission resonances through nanoslits drilled in a metallic membrane,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(2), 027401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, Y.-T.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. Cho, Y. K. Choi, and S. H. Sohn, “Optical properties of neodymium-containing polymethylmethacrylate films for the organic light emitting diode color filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 051102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

Y. Kanamori, M. Shimono, and K. Hane, “Fabrication of transmission color filters using silicon subwavelength gratings on quartz substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(20), 2126–2128 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

E. Laux, C. Genet, T. Skauli, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Plasmonic photon sorters for spectral and polarimetric imaging,” Nat. Photonics 2(3), 161–164 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Genet and T. W. Ebbesen, “Light in tiny holes,” Nature 445(7123), 39–46 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

H. F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, D. E. Grupp, T. W. Ebbesen, and H. J. Lezec, “Surface plasmons enhance optical transmission through subwavelength holes,” Phys. Rev. B 58(11), 6779–6782 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Collin, G. Vincent, R. Haïdar, N. Bardou, S. Rommeluère, and J. L. Pelouard, “Nearly perfect Fano transmission resonances through nanoslits drilled in a metallic membrane,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(2), 027401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

Lumerical FDTD Solution, http://www.lumerical.com/

P. Catrysse, B. Wandell, and A. E. Gamal, “An integrated color pixel in 0.18 μm CMOS technology,” in 2001 International Electron Devices Meeting-Technical Digest (IEEE, 2001), pp. 559–562.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A SEM image of etched holes in a triangular array with a = 430 nm in an Al film on glass. The inset is a SEM image for a sample tilted at 30°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a)-(c) Measured transmission spectra of three primary color filters. (a) a red filter hole array with a = 430 nm, hole diameter d = 230 nm (b) a green filter hole array with a = 330 nm, d = 180 nm, (c) a blue filter hole array with a = 250 nm, d = 140 nm. Devices were measured with no SiO2 cap layer, with a 100 nm SiO2 cap layer and with a 200 nm SiO2 cap layer. The transmitted light image for a square patch consisting of each hole array with a 200 nm SiO2 cap layer is shown in the inset of each graph. (d) A SEM image of holes composing the letter ‘G’ with a = 330 nm. The transmitted light image of the structure with a 200 nm SiO2 cap layer is shown in the inset.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the simulation model. No SiO2 cap layer is shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation results of four types of patterned aluminum hole arrays: (a) without a SiO2 cap layer, (b) with a 100 nm SiO2 cap layer, (c) with a 200 nm SiO2 cap layer, (d) a free-standing configuration with the Al film in air. The first column is the simulated transmission spectrum, where the two main transmission peaks are marked as λS and λL. The second column is the corresponding structure schematic in the xz plane, where the red region is SiO2, the blue region is Al and the green region is air. The third and fourth columns are the electric field intensity distributions in the xz plane at λS and λL, respectively. In the intensity images, the intensity increases from the blue region to the red region.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a)-(c) Simulated spectra of the structures in Fig. 2. (a) red filter, a = 430 nm, hole diameter d = 230 nm, (b) green filter, a = 330 nm, d = 180 nm, and (c) blue filter, a = 250 nm, d = 140 nm. (d) comparison of experimental and simulated transmission peak positions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Measured transmission spectra for hole arrays with a = 330 nm with different hole diameters d (from 155 nm to 195 nm). (b) Simulated transmission spectra of hole arrays with a = 330 nm and d = 180 nm with different metal thicknesses.

Equations (2)

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For a square array λ max = a i 2 + j 2 ε m ε d ε m + ε d ,
For a triangular array λ max = a 4 3 ( i 2 + i j + j 2 ) ε m ε d ε m + ε d ,

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