Abstract

We demonstrate strong coupling of single photons emitted by individual molecules at cryogenic and ambient conditions to individual nanoparticles. We provide images obtained both in transmission and reflection, where an efficiency greater than 55% was achieved in converting incident narrow-band photons to plasmon-polaritons (plasmons) of a silver nanoparticle. Our work paves the way to spectroscopy and microscopy of nano-objects with sub-shot noise beams of light and to triggered generation of single plasmons and electrons in a well-controlled manner.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence,” Nat. Phys. 4, 60–66 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4, 924 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. R. W. Heeres, S. N. Dorenbos, B. Koene, G. S. Solomon, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and V. Zwiller, “On-chip single plasmon detection,” Nano Lett. 10, 661–664 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. S. Tame, C. Lee, J. Lee, D. Ballester, M. Paternostro, A. Zayats, and M. S. Kim, “Single-photon excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190504 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Lettow, V. Ahtee, R. Pfab, A. Renn, E. Ikonen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Realization of two Fourier limited solid-state single-photon sources,” Opt. Express 15, 15842–15847 (2007).
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  22. L. M. Davis, “Interference between resolvable wavelengths with single-photon resolved detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1258–1261 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. V. Ahtee, R. Lettow, R. Pfab, A. Renn, E. Ikonen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Molecules as sources for indistinguishable single photons,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 161–166 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Wrigge, J. Hwang, I. Gerhardt, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Exploring the limits of single emitter detection in fluorescence and extinction,” Opt. Express 16, 17358–17365 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. K. Koyama, M. Yoshita, M. Baba, T. Suemoto, and H. Akiyama, “High collection efficiency in fluorescence microscopy with a solid immersion lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1667–1669 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490–495 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. B. Lounis, and W. E. Moerner, “Single photons on demand from a single molecule at room temperature,” Nature 407, 491–493 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. This value is larger than that expected from a simple estimate of the diffraction limit because of 1) the inherently larger FWHM that is obtained in transmission measurements and 2) the lower effective numerical aperture due a smaller beam diameter in this experiment.
  29. M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoparticle-mediated coupling of light into a nanowire,” Nano Lett. 8, 2346–2350 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  30. A. L. Falk, F. H. L. Koppens, C. Yu, K. Kang, N. P. de Leon Snapp, A. V. Akimov, M.-H. Jo, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Near field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5, 475–479 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  31. P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Imaging a single quantum dot when it is dark,” Nano Lett. 9, 926–929 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2010 (1)

R. W. Heeres, S. N. Dorenbos, B. Koene, G. S. Solomon, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and V. Zwiller, “On-chip single plasmon detection,” Nano Lett. 10, 661–664 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

N. Mojarad, G. Zumofen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Metal nanoparticles in strongly confined beams: transmission, reflection and absorption,” J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 4, 09014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Ahtee, R. Lettow, R. Pfab, A. Renn, E. Ikonen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Molecules as sources for indistinguishable single photons,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 161–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Falk, F. H. L. Koppens, C. Yu, K. Kang, N. P. de Leon Snapp, A. V. Akimov, M.-H. Jo, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Near field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5, 475–479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Imaging a single quantum dot when it is dark,” Nano Lett. 9, 926–929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (5)

G. Wrigge, J. Hwang, I. Gerhardt, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Exploring the limits of single emitter detection in fluorescence and extinction,” Opt. Express 16, 17358–17365 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence,” Nat. Phys. 4, 60–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4, 924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Tame, C. Lee, J. Lee, D. Ballester, M. Paternostro, A. Zayats, and M. S. Kim, “Single-photon excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zumofen, N. M. Mojarad, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Perfect reflection of light by an oscillating dipole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 180404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoglu, and M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7, 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lettow, V. Ahtee, R. Pfab, A. Renn, E. Ikonen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Realization of two Fourier limited solid-state single-photon sources,” Opt. Express 15, 15842–15847 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoparticle-mediated coupling of light into a nanowire,” Nano Lett. 8, 2346–2350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 1129–1179 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, and V. Sandoghdar, “Detection and spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles using supercontinuum white light confocal microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490–495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

N. Treps, U. Andersen, B. Buchler, P. K. Lam, A. Matre, H.-A. Bachor, and C. Fabre, “Surpassing the standard quantum limit for optical imaging using nonclassical multimode light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lugiato, A. Gatti, and E. Brambilla, “Quantum imaging,” J. Opt. B 4, S176–S183 (2002).

2001 (1)

J. Eschner, C. Raab, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, “Light interference from single atoms and their mirror images,” Nature 413, 495–498 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

B. Lounis, and W. E. Moerner, “Single photons on demand from a single molecule at room temperature,” Nature 407, 491–493 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

K. Koyama, M. Yoshita, M. Baba, T. Suemoto, and H. Akiyama, “High collection efficiency in fluorescence microscopy with a solid immersion lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1667–1669 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Kolobov, “The spatial behavior of nonclassical light,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1539–1589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

L. M. Davis, “Interference between resolvable wavelengths with single-photon resolved detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1258–1261 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

1959 (1)

B. Richards, and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 235, 358–379 (1959).

1909 (1)

G. I. Taylor, Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc. 15, 114 (1909).

Agio, M.

N. Mojarad, G. Zumofen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Metal nanoparticles in strongly confined beams: transmission, reflection and absorption,” J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 4, 09014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Zumofen, N. M. Mojarad, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Perfect reflection of light by an oscillating dipole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 180404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahtee, V.

V. Ahtee, R. Lettow, R. Pfab, A. Renn, E. Ikonen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Molecules as sources for indistinguishable single photons,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 161–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lettow, V. Ahtee, R. Pfab, A. Renn, E. Ikonen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Realization of two Fourier limited solid-state single-photon sources,” Opt. Express 15, 15842–15847 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akimov, A. V.

A. L. Falk, F. H. L. Koppens, C. Yu, K. Kang, N. P. de Leon Snapp, A. V. Akimov, M.-H. Jo, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Near field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5, 475–479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akiyama, H.

K. Koyama, M. Yoshita, M. Baba, T. Suemoto, and H. Akiyama, “High collection efficiency in fluorescence microscopy with a solid immersion lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1667–1669 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aljunid, S. A.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4, 924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, U.

N. Treps, U. Andersen, B. Buchler, P. K. Lam, A. Matre, H.-A. Bachor, and C. Fabre, “Surpassing the standard quantum limit for optical imaging using nonclassical multimode light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atatüre, M.

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoglu, and M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7, 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, M.

K. Koyama, M. Yoshita, M. Baba, T. Suemoto, and H. Akiyama, “High collection efficiency in fluorescence microscopy with a solid immersion lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1667–1669 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bachor, H.-A.

N. Treps, U. Andersen, B. Buchler, P. K. Lam, A. Matre, H.-A. Bachor, and C. Fabre, “Surpassing the standard quantum limit for optical imaging using nonclassical multimode light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badolato, A.

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoglu, and M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7, 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballester, D.

M. S. Tame, C. Lee, J. Lee, D. Ballester, M. Paternostro, A. Zayats, and M. S. Kim, “Single-photon excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardhan, R.

M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoparticle-mediated coupling of light into a nanowire,” Nano Lett. 8, 2346–2350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Blatt, R.

J. Eschner, C. Raab, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, “Light interference from single atoms and their mirror images,” Nature 413, 495–498 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brambilla, E.

L. Lugiato, A. Gatti, and E. Brambilla, “Quantum imaging,” J. Opt. B 4, S176–S183 (2002).

Buchler, B.

N. Treps, U. Andersen, B. Buchler, P. K. Lam, A. Matre, H.-A. Bachor, and C. Fabre, “Surpassing the standard quantum limit for optical imaging using nonclassical multimode light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Celebrano, M.

P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Imaging a single quantum dot when it is dark,” Nano Lett. 9, 926–929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, D. E.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4, 924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chng, B.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4, 924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Davis, L. M.

L. M. Davis, “Interference between resolvable wavelengths with single-photon resolved detection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1258–1261 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Leon Snapp, N. P.

A. L. Falk, F. H. L. Koppens, C. Yu, K. Kang, N. P. de Leon Snapp, A. V. Akimov, M.-H. Jo, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Near field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5, 475–479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dorenbos, S. N.

R. W. Heeres, S. N. Dorenbos, B. Koene, G. S. Solomon, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and V. Zwiller, “On-chip single plasmon detection,” Nano Lett. 10, 661–664 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dreiser, J.

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoglu, and M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7, 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eschner, J.

J. Eschner, C. Raab, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, “Light interference from single atoms and their mirror images,” Nature 413, 495–498 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabre, C.

N. Treps, U. Andersen, B. Buchler, P. K. Lam, A. Matre, H.-A. Bachor, and C. Fabre, “Surpassing the standard quantum limit for optical imaging using nonclassical multimode light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falk, A. L.

A. L. Falk, F. H. L. Koppens, C. Yu, K. Kang, N. P. de Leon Snapp, A. V. Akimov, M.-H. Jo, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Near field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5, 475–479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gatti, A.

L. Lugiato, A. Gatti, and E. Brambilla, “Quantum imaging,” J. Opt. B 4, S176–S183 (2002).

Gerhardt, I.

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence,” Nat. Phys. 4, 60–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Wrigge, J. Hwang, I. Gerhardt, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Exploring the limits of single emitter detection in fluorescence and extinction,” Opt. Express 16, 17358–17365 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490–495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Goldberg, B. B.

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoglu, and M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7, 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Götzinger, S.

V. Ahtee, R. Lettow, R. Pfab, A. Renn, E. Ikonen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Molecules as sources for indistinguishable single photons,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 161–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lettow, V. Ahtee, R. Pfab, A. Renn, E. Ikonen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Realization of two Fourier limited solid-state single-photon sources,” Opt. Express 15, 15842–15847 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grady, N. K.

M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoparticle-mediated coupling of light into a nanowire,” Nano Lett. 8, 2346–2350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Halas, N. J.

M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoparticle-mediated coupling of light into a nanowire,” Nano Lett. 8, 2346–2350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hao, F.

M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoparticle-mediated coupling of light into a nanowire,” Nano Lett. 8, 2346–2350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heeres, R. W.

R. W. Heeres, S. N. Dorenbos, B. Koene, G. S. Solomon, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and V. Zwiller, “On-chip single plasmon detection,” Nano Lett. 10, 661–664 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemmer, P. R.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hettich, C.

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490–495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huber, F.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4, 924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, J.

G. Wrigge, J. Hwang, I. Gerhardt, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Exploring the limits of single emitter detection in fluorescence and extinction,” Opt. Express 16, 17358–17365 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence,” Nat. Phys. 4, 60–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ikonen, E.

V. Ahtee, R. Lettow, R. Pfab, A. Renn, E. Ikonen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Molecules as sources for indistinguishable single photons,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 161–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lettow, V. Ahtee, R. Pfab, A. Renn, E. Ikonen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Realization of two Fourier limited solid-state single-photon sources,” Opt. Express 15, 15842–15847 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamoglu, A.

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoglu, and M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7, 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jo, M.-H.

A. L. Falk, F. H. L. Koppens, C. Yu, K. Kang, N. P. de Leon Snapp, A. V. Akimov, M.-H. Jo, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Near field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5, 475–479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kalkbrenner, T.

K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, and V. Sandoghdar, “Detection and spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles using supercontinuum white light confocal microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, K.

A. L. Falk, F. H. L. Koppens, C. Yu, K. Kang, N. P. de Leon Snapp, A. V. Akimov, M.-H. Jo, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Near field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5, 475–479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. S.

M. S. Tame, C. Lee, J. Lee, D. Ballester, M. Paternostro, A. Zayats, and M. S. Kim, “Single-photon excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klimov, V. I.

Knight, M. W.

M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoparticle-mediated coupling of light into a nanowire,” Nano Lett. 8, 2346–2350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koene, B.

R. W. Heeres, S. N. Dorenbos, B. Koene, G. S. Solomon, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and V. Zwiller, “On-chip single plasmon detection,” Nano Lett. 10, 661–664 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kolobov, M. I.

M. I. Kolobov, “The spatial behavior of nonclassical light,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 71, 1539–1589 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Koppens, F. H. L.

A. L. Falk, F. H. L. Koppens, C. Yu, K. Kang, N. P. de Leon Snapp, A. V. Akimov, M.-H. Jo, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Near field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5, 475–479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kouwenhoven, L. P.

R. W. Heeres, S. N. Dorenbos, B. Koene, G. S. Solomon, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and V. Zwiller, “On-chip single plasmon detection,” Nano Lett. 10, 661–664 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koyama, K.

K. Koyama, M. Yoshita, M. Baba, T. Suemoto, and H. Akiyama, “High collection efficiency in fluorescence microscopy with a solid immersion lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1667–1669 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kukura, P.

P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Imaging a single quantum dot when it is dark,” Nano Lett. 9, 926–929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kurtsiefer, C.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4, 924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lam, P. K.

N. Treps, U. Andersen, B. Buchler, P. K. Lam, A. Matre, H.-A. Bachor, and C. Fabre, “Surpassing the standard quantum limit for optical imaging using nonclassical multimode light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C.

M. S. Tame, C. Lee, J. Lee, D. Ballester, M. Paternostro, A. Zayats, and M. S. Kim, “Single-photon excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J.

M. S. Tame, C. Lee, J. Lee, D. Ballester, M. Paternostro, A. Zayats, and M. S. Kim, “Single-photon excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lettow, R.

V. Ahtee, R. Lettow, R. Pfab, A. Renn, E. Ikonen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Molecules as sources for indistinguishable single photons,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 161–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lettow, V. Ahtee, R. Pfab, A. Renn, E. Ikonen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Realization of two Fourier limited solid-state single-photon sources,” Opt. Express 15, 15842–15847 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindfors, K.

K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, and V. Sandoghdar, “Detection and spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles using supercontinuum white light confocal microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lounis, B.

B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 1129–1179 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Lounis, and W. E. Moerner, “Single photons on demand from a single molecule at room temperature,” Nature 407, 491–493 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lugiato, L.

L. Lugiato, A. Gatti, and E. Brambilla, “Quantum imaging,” J. Opt. B 4, S176–S183 (2002).

Lukin, M. D.

A. L. Falk, F. H. L. Koppens, C. Yu, K. Kang, N. P. de Leon Snapp, A. V. Akimov, M.-H. Jo, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Near field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5, 475–479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maslennikov, G.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4, 924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matre, A.

N. Treps, U. Andersen, B. Buchler, P. K. Lam, A. Matre, H.-A. Bachor, and C. Fabre, “Surpassing the standard quantum limit for optical imaging using nonclassical multimode light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meier, M.

Mikhailovsky, A. A.

Moerner, W. E.

B. Lounis, and W. E. Moerner, “Single photons on demand from a single molecule at room temperature,” Nature 407, 491–493 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mojarad, N.

N. Mojarad, G. Zumofen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Metal nanoparticles in strongly confined beams: transmission, reflection and absorption,” J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 4, 09014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mojarad, N. M.

G. Zumofen, N. M. Mojarad, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Perfect reflection of light by an oscillating dipole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 180404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mukherjee, A.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

M. W. Knight, N. K. Grady, R. Bardhan, F. Hao, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Nanoparticle-mediated coupling of light into a nanowire,” Nano Lett. 8, 2346–2350 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Orrit, M.

B. Lounis, and M. Orrit, “Single-photon sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 68, 1129–1179 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, H.

A. L. Falk, F. H. L. Koppens, C. Yu, K. Kang, N. P. de Leon Snapp, A. V. Akimov, M.-H. Jo, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Near field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5, 475–479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paternostro, M.

M. S. Tame, C. Lee, J. Lee, D. Ballester, M. Paternostro, A. Zayats, and M. S. Kim, “Single-photon excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petruska, M. A.

Pfab, R.

V. Ahtee, R. Lettow, R. Pfab, A. Renn, E. Ikonen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Molecules as sources for indistinguishable single photons,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 161–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lettow, V. Ahtee, R. Pfab, A. Renn, E. Ikonen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Realization of two Fourier limited solid-state single-photon sources,” Opt. Express 15, 15842–15847 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfab, R. J.

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490–495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raab, C.

J. Eschner, C. Raab, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, “Light interference from single atoms and their mirror images,” Nature 413, 495–498 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renn, A.

P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Imaging a single quantum dot when it is dark,” Nano Lett. 9, 926–929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Ahtee, R. Lettow, R. Pfab, A. Renn, E. Ikonen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Molecules as sources for indistinguishable single photons,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 161–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Lettow, V. Ahtee, R. Pfab, A. Renn, E. Ikonen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Realization of two Fourier limited solid-state single-photon sources,” Opt. Express 15, 15842–15847 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490–495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richards, B.

B. Richards, and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 235, 358–379 (1959).

Sandoghdar, V.

V. Ahtee, R. Lettow, R. Pfab, A. Renn, E. Ikonen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Molecules as sources for indistinguishable single photons,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 161–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Kukura, M. Celebrano, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Imaging a single quantum dot when it is dark,” Nano Lett. 9, 926–929 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Mojarad, G. Zumofen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Metal nanoparticles in strongly confined beams: transmission, reflection and absorption,” J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 4, 09014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence,” Nat. Phys. 4, 60–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Wrigge, J. Hwang, I. Gerhardt, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Exploring the limits of single emitter detection in fluorescence and extinction,” Opt. Express 16, 17358–17365 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zumofen, N. M. Mojarad, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Perfect reflection of light by an oscillating dipole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 180404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lettow, V. Ahtee, R. Pfab, A. Renn, E. Ikonen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Realization of two Fourier limited solid-state single-photon sources,” Opt. Express 15, 15842–15847 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490–495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, and V. Sandoghdar, “Detection and spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles using supercontinuum white light confocal microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmidt-Kaler, F.

J. Eschner, C. Raab, F. Schmidt-Kaler, and R. Blatt, “Light interference from single atoms and their mirror images,” Nature 413, 495–498 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solomon, G. S.

R. W. Heeres, S. N. Dorenbos, B. Koene, G. S. Solomon, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and V. Zwiller, “On-chip single plasmon detection,” Nano Lett. 10, 661–664 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

Stoller, P.

K. Lindfors, T. Kalkbrenner, P. Stoller, and V. Sandoghdar, “Detection and spectroscopy of gold nanoparticles using supercontinuum white light confocal microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 037401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suemoto, T.

K. Koyama, M. Yoshita, M. Baba, T. Suemoto, and H. Akiyama, “High collection efficiency in fluorescence microscopy with a solid immersion lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1667–1669 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swan, A. K.

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoglu, and M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7, 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tame, M. S.

M. S. Tame, C. Lee, J. Lee, D. Ballester, M. Paternostro, A. Zayats, and M. S. Kim, “Single-photon excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, G. I.

G. I. Taylor, Proc. Camb. Philos. Soc. 15, 114 (1909).

Tey, M. K.

M. K. Tey, Z. Chen, S. A. Aljunid, B. Chng, F. Huber, G. Maslennikov, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Strong interaction between light and a single trapped atom without a cavity,” Nat. Phys. 4, 924 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Treps, N.

N. Treps, U. Andersen, B. Buchler, P. K. Lam, A. Matre, H.-A. Bachor, and C. Fabre, “Surpassing the standard quantum limit for optical imaging using nonclassical multimode light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 203601 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ünlü, M. S.

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoglu, and M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7, 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vamivakas, A. N.

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoglu, and M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7, 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wokaun, A.

Wolf, E.

B. Richards, and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanatic system,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 235, 358–379 (1959).

Wrigge, G.

G. Wrigge, J. Hwang, I. Gerhardt, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Exploring the limits of single emitter detection in fluorescence and extinction,” Opt. Express 16, 17358–17365 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence,” Nat. Phys. 4, 60–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yilmaz, S. T.

A. N. Vamivakas, M. Atatüre, J. Dreiser, S. T. Yilmaz, A. Badolato, A. K. Swan, B. B. Goldberg, A. Imamoglu, and M. S. Ünlü, “Strong extinction of a far-field laser beam by a single quantum dot,” Nano Lett. 7, 2892–2896 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshita, M.

K. Koyama, M. Yoshita, M. Baba, T. Suemoto, and H. Akiyama, “High collection efficiency in fluorescence microscopy with a solid immersion lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1667–1669 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.

A. L. Falk, F. H. L. Koppens, C. Yu, K. Kang, N. P. de Leon Snapp, A. V. Akimov, M.-H. Jo, M. D. Lukin, and H. Park, “Near field electrical detection of optical plasmons and single plasmon sources,” Nat. Phys. 5, 475–479 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. L.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zayats, A.

M. S. Tame, C. Lee, J. Lee, D. Ballester, M. Paternostro, A. Zayats, and M. S. Kim, “Single-photon excitation of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 190504 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zibrov, A. S.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature 450, 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmermann, J.

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490–495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zumofen, G.

N. Mojarad, G. Zumofen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Metal nanoparticles in strongly confined beams: transmission, reflection and absorption,” J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 4, 09014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Wrigge, I. Gerhardt, J. Hwang, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Efficient coupling of photons to a single molecule and the observation of its resonance fluorescence,” Nat. Phys. 4, 60–66 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Wrigge, J. Hwang, I. Gerhardt, G. Zumofen, and V. Sandoghdar, “Exploring the limits of single emitter detection in fluorescence and extinction,” Opt. Express 16, 17358–17365 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zumofen, N. M. Mojarad, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Perfect reflection of light by an oscillating dipole,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 180404 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zwiller, V.

R. W. Heeres, S. N. Dorenbos, B. Koene, G. S. Solomon, L. P. Kouwenhoven, and V. Zwiller, “On-chip single plasmon detection,” Nano Lett. 10, 661–664 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Koyama, M. Yoshita, M. Baba, T. Suemoto, and H. Akiyama, “High collection efficiency in fluorescence microscopy with a solid immersion lens,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 1667–1669 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. J. Pfab, J. Zimmermann, C. Hettich, I. Gerhardt, A. Renn, and V. Sandoghdar, “Aligned terrylene molecules in a spin-coated ultrathin crystalline film of p-terphenyl,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 387, 490–495 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Euro. Opt. Soc. (1)

N. Mojarad, G. Zumofen, V. Sandoghdar, and M. Agio, “Metal nanoparticles in strongly confined beams: transmission, reflection and absorption,” J. Euro. Opt. Soc. 4, 09014 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

V. Ahtee, R. Lettow, R. Pfab, A. Renn, E. Ikonen, S. Götzinger, and V. Sandoghdar, “Molecules as sources for indistinguishable single photons,” J. Mod. Opt. 56, 161–166 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B (1)

L. Lugiato, A. Gatti, and E. Brambilla, “Quantum imaging,” J. Opt. B 4, S176–S183 (2002).

Nano Lett. (4)

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This value is larger than that expected from a simple estimate of the diffraction limit because of 1) the inherently larger FWHM that is obtained in transmission measurements and 2) the lower effective numerical aperture due a smaller beam diameter in this experiment.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

(a) The energy level scheme of a dye molecule. See text for details. (b) An example of the second-order correlation function of a single DBATT molecule under continuous-wave excitation.

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

(a) Single dye molecules embedded in a thin organic matrix at T=1.4 K produce a beam of single photons. This beam is collected and collimated by a solid-immersion lens and an aspherical lens inside the cryostat and then coupled into a single-mode fiber (SMF). The output of this fiber is sent to the sample in a room-temperature microscope. Two avalanche photodiodes rAPD and tAPD register the signal in reflection and transmission, respectively. A spectrometer records the plasmon spectrum of a particle upon illumination by a white-light source. DM: dichroic mirror, BS: beam splitter. (b) The red curve shows the experimentally measured plasmon spectrum of the particle studied in the first experiment. The blue curve displays a theoretical spectrum corresponding to an ellipsoidal silver particle with long and short axes of 94 and 46 nm, respectively. The black curve shows the spectrum of the narrow-band single-photon source. (c) Electron microscope image of a typical silver spheroid.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Transmission (a) and reflection (b) images obtained when the sample was scanned laterally across the focus of a laser beam at a speed of 10 ms per pixel. (c) Cross sections from (a) and (b). Average of 12 transmission (d) and reflection (e) images obtained when the sample was laterally scanned in the focus of the single-photon beam at 40 ms per pixel. (f) Cross sections from (d) and (e). Light beams were polarized along the vertical directions of the images in (a), (b), (d), and (e). Scale bars correspond to 500 nm.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

a) A raster-scan image of a silver nanoparticle illuminated by single photons from a terrylene molecule at room temperature. The black region at the bottom indicates loss of signal caused by the photobleaching of the molecule. b) A cross section from part (a). The inset displays the emission spectrum of a single terrylene molecule.

Equations (1)

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I d = E ref + E sca 2 = E ref 2 + E sca 2 2 E ref E sca sin φ .

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