Abstract

Laser-induced damage at near operational laser excitation conditions can limit the performance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KH2PO4, or KDP) and its deuterated analog (DKDP) which are currently the only nonlinear optical materials suitable for use in large-aperture laser systems. This process has been attributed to pre-existing damage precursors that were incorporated or formed during growth that have not yet been identified. In this work, we present a novel experimental approach to probe the electronic structure of the damage precursors. The results are modeled assuming a multi-level electronic structure that includes a bottleneck for 532 nm excitation. This model reproduces our experimental observations as well as other well-documented behaviors of laser damage in KDP crystals. Comparison of the electronic structure of known defects in KDP with this model allows for identification of a specific class that we postulate may be the constituent defects in the damage precursors. The experimental results also provide evidence regarding the physical parameters affecting the ability of individual damage precursors to initiate damage, such as their size and defect density; these parameters were found to vary significantly between KDP materials that exhibit different damage performance characteristics.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  34. C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Ab initio electronic structure calculations of hydrogen point defects in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 68(22), 224107 (2003).
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  35. C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Electron or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 015505 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  37. K. Wang, C. Fang, J. Zhang, C. S. Liu, R. I. Boughton, S. Wang, and X. Zhao, “First-principles study of interstitial oxygen in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 72(18), 184105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  38. M. Jupé, L. Jensen, A. Melninkaitis, V. Sirutkaitis, and D. Ristau, “Calculations and experimental demonstration of multi-photon absorption governing fs laser-induced damage in titania,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12269–12278 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. S. I. Kudryashov and V. I. Emelyanov, “Band Gap Collapse and Ultrafast Cold Melting of Silicon during Femtosecond Laser Pulse,” JETP Lett. 73(5), 228–231 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  49. R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “Expedited laser damage profiling of KDxH(2-x)PO4 with respect to crystal growth parameters,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3110–3112 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. L. Liang, Z. Xian, S. Xun, and S. Xueqin, “Sulfate may play an important role in the wavelength dependence of laser induced damage,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12196–12198 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  51. R. A. Negres, C. K. Saw, P. Demange, and S. G. Demos, “Laser damage performance of KD2-xHxPO4 crystals following X-ray irradiation,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16326–16333 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

S. Reyné, G. Duchateau, J.-Y. Natoli, and L. Lamaignere, “Pump-pump experiment in KH2PO4 crystals: Coupling two different wavelengths to identify the laser-induced damage mechanisms in the nanosecond regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Jupé, L. Jensen, A. Melninkaitis, V. Sirutkaitis, and D. Ristau, “Calculations and experimental demonstration of multi-photon absorption governing fs laser-induced damage in titania,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12269–12278 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. Kramer, J. F. Latkowski, R. P. Abbott, J. K. Boyd, J. J. Powers, and J. E. Seifried, “Neutron Transport And Nuclear Burnup Analysis For The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 625–631 (2009).

E. I. Moses, T. D. de la Rubia, E. Storm, J. F. Latkowski, J. C. Farmer, R. P. Abbott, K. J. Kramer, P. F. Peterson, H. F. Shaw, and R. F. Lehman, “A Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 547–565 (2009).

S. Reyné, G. Duchateau, J.-Y. Natoli, and L. Lamaignère, “Laser-induced damage of KDP crystals by 1ω nanosecond pulses: influence of crystal orientation,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21652–21665 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Duchateau, “Simple models for laser-induced damage and conditioning of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Express 17(13), 10434–10456 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

R. A. Negres, C. K. Saw, P. Demange, and S. G. Demos, “Laser damage performance of KD2-xHxPO4 crystals following X-ray irradiation,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16326–16333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Laser annealing characteristics of multiple bulk defect populations within DKDP crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 103103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, A. M. Rubenchik, H. B. Radousky, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “The energy coupling efficiency of multi-wavelength laser pulses to damage initiating defects in DKDP nonlinear crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Dyan, F. Enguehard, S. Lallich, H. Piombini, and G. Duchateau, “Scaling laws in laser-induced potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal damage by nanosecond pulses at 3ω,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 25(6), 1087–1095 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

M. Rini, R. Tobey, N. Dean, J. Itatani, Y. Tomioka, Y. Tokura, R. W. Schoenlein, and A. Cavalleri, “Control of the electronic phase of a manganite by mode-selective vibrational excitation,” Nature 449(7158), 72–74 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bude, G. Guss, M. Matthews, and M. L. Spaeth, “The effect of lattice temperature on surface damage in fused silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “Expedited laser damage profiling of KDxH(2-x)PO4 with respect to crystal growth parameters,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3110–3112 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Liang, Z. Xian, S. Xun, and S. Xueqin, “Sulfate may play an important role in the wavelength dependence of laser induced damage,” Opt. Express 14(25), 12196–12198 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. L. Xia, D. G. Deng, Z. X. Fan, and J. D. Shao, “Development in laser induced extrinsic absorption damage mechanism of dielectric films,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(8), 2179–2182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, A. M. Rubenchik, H. B. Radousky, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Understanding and predicting the damage performance of KDxH2-xPO4 crystals under simultaneous exposure to 532- and 355-nm pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181922 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. A. Johnson, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Complex morphology of laser-induced bulk damage in K2H(2-x)DxPO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Differentiation of defect populations responsible for bulk laser-induced damage in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Opt. Eng. 45(10), 104205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Laser-induced defect reactions governing damage initiation in DKDP crystals,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5313–5328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and J. B. Trenholme, “Simple model of laser damage initiation and conditioning in frequency conversion crystals,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910W (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, T. L. Weiland, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265–278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Two mechanisms of crater formation in ultraviolet-pulsed-laser irradiated SiO2 thin films with artificial defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, C. Hou, N. Kioussis, S. Demos, and H. Radousky, “Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(13), 134110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, C. Fang, J. Zhang, C. S. Liu, R. I. Boughton, S. Wang, and X. Zhao, “First-principles study of interstitial oxygen in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 72(18), 184105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D. A. Willard, “Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The National Ignition Facility: enabling fusion ignition for the 21st century,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), S228–S238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “System for evaluation of laser-induced damage performance of optical materials for large aperture lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(10), 3298–3301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling, and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 74–81 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Wavelength dependence of laser-induced damage: determining the damage initiation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 127402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. L. Floyd, T. A. Land, W. J. Siekhaus, and R. A. Hawley-Fedder, “Laser-induced damage in deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate,” Appl. Opt. 42(27), 5483–5495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, and H. B. Radousky, “Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KDP crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6456–6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Ab initio electronic structure calculations of hydrogen point defects in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 68(22), 224107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Electron or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 015505 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, M. Commandre, A. During, J. Y. Natoli, M. J. Pellin, M. R. Savina, E. Cottancin, and M. Pellarin, “Observation by photothermal microscopy of increased silica absorption in laser damage induced by gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3855–3857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, “Investigation of bulk defect formations in KH2PO4 crystals using fluorescence microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 67(22), 224102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, and P. K. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most powerful laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. Runkel, “Analysis of Bulk DKDP Damage Distribution, Obscuration and Pulselength Dependence,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 383–388 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Kudryashov and V. I. Emelyanov, “Band Gap Collapse and Ultrafast Cold Melting of Silicon during Femtosecond Laser Pulse,” JETP Lett. 73(5), 228–231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, J. J. De Yoreo, and H. B. Radousky, “Imaging of laser-induced reactions of individual defect nanoclusters,” Opt. Lett. 26(24), 1975–1977 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(2), 195–201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. G. Demos, M. Yan, M. Staggs, J. J. De Yoreo, and H. B. Radousky, “Raman Scattering Investigation of KDP Subsequent to High Fluence Laser Irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19), 2367–2369 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 180(2), 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. A. Young and E. M. Corey, “A new global equation of state model for hot, dense matter,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(6), 3748 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

P. Audebert, P. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. Gauthier, J. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, “Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(14), 1990–1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(4), 350–352 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1970

R. W. Hopper and D. Uhlmann, “Mechanism of inclusion damage in laser glass,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 41, 4023–4025 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1908

G. Mie, “Beiträge zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Annalen der Physik 330(3), 377–445 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, R. P.

K. J. Kramer, J. F. Latkowski, R. P. Abbott, J. K. Boyd, J. J. Powers, and J. E. Seifried, “Neutron Transport And Nuclear Burnup Analysis For The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 625–631 (2009).

E. I. Moses, T. D. de la Rubia, E. Storm, J. F. Latkowski, J. C. Farmer, R. P. Abbott, K. J. Kramer, P. F. Peterson, H. F. Shaw, and R. F. Lehman, “A Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 547–565 (2009).

Adams, J. J.

J. J. Adams, T. L. Weiland, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265–278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D. A. Willard, “Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

P. Audebert, P. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. Gauthier, J. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, “Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(14), 1990–1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atherton, L. J.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 180(2), 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Audebert, P.

P. Audebert, P. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. Gauthier, J. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, “Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(14), 1990–1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bolourchi, M.

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D. A. Willard, “Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bonneau, F.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, M. Commandre, A. During, J. Y. Natoli, M. J. Pellin, M. R. Savina, E. Cottancin, and M. Pellarin, “Observation by photothermal microscopy of increased silica absorption in laser damage induced by gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3855–3857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boughton, R. I.

K. Wang, C. Fang, J. Zhang, C. S. Liu, R. I. Boughton, S. Wang, and X. Zhao, “First-principles study of interstitial oxygen in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 72(18), 184105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Boyd, J. K.

K. J. Kramer, J. F. Latkowski, R. P. Abbott, J. K. Boyd, J. J. Powers, and J. E. Seifried, “Neutron Transport And Nuclear Burnup Analysis For The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 625–631 (2009).

Bruere, J. R.

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D. A. Willard, “Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bude, J.

J. Bude, G. Guss, M. Matthews, and M. L. Spaeth, “The effect of lattice temperature on surface damage in fused silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, A. K.

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. L. Floyd, T. A. Land, W. J. Siekhaus, and R. A. Hawley-Fedder, “Laser-induced damage in deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate,” Appl. Opt. 42(27), 5483–5495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, and P. K. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most powerful laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Carr, C. W.

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Laser annealing characteristics of multiple bulk defect populations within DKDP crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 103103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Laser-induced defect reactions governing damage initiation in DKDP crystals,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5313–5328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. A. Johnson, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Complex morphology of laser-induced bulk damage in K2H(2-x)DxPO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, T. L. Weiland, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265–278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D. A. Willard, “Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “System for evaluation of laser-induced damage performance of optical materials for large aperture lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(10), 3298–3301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Wavelength dependence of laser-induced damage: determining the damage initiation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 127402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalleri, A.

M. Rini, R. Tobey, N. Dean, J. Itatani, Y. Tomioka, Y. Tokura, R. W. Schoenlein, and A. Cavalleri, “Control of the electronic phase of a manganite by mode-selective vibrational excitation,” Nature 449(7158), 72–74 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chirila, M. M.

M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, and H. B. Radousky, “Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KDP crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6456–6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Combis, P.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, M. Commandre, A. During, J. Y. Natoli, M. J. Pellin, M. R. Savina, E. Cottancin, and M. Pellarin, “Observation by photothermal microscopy of increased silica absorption in laser damage induced by gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3855–3857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Commandre, M.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, M. Commandre, A. During, J. Y. Natoli, M. J. Pellin, M. R. Savina, E. Cottancin, and M. Pellarin, “Observation by photothermal microscopy of increased silica absorption in laser damage induced by gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3855–3857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Corey, E. M.

D. A. Young and E. M. Corey, “A new global equation of state model for hot, dense matter,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(6), 3748 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cottancin, E.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, M. Commandre, A. During, J. Y. Natoli, M. J. Pellin, M. R. Savina, E. Cottancin, and M. Pellarin, “Observation by photothermal microscopy of increased silica absorption in laser damage induced by gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3855–3857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Daguzan, P.

P. Audebert, P. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. Gauthier, J. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, “Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(14), 1990–1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de la Rubia, T. D.

E. I. Moses, T. D. de la Rubia, E. Storm, J. F. Latkowski, J. C. Farmer, R. P. Abbott, K. J. Kramer, P. F. Peterson, H. F. Shaw, and R. F. Lehman, “A Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 547–565 (2009).

De Yoreo, J. J.

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, and P. K. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most powerful laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, J. J. De Yoreo, and H. B. Radousky, “Imaging of laser-induced reactions of individual defect nanoclusters,” Opt. Lett. 26(24), 1975–1977 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Yan, M. Staggs, J. J. De Yoreo, and H. B. Radousky, “Raman Scattering Investigation of KDP Subsequent to High Fluence Laser Irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19), 2367–2369 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dean, N.

M. Rini, R. Tobey, N. Dean, J. Itatani, Y. Tomioka, Y. Tokura, R. W. Schoenlein, and A. Cavalleri, “Control of the electronic phase of a manganite by mode-selective vibrational excitation,” Nature 449(7158), 72–74 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehaven, M. R.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 180(2), 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

DeMange, P.

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Laser annealing characteristics of multiple bulk defect populations within DKDP crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 103103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, A. M. Rubenchik, H. B. Radousky, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “The energy coupling efficiency of multi-wavelength laser pulses to damage initiating defects in DKDP nonlinear crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Negres, C. K. Saw, P. Demange, and S. G. Demos, “Laser damage performance of KD2-xHxPO4 crystals following X-ray irradiation,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16326–16333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “Expedited laser damage profiling of KDxH(2-x)PO4 with respect to crystal growth parameters,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3110–3112 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, A. M. Rubenchik, H. B. Radousky, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Understanding and predicting the damage performance of KDxH2-xPO4 crystals under simultaneous exposure to 532- and 355-nm pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181922 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Differentiation of defect populations responsible for bulk laser-induced damage in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Opt. Eng. 45(10), 104205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Laser-induced defect reactions governing damage initiation in DKDP crystals,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5313–5328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “System for evaluation of laser-induced damage performance of optical materials for large aperture lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(10), 3298–3301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Demos, S. G.

S. G. Demos, M. Yan, M. Staggs, J. J. De Yoreo, and H. B. Radousky, “Raman Scattering Investigation of KDP Subsequent to High Fluence Laser Irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19), 2367–2369 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Demos, S.

C. Liu, C. Hou, N. Kioussis, S. Demos, and H. Radousky, “Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(13), 134110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Demos, S. G.

R. A. Negres, C. K. Saw, P. Demange, and S. G. Demos, “Laser damage performance of KD2-xHxPO4 crystals following X-ray irradiation,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16326–16333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, A. M. Rubenchik, H. B. Radousky, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “The energy coupling efficiency of multi-wavelength laser pulses to damage initiating defects in DKDP nonlinear crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Laser annealing characteristics of multiple bulk defect populations within DKDP crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 103103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Laser-induced defect reactions governing damage initiation in DKDP crystals,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5313–5328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Differentiation of defect populations responsible for bulk laser-induced damage in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Opt. Eng. 45(10), 104205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, A. M. Rubenchik, H. B. Radousky, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Understanding and predicting the damage performance of KDxH2-xPO4 crystals under simultaneous exposure to 532- and 355-nm pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181922 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “Expedited laser damage profiling of KDxH(2-x)PO4 with respect to crystal growth parameters,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3110–3112 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “System for evaluation of laser-induced damage performance of optical materials for large aperture lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(10), 3298–3301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Wavelength dependence of laser-induced damage: determining the damage initiation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 127402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Electron or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 015505 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, and H. B. Radousky, “Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KDP crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6456–6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Ab initio electronic structure calculations of hydrogen point defects in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 68(22), 224107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, “Investigation of bulk defect formations in KH2PO4 crystals using fluorescence microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 67(22), 224102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, J. J. De Yoreo, and H. B. Radousky, “Imaging of laser-induced reactions of individual defect nanoclusters,” Opt. Lett. 26(24), 1975–1977 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Deng, D. G.

Z. L. Xia, D. G. Deng, Z. X. Fan, and J. D. Shao, “Development in laser induced extrinsic absorption damage mechanism of dielectric films,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(8), 2179–2182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DeYoreo, J. J.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 180(2), 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dos Santos, A.

P. Audebert, P. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. Gauthier, J. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, “Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(14), 1990–1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duchateau, G.

During, A.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, M. Commandre, A. During, J. Y. Natoli, M. J. Pellin, M. R. Savina, E. Cottancin, and M. Pellarin, “Observation by photothermal microscopy of increased silica absorption in laser damage induced by gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3855–3857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dyan, A.

Emelyanov, V. I.

S. I. Kudryashov and V. I. Emelyanov, “Band Gap Collapse and Ultrafast Cold Melting of Silicon during Femtosecond Laser Pulse,” JETP Lett. 73(5), 228–231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Enguehard, F.

Fan, Z. X.

Z. L. Xia, D. G. Deng, Z. X. Fan, and J. D. Shao, “Development in laser induced extrinsic absorption damage mechanism of dielectric films,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(8), 2179–2182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, C.

K. Wang, C. Fang, J. Zhang, C. S. Liu, R. I. Boughton, S. Wang, and X. Zhao, “First-principles study of interstitial oxygen in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 72(18), 184105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, J. C.

E. I. Moses, T. D. de la Rubia, E. Storm, J. F. Latkowski, J. C. Farmer, R. P. Abbott, K. J. Kramer, P. F. Peterson, H. F. Shaw, and R. F. Lehman, “A Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 547–565 (2009).

Feit, M. D.

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, A. M. Rubenchik, H. B. Radousky, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “The energy coupling efficiency of multi-wavelength laser pulses to damage initiating defects in DKDP nonlinear crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, A. M. Rubenchik, H. B. Radousky, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Understanding and predicting the damage performance of KDxH2-xPO4 crystals under simultaneous exposure to 532- and 355-nm pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181922 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. A. Johnson, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Complex morphology of laser-induced bulk damage in K2H(2-x)DxPO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and J. B. Trenholme, “Simple model of laser damage initiation and conditioning in frequency conversion crystals,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910W (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, T. L. Weiland, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265–278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D. A. Willard, “Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling, and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 74–81 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. L. Floyd, T. A. Land, W. J. Siekhaus, and R. A. Hawley-Fedder, “Laser-induced damage in deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate,” Appl. Opt. 42(27), 5483–5495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. Runkel, “Analysis of Bulk DKDP Damage Distribution, Obscuration and Pulselength Dependence,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 383–388 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Floyd, R. L.

Fujita, H.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(2), 195–201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garces, N. Y.

M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, and H. B. Radousky, “Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KDP crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6456–6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J.

P. Audebert, P. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. Gauthier, J. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, “Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(14), 1990–1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geindre, J.

P. Audebert, P. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. Gauthier, J. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, “Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(14), 1990–1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guizard, S.

P. Audebert, P. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. Gauthier, J. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, “Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(14), 1990–1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guss, G.

J. Bude, G. Guss, M. Matthews, and M. L. Spaeth, “The effect of lattice temperature on surface damage in fused silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hackel, R. P.

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D. A. Willard, “Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, T. L. Weiland, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265–278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, D. E.

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D. A. Willard, “Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Halliburton, L. E.

M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, and H. B. Radousky, “Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KDP crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6456–6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hamoniaux, G.

P. Audebert, P. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. Gauthier, J. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, “Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(14), 1990–1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawley-Fedder, R. A.

Hopper, R. W.

R. W. Hopper and D. Uhlmann, “Mechanism of inclusion damage in laser glass,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 41, 4023–4025 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hou, C.

C. Liu, C. Hou, N. Kioussis, S. Demos, and H. Radousky, “Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(13), 134110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Itatani, J.

M. Rini, R. Tobey, N. Dean, J. Itatani, Y. Tomioka, Y. Tokura, R. W. Schoenlein, and A. Cavalleri, “Control of the electronic phase of a manganite by mode-selective vibrational excitation,” Nature 449(7158), 72–74 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jarboe, J. A.

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D. A. Willard, “Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, L.

Jitsuno, T.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(2), 195–201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M. A.

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. A. Johnson, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Complex morphology of laser-induced bulk damage in K2H(2-x)DxPO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jupé, M.

Kioussis, N.

C. Liu, C. Hou, N. Kioussis, S. Demos, and H. Radousky, “Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(13), 134110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Electron or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 015505 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Ab initio electronic structure calculations of hydrogen point defects in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 68(22), 224107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, K. J.

E. I. Moses, T. D. de la Rubia, E. Storm, J. F. Latkowski, J. C. Farmer, R. P. Abbott, K. J. Kramer, P. F. Peterson, H. F. Shaw, and R. F. Lehman, “A Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 547–565 (2009).

K. J. Kramer, J. F. Latkowski, R. P. Abbott, J. K. Boyd, J. J. Powers, and J. E. Seifried, “Neutron Transport And Nuclear Burnup Analysis For The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 625–631 (2009).

Krastev, K.

P. Audebert, P. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. Gauthier, J. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, “Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(14), 1990–1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kudryashov, S. I.

S. I. Kudryashov and V. I. Emelyanov, “Band Gap Collapse and Ultrafast Cold Melting of Silicon during Femtosecond Laser Pulse,” JETP Lett. 73(5), 228–231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lallich, S.

Lamaignere, L.

S. Reyné, G. Duchateau, J.-Y. Natoli, and L. Lamaignere, “Pump-pump experiment in KH2PO4 crystals: Coupling two different wavelengths to identify the laser-induced damage mechanisms in the nanosecond regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lamaignère, L.

Land, T. A.

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. L. Floyd, T. A. Land, W. J. Siekhaus, and R. A. Hawley-Fedder, “Laser-induced damage in deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate,” Appl. Opt. 42(27), 5483–5495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, and H. B. Radousky, “Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KDP crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6456–6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lane, L. A.

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D. A. Willard, “Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Latkowski, J. F.

K. J. Kramer, J. F. Latkowski, R. P. Abbott, J. K. Boyd, J. J. Powers, and J. E. Seifried, “Neutron Transport And Nuclear Burnup Analysis For The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 625–631 (2009).

E. I. Moses, T. D. de la Rubia, E. Storm, J. F. Latkowski, J. C. Farmer, R. P. Abbott, K. J. Kramer, P. F. Peterson, H. F. Shaw, and R. F. Lehman, “A Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 547–565 (2009).

Lehman, R. F.

E. I. Moses, T. D. de la Rubia, E. Storm, J. F. Latkowski, J. C. Farmer, R. P. Abbott, K. J. Kramer, P. F. Peterson, H. F. Shaw, and R. F. Lehman, “A Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 547–565 (2009).

Liang, L.

Liu, C.

C. Liu, C. Hou, N. Kioussis, S. Demos, and H. Radousky, “Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(13), 134110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. S.

K. Wang, C. Fang, J. Zhang, C. S. Liu, R. I. Boughton, S. Wang, and X. Zhao, “First-principles study of interstitial oxygen in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 72(18), 184105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Electron or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 015505 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Ab initio electronic structure calculations of hydrogen point defects in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 68(22), 224107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luthi, R. L.

J. J. Adams, T. L. Weiland, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265–278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D. A. Willard, “Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P.

P. Audebert, P. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. Gauthier, J. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, “Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(14), 1990–1993 (1994).
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Matthews, M.

J. Bude, G. Guss, M. Matthews, and M. L. Spaeth, “The effect of lattice temperature on surface damage in fused silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McElroy, J. N.

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D. A. Willard, “Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Melninkaitis, A.

Mie, G.

G. Mie, “Beiträge zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Annalen der Physik 330(3), 377–445 (1908).
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Milam, D.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(4), 350–352 (1982).
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Miller, G. H.

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The National Ignition Facility: enabling fusion ignition for the 21st century,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), S228–S238 (2004).
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Montgomery, K. E.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 180(2), 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moses, E. I.

E. I. Moses, T. D. de la Rubia, E. Storm, J. F. Latkowski, J. C. Farmer, R. P. Abbott, K. J. Kramer, P. F. Peterson, H. F. Shaw, and R. F. Lehman, “A Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 547–565 (2009).

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The National Ignition Facility: enabling fusion ignition for the 21st century,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), S228–S238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, M.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(2), 195–201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Natoli, J. Y.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, M. Commandre, A. During, J. Y. Natoli, M. J. Pellin, M. R. Savina, E. Cottancin, and M. Pellarin, “Observation by photothermal microscopy of increased silica absorption in laser damage induced by gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3855–3857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Natoli, J.-Y.

S. Reyné, G. Duchateau, J.-Y. Natoli, and L. Lamaignere, “Pump-pump experiment in KH2PO4 crystals: Coupling two different wavelengths to identify the laser-induced damage mechanisms in the nanosecond regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Reyné, G. Duchateau, J.-Y. Natoli, and L. Lamaignère, “Laser-induced damage of KDP crystals by 1ω nanosecond pulses: influence of crystal orientation,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21652–21665 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Negres, R. A.

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, A. M. Rubenchik, H. B. Radousky, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “The energy coupling efficiency of multi-wavelength laser pulses to damage initiating defects in DKDP nonlinear crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Laser annealing characteristics of multiple bulk defect populations within DKDP crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 103103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Negres, C. K. Saw, P. Demange, and S. G. Demos, “Laser damage performance of KD2-xHxPO4 crystals following X-ray irradiation,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16326–16333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “Expedited laser damage profiling of KDxH(2-x)PO4 with respect to crystal growth parameters,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3110–3112 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Differentiation of defect populations responsible for bulk laser-induced damage in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Opt. Eng. 45(10), 104205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Laser-induced defect reactions governing damage initiation in DKDP crystals,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5313–5328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, A. M. Rubenchik, H. B. Radousky, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Understanding and predicting the damage performance of KDxH2-xPO4 crystals under simultaneous exposure to 532- and 355-nm pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181922 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Papernov, S.

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Two mechanisms of crater formation in ultraviolet-pulsed-laser irradiated SiO2 thin films with artificial defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pellarin, M.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, M. Commandre, A. During, J. Y. Natoli, M. J. Pellin, M. R. Savina, E. Cottancin, and M. Pellarin, “Observation by photothermal microscopy of increased silica absorption in laser damage induced by gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3855–3857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pellin, M. J.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, M. Commandre, A. During, J. Y. Natoli, M. J. Pellin, M. R. Savina, E. Cottancin, and M. Pellarin, “Observation by photothermal microscopy of increased silica absorption in laser damage induced by gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3855–3857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, P. F.

E. I. Moses, T. D. de la Rubia, E. Storm, J. F. Latkowski, J. C. Farmer, R. P. Abbott, K. J. Kramer, P. F. Peterson, H. F. Shaw, and R. F. Lehman, “A Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 547–565 (2009).

Petite, G.

P. Audebert, P. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. Gauthier, J. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, “Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(14), 1990–1993 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piombini, H.

Powers, J. J.

K. J. Kramer, J. F. Latkowski, R. P. Abbott, J. K. Boyd, J. J. Powers, and J. E. Seifried, “Neutron Transport And Nuclear Burnup Analysis For The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 625–631 (2009).

Radousky, H.

C. Liu, C. Hou, N. Kioussis, S. Demos, and H. Radousky, “Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(13), 134110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Radousky, H. B.

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Laser annealing characteristics of multiple bulk defect populations within DKDP crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 103103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, A. M. Rubenchik, H. B. Radousky, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “The energy coupling efficiency of multi-wavelength laser pulses to damage initiating defects in DKDP nonlinear crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, A. M. Rubenchik, H. B. Radousky, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Understanding and predicting the damage performance of KDxH2-xPO4 crystals under simultaneous exposure to 532- and 355-nm pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181922 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Laser-induced defect reactions governing damage initiation in DKDP crystals,” Opt. Express 14(12), 5313–5328 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Differentiation of defect populations responsible for bulk laser-induced damage in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Opt. Eng. 45(10), 104205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “System for evaluation of laser-induced damage performance of optical materials for large aperture lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(10), 3298–3301 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Wavelength dependence of laser-induced damage: determining the damage initiation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 127402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Electron or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 015505 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Ab initio electronic structure calculations of hydrogen point defects in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 68(22), 224107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, and H. B. Radousky, “Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KDP crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6456–6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, “Investigation of bulk defect formations in KH2PO4 crystals using fluorescence microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 67(22), 224102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, J. J. De Yoreo, and H. B. Radousky, “Imaging of laser-induced reactions of individual defect nanoclusters,” Opt. Lett. 26(24), 1975–1977 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Yan, M. Staggs, J. J. De Yoreo, and H. B. Radousky, “Raman Scattering Investigation of KDP Subsequent to High Fluence Laser Irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19), 2367–2369 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rainer, F.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(4), 350–352 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Reyné, S.

S. Reyné, G. Duchateau, J.-Y. Natoli, and L. Lamaignere, “Pump-pump experiment in KH2PO4 crystals: Coupling two different wavelengths to identify the laser-induced damage mechanisms in the nanosecond regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Reyné, G. Duchateau, J.-Y. Natoli, and L. Lamaignère, “Laser-induced damage of KDP crystals by 1ω nanosecond pulses: influence of crystal orientation,” Opt. Express 17(24), 21652–21665 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, M.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 180(2), 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rini, M.

M. Rini, R. Tobey, N. Dean, J. Itatani, Y. Tomioka, Y. Tokura, R. W. Schoenlein, and A. Cavalleri, “Control of the electronic phase of a manganite by mode-selective vibrational excitation,” Nature 449(7158), 72–74 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ristau, D.

Rubenchik, A. M.

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, A. M. Rubenchik, H. B. Radousky, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “The energy coupling efficiency of multi-wavelength laser pulses to damage initiating defects in DKDP nonlinear crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, A. M. Rubenchik, H. B. Radousky, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Understanding and predicting the damage performance of KDxH2-xPO4 crystals under simultaneous exposure to 532- and 355-nm pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181922 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. A. Johnson, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Complex morphology of laser-induced bulk damage in K2H(2-x)DxPO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and J. B. Trenholme, “Simple model of laser damage initiation and conditioning in frequency conversion crystals,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910W (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, T. L. Weiland, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265–278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D. A. Willard, “Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling, and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 74–81 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. K. Burnham, M. Runkel, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, R. L. Floyd, T. A. Land, W. J. Siekhaus, and R. A. Hawley-Fedder, “Laser-induced damage in deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate,” Appl. Opt. 42(27), 5483–5495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. Runkel, “Analysis of Bulk DKDP Damage Distribution, Obscuration and Pulselength Dependence,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 383–388 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Rullier, J. L.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, M. Commandre, A. During, J. Y. Natoli, M. J. Pellin, M. R. Savina, E. Cottancin, and M. Pellarin, “Observation by photothermal microscopy of increased silica absorption in laser damage induced by gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3855–3857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Runkel, M.

Sasaki, T.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(2), 195–201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Savina, M. R.

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, M. Commandre, A. During, J. Y. Natoli, M. J. Pellin, M. R. Savina, E. Cottancin, and M. Pellarin, “Observation by photothermal microscopy of increased silica absorption in laser damage induced by gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3855–3857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saw, C. K.

Schmid, A. W.

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Two mechanisms of crater formation in ultraviolet-pulsed-laser irradiated SiO2 thin films with artificial defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schoenlein, R. W.

M. Rini, R. Tobey, N. Dean, J. Itatani, Y. Tomioka, Y. Tokura, R. W. Schoenlein, and A. Cavalleri, “Control of the electronic phase of a manganite by mode-selective vibrational excitation,” Nature 449(7158), 72–74 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seifried, J. E.

K. J. Kramer, J. F. Latkowski, R. P. Abbott, J. K. Boyd, J. J. Powers, and J. E. Seifried, “Neutron Transport And Nuclear Burnup Analysis For The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 625–631 (2009).

Sell, W. D.

J. J. Adams, T. L. Weiland, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265–278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D. A. Willard, “Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shao, J. D.

Z. L. Xia, D. G. Deng, Z. X. Fan, and J. D. Shao, “Development in laser induced extrinsic absorption damage mechanism of dielectric films,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(8), 2179–2182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. F.

E. I. Moses, T. D. de la Rubia, E. Storm, J. F. Latkowski, J. C. Farmer, R. P. Abbott, K. J. Kramer, P. F. Peterson, H. F. Shaw, and R. F. Lehman, “A Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 547–565 (2009).

Siekhaus, W. J.

Sirutkaitis, V.

Spaeth, M. L.

J. Bude, G. Guss, M. Matthews, and M. L. Spaeth, “The effect of lattice temperature on surface damage in fused silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, T. L. Weiland, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265–278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Staggs, M.

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, “Investigation of bulk defect formations in KH2PO4 crystals using fluorescence microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 67(22), 224102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, J. J. De Yoreo, and H. B. Radousky, “Imaging of laser-induced reactions of individual defect nanoclusters,” Opt. Lett. 26(24), 1975–1977 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Demos, M. Yan, M. Staggs, J. J. De Yoreo, and H. B. Radousky, “Raman Scattering Investigation of KDP Subsequent to High Fluence Laser Irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19), 2367–2369 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stanley, J. R.

J. J. Adams, T. L. Weiland, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265–278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D. A. Willard, “Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stokowski, S.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(4), 350–352 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Storm, E.

E. I. Moses, T. D. de la Rubia, E. Storm, J. F. Latkowski, J. C. Farmer, R. P. Abbott, K. J. Kramer, P. F. Peterson, H. F. Shaw, and R. F. Lehman, “A Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 547–565 (2009).

Swain, J.

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(4), 350–352 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tobey, R.

M. Rini, R. Tobey, N. Dean, J. Itatani, Y. Tomioka, Y. Tokura, R. W. Schoenlein, and A. Cavalleri, “Control of the electronic phase of a manganite by mode-selective vibrational excitation,” Nature 449(7158), 72–74 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tokura, Y.

M. Rini, R. Tobey, N. Dean, J. Itatani, Y. Tomioka, Y. Tokura, R. W. Schoenlein, and A. Cavalleri, “Control of the electronic phase of a manganite by mode-selective vibrational excitation,” Nature 449(7158), 72–74 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomioka, Y.

M. Rini, R. Tobey, N. Dean, J. Itatani, Y. Tomioka, Y. Tokura, R. W. Schoenlein, and A. Cavalleri, “Control of the electronic phase of a manganite by mode-selective vibrational excitation,” Nature 449(7158), 72–74 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trenholme, J. B.

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and J. B. Trenholme, “Simple model of laser damage initiation and conditioning in frequency conversion crystals,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910W (2005).
[CrossRef]

Uhlmann, D.

R. W. Hopper and D. Uhlmann, “Mechanism of inclusion damage in laser glass,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 41, 4023–4025 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Vickers, J. L.

J. J. Adams, T. L. Weiland, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265–278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D. A. Willard, “Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vital, R. L.

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 180(2), 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

K. Wang, C. Fang, J. Zhang, C. S. Liu, R. I. Boughton, S. Wang, and X. Zhao, “First-principles study of interstitial oxygen in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 72(18), 184105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

K. Wang, C. Fang, J. Zhang, C. S. Liu, R. I. Boughton, S. Wang, and X. Zhao, “First-principles study of interstitial oxygen in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 72(18), 184105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weiland, T. L.

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D. A. Willard, “Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, T. L. Weiland, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265–278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Whitman, P. K.

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, and P. K. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most powerful laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Willard, D. A.

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D. A. Willard, “Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wuest, C. R.

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The National Ignition Facility: enabling fusion ignition for the 21st century,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), S228–S238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Z. L.

Z. L. Xia, D. G. Deng, Z. X. Fan, and J. D. Shao, “Development in laser induced extrinsic absorption damage mechanism of dielectric films,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(8), 2179–2182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xian, Z.

Xueqin, S.

Xun, S.

Yan, M.

S. G. Demos, M. Yan, M. Staggs, J. J. De Yoreo, and H. B. Radousky, “Raman Scattering Investigation of KDP Subsequent to High Fluence Laser Irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19), 2367–2369 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(2), 195–201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, K.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(2), 195–201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, M.

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(2), 195–201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Young, D. A.

D. A. Young and E. M. Corey, “A new global equation of state model for hot, dense matter,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(6), 3748 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zaitseva, N. P.

R. A. Negres, N. P. Zaitseva, P. DeMange, and S. G. Demos, “Expedited laser damage profiling of KDxH(2-x)PO4 with respect to crystal growth parameters,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3110–3112 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 180(2), 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

K. Wang, C. Fang, J. Zhang, C. S. Liu, R. I. Boughton, S. Wang, and X. Zhao, “First-principles study of interstitial oxygen in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 72(18), 184105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

K. Wang, C. Fang, J. Zhang, C. S. Liu, R. I. Boughton, S. Wang, and X. Zhao, “First-principles study of interstitial oxygen in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 72(18), 184105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Annalen der Physik

G. Mie, “Beiträge zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Annalen der Physik 330(3), 377–445 (1908).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. (Berl.)

R. W. Hopper and D. Uhlmann, “Mechanism of inclusion damage in laser glass,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 41, 4023–4025 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

H. Yoshida, T. Jitsuno, H. Fujita, M. Nakatsuka, M. Yoshimura, T. Sasaki, and K. Yoshida, “Investigation of bulk laser damage in KDP crystal as a function of laser irradiation direction, polarization, and wavelength,” Appl. Phys. B 70(2), 195–201 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. G. Demos, M. Yan, M. Staggs, J. J. De Yoreo, and H. B. Radousky, “Raman Scattering Investigation of KDP Subsequent to High Fluence Laser Irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72(19), 2367–2369 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, A. M. Rubenchik, H. B. Radousky, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Understanding and predicting the damage performance of KDxH2-xPO4 crystals under simultaneous exposure to 532- and 355-nm pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(18), 181922 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. A. Johnson, and A. M. Rubenchik, “Complex morphology of laser-induced bulk damage in K2H(2-x)DxPO4 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131901 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonneau, P. Combis, J. L. Rullier, M. Commandre, A. During, J. Y. Natoli, M. J. Pellin, M. R. Savina, E. Cottancin, and M. Pellarin, “Observation by photothermal microscopy of increased silica absorption in laser damage induced by gold nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(19), 3855–3857 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Reyné, G. Duchateau, J.-Y. Natoli, and L. Lamaignere, “Pump-pump experiment in KH2PO4 crystals: Coupling two different wavelengths to identify the laser-induced damage mechanisms in the nanosecond regime,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Swain, S. Stokowski, D. Milam, and F. Rainer, “Improving the bulk laser damage resistance of potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40(4), 350–352 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Phys. Lett.

Z. L. Xia, D. G. Deng, Z. X. Fan, and J. D. Shao, “Development in laser induced extrinsic absorption damage mechanism of dielectric films,” Chin. Phys. Lett. 23(8), 2179–2182 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fusion Sci. Technol.

K. J. Kramer, J. F. Latkowski, R. P. Abbott, J. K. Boyd, J. J. Powers, and J. E. Seifried, “Neutron Transport And Nuclear Burnup Analysis For The Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 625–631 (2009).

E. I. Moses, T. D. de la Rubia, E. Storm, J. F. Latkowski, J. C. Farmer, R. P. Abbott, K. J. Kramer, P. F. Peterson, H. F. Shaw, and R. F. Lehman, “A Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy,” Fusion Sci. Technol. 56, 547–565 (2009).

Int. Mater. Rev.

J. J. De Yoreo, A. K. Burnham, and P. K. Whitman, “Developing KH2PO4 and KD2PO4 crystals for the world’s most powerful laser,” Int. Mater. Rev. 47(3), 113–152 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, A. M. Rubenchik, H. B. Radousky, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “The energy coupling efficiency of multi-wavelength laser pulses to damage initiating defects in DKDP nonlinear crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083122 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Laser annealing characteristics of multiple bulk defect populations within DKDP crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 103103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Chirila, N. Y. Garces, L. E. Halliburton, S. G. Demos, T. A. Land, and H. B. Radousky, “Production and thermal decay of radiation-induced point defects in KDP crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 94(10), 6456–6462 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Young and E. M. Corey, “A new global equation of state model for hot, dense matter,” J. Appl. Phys. 78(6), 3748 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Two mechanisms of crater formation in ultraviolet-pulsed-laser irradiated SiO2 thin films with artificial defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(11), 114906 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

N. P. Zaitseva, J. J. DeYoreo, M. R. Dehaven, R. L. Vital, K. E. Montgomery, M. Richardson, and L. J. Atherton, “Rapid growth of large-scale (40-55 cm) KH2PO4 crystals,” J. Cryst. Growth 180(2), 255–262 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

JETP Lett.

S. I. Kudryashov and V. I. Emelyanov, “Band Gap Collapse and Ultrafast Cold Melting of Silicon during Femtosecond Laser Pulse,” JETP Lett. 73(5), 228–231 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. Rini, R. Tobey, N. Dean, J. Itatani, Y. Tomioka, Y. Tokura, R. W. Schoenlein, and A. Cavalleri, “Control of the electronic phase of a manganite by mode-selective vibrational excitation,” Nature 449(7158), 72–74 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Fusion

G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, “The National Ignition Facility: enabling fusion ignition for the 21st century,” Nucl. Fusion 44(12), S228–S238 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

P. DeMange, R. A. Negres, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Differentiation of defect populations responsible for bulk laser-induced damage in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Opt. Eng. 45(10), 104205 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

S. G. Demos, M. Staggs, and H. B. Radousky, “Investigation of bulk defect formations in KH2PO4 crystals using fluorescence microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 67(22), 224102 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Ab initio electronic structure calculations of hydrogen point defects in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 68(22), 224107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, C. Hou, N. Kioussis, S. Demos, and H. Radousky, “Electronic structure calculations of an oxygen vacancy in KH2PO4,” Phys. Rev. B 72(13), 134110 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, C. Fang, J. Zhang, C. S. Liu, R. I. Boughton, S. Wang, and X. Zhao, “First-principles study of interstitial oxygen in potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 72(18), 184105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. S. Liu, N. Kioussis, S. G. Demos, and H. B. Radousky, “Electron or hole-assisted reactions of H defects in hydrogen-bonded KDP,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(1), 015505 (2003).
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P. Audebert, P. Daguzan, A. Dos Santos, J. Gauthier, J. Geindre, S. Guizard, G. Hamoniaux, K. Krastev, P. Martin, G. Petite, and A. Antonetti, “Space-time observation of an electron gas in SiO2.,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73(14), 1990–1993 (1994).
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C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “Wavelength dependence of laser-induced damage: determining the damage initiation mechanisms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(12), 127402 (2003).
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C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
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Proc. SPIE

M. D. Feit and A. M. Rubenchik, “Implications of nanoabsorber initiators for damage probability curves, pulselength scaling, and laser conditioning,” Proc. SPIE 5273, 74–81 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and J. B. Trenholme, “Simple model of laser damage initiation and conditioning in frequency conversion crystals,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59910W (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, T. L. Weiland, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, R. L. Luthi, J. L. Vickers, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, M. L. Spaeth, and R. P. Hackel, “Pulse length dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5647, 265–278 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Feit, A. M. Rubenchik, and M. Runkel, “Analysis of Bulk DKDP Damage Distribution, Obscuration and Pulselength Dependence,” Proc. SPIE 4347, 383–388 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Adams, J. R. Bruere, M. Bolourchi, C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, R. P. Hackel, D. E. Hahn, J. A. Jarboe, L. A. Lane, R. L. Luthi, J. N. McElroy, A. M. Rubenchik, J. R. Stanley, W. D. Sell, J. L. Vickers, T. L. Weiland, and D. A. Willard, “Wavelength and pulselength dependence of laser conditioning and bulk damage in doubler-cut KH2PO4,” Proc. SPIE 5991, 59911R (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Bude, G. Guss, M. Matthews, and M. L. Spaeth, “The effect of lattice temperature on surface damage in fused silica optics,” Proc. SPIE 6720, 672009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

P. DeMange, C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, and S. G. Demos, “System for evaluation of laser-induced damage performance of optical materials for large aperture lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75(10), 3298–3301 (2004).
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M. L. Spaeth, K. Manes, Z. M. Liao, J. J. Adams, C. W. Carr, ”Predicting laser-induced bulk damage for deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystals using ADM (absorption distribution model),” submitted for publication.

J. H. Campbell, E.P. Wallerstein, J.S. Hayden, D.L. Sapak, D.E. Warrington, A.J. Marker, H. Toratani, H. Meissner, S. Nakajima and T. Izumitani, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory report UCRL-53932, (May 26, 1989).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The experimentally determined dependence of the relative absorption efficiency (γ) as a function of the damage density (PPD) at fixed values of 2ω fluence in DKDP material from (a) LL16 and (b) D10 crystal boules. The corresponding 3ω fluence values are indicated at each data point.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The predicted change in relative absorption efficiency (γ) with precursor size within the Mie theory formulation using exemplary values of the imaginary part of the index of refraction, k, and (a) the same and (b) different values at 532 and 355 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Proposed energy level scheme for KDP/DKDP bulk damage precursors. Green and purple arrows refer to 2ω and 3ω photons, respectively. Vibrational broadening of these states is assumed leading to high linear and ESA absorption coefficients for both 2ω and 3ω photons.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Theoretical determination of relative effectiveness γ as a function of (a) 2ω and 3ω fluences and (b) pinpoint density (the curves correspond to different fixed values of 2ω fluence. All fluences are in arbitrary units.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculation of the required combination of incident fluences under 2ω and 3ω excitation for localized absorbed energy to heat the host material to ~1000 K and initiate damage with a 2 ns, flat in time pulse. To best approximate the experimentally observed damage thresholds at 2ω and 3ω, we have assumed an initial defect density of n0 = 5x1019 cm−3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Solid squares represent the measured damage threshold values at 3ω as a function of laser pulse-length (from Ref. 30) while the solid line fit was obtained using this model.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The damage threshold vs. laser wavelength profile after removal of the “steps” using the experimental results presented in Ref. 15. Inset graph is reproduced from the original experimental data.

Equations (14)

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ϕ eff 3 ω ( ϕ 2 ω = x , P P D = y ) = ϕ 3 ω ( ϕ 2 ω = 0 , P P D = y ) ϕ 3 ω ( ϕ 2 ω = x , P P D = y ) .
γ ( ϕ 2 ω = x , P P D = y ) = [ ϕ eff 3 ω ( ϕ 2 ω = x , P P D = y ) ] / [ ϕ 2 ω = x ] .
E π a 2 Q 2 ω ϕ 2 ω + π a 2 Q 3 ω ϕ 3 ω
ϕ eff 3 ω = Q 2 ω Q 3 ω ϕ 2 ω   or   γ = Q 2 ω Q 3 ω .
α t r a n s λ = σ 0 1 λ ( n 0 n i ) + σ 1 2 λ n 1 + σ 2 3 λ n 2 + Γ λ n 3
d n d t = n 1 τ 1 σ 0 1 λ E 1 E 0 I n ,
d n 1 d t = n 1 τ 1 + σ 0 1 λ E 1 E 0 I n + n 2 τ 2 σ 1 2 λ E 2 E 1 I n 1 β 1 2 λ E 2 E 1 I 2 n 1 ,
d n 2 d t = n 2 τ 2 + σ 1 2 λ E 2 E 1 I n 1 + β 1 2 λ E 2 E 1 I 2 n 1 + n 3 τ 3 σ 2 3 λ E 3 E 2 I n 2 ,
d n 3 d t = n 3 τ 3 + σ 2 3 λ E 3 E 2 I n 2 Γ λ ( n 3 ) Δ E I ,
E 1 E 0 = 2.3     e V , E 2 E 1 = 3.2     e V , E 3 E 2 = 2.2     e V
τ 1 = 1     n s , τ 2 = 50 p s , τ 3 = 1 p s
σ 0 1 3 ω = 1 , σ 1 2 3 ω = 1 , β 1 2 3 ω = 0 , σ 2 3 3 ω = 7 , Γ 3 ω = 700
σ 0 1 2 ω = 1 , σ 1 2 2 ω = 0 , β 1 2 2 ω = 0.005 , σ 2 3 2 ω = 14 , Γ 2 ω = 700
ϕ = 4 κ τ T th Q a [ 1 exp ( 4 D τ a 2 ) ] ,

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