Abstract

We propose and demonstrate the use of subharmonically synchronized laser pulses for low-noise lock-in detection in stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. In the experiment, Yb-fiber laser pulses at a repetition rate of 38 MHz are successfully synchronized to Ti:sapphire laser pulses at a repetition rate of 76 MHz with a jitter of <8 fs by a two-photon detector and an intra-cavity electro-optic modulator. By using these pulses, high-frequency lock-in detection of SRS signal is accomplished without high-speed optical modulation. The noise level of the lock-in signal is found to be higher than the shot noise limit only by 1.6 dB. We also demonstrate high-contrast, 3D imaging of unlabeled living cells.

© 2010 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

Y. Ozeki and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for live-cell imaging with high contrast and high sensitivity,” Laser Phys. 20(5), 1114–1118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” N. J. Phys. 11(3), 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ozeki, F. Dake, S. Kajiyama, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Analysis and experimental assessment of the sensitivity of stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3651–3658 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-3651 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Minamikawa, M. Hashimoto, K. Fujita, S. Kawata, and T. Araki, “Multi-focus excitation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and its applications for real-time imaging,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9526–9536 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-12-9526 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kieu, B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, “High-power picosecond fiber source for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2051–2053 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-13-2051 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, C. W. Freudiger, C. Ackermann, W. Hill, and X. S. Xie, “Intracavity wavelength modulation of an optical parametric oscillator for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12532–12539 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12532 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

C. Heinrich, A. Hofer, A. Ritsch, C. Ciardi, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Selective imaging of saturated and unsaturated lipids by wide-field CARS-microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2699–2708 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-4-2699 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

2005 (3)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, L.-S. Ma, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, “Subfemtosecond timing jitter between two independent, actively synchronized, mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27(5), 312–314 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-27-5-312 .
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J.-X. Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, “Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), 2843–2848 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J.-X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X Sunney Xie, “Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1341–1343 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-26-17-1341 .
[CrossRef]

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J. 77(6), 3341–3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, “Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 922–924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

B. F. Levine, C. V. Shank, and J. P. Heritage, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy using stimulated Raman scattering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(12), 1418–1432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, C.

Araki, T.

Barad, Y.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, “Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 922–924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bernet, S.

Book, L. D.

Burfeindt, B.

D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J.-X. Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, “Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), 2843–2848 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Campagnola, P. J.

P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J. 77(6), 3341–3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carrasco, S.

Cheng, J.-X.

D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J.-X. Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, “Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), 2843–2848 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X Sunney Xie, “Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1341–1343 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-26-17-1341 .
[CrossRef]

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chong, S.

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ciardi, C.

Côté, D.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cundiff, S. T.

Dake, F.

Eisenberg, H.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, “Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 922–924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Evans, C. L.

Foreman, S. M.

Freudiger, C. W.

B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, C. W. Freudiger, C. Ackermann, W. Hill, and X. S. Xie, “Intracavity wavelength modulation of an optical parametric oscillator for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12532–12539 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12532 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, D.

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Fujita, K.

T. Minamikawa, M. Hashimoto, K. Fujita, S. Kawata, and T. Araki, “Multi-focus excitation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and its applications for real-time imaging,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9526–9536 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-12-9526 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimito, M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, M. Kobayashi, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, K.

Ganikhanov, F.

Gopinath, J. T.

Hall, J. L.

Hamaguchi, H. O.

Hashimoto, M.

He, C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinrich, C.

Heritage, J. P.

B. F. Levine, C. V. Shank, and J. P. Heritage, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy using stimulated Raman scattering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(12), 1418–1432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Higashi, T.

Hill, W.

Hofer, A.

Holman, K. W.

Holtom, G. R.

K. Kieu, B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, “High-power picosecond fiber source for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2051–2053 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-13-2051 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, C. W. Freudiger, C. Ackermann, W. Hill, and X. S. Xie, “Intracavity wavelength modulation of an optical parametric oscillator for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12532–12539 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12532 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Horowitz, M.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, “Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 922–924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, D. D.

Ippen, E. P.

Isobe, K.

Itoh, K.

Jones, D. J.

D. D. Hudson, K. W. Holman, R. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Mode-locked fiber laser frequency-controlled with an intracavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2948–2950 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-21-2948 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J.-X. Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, “Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), 2843–2848 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. J.

Kaertner, F. X.

Kajiyama, S.

Kang, J. X.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kano, H.

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kataoka, S.

Katz, M.

Kawakami, S.

Kawata, S.

Kieu, K.

Kim, J.

Kobayashi, M.

T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimito, M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, M. Kobayashi, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

Kopf, D.

Kovalev, A.

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” N. J. Phys. 11(3), 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuzucu, O.

Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine, C. V. Shank, and J. P. Heritage, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy using stimulated Raman scattering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(12), 1418–1432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J. 77(6), 3341–3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loew, L. M.

P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J. 77(6), 3341–3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, S.

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, L.-S.

Matsunaga, S.

Matthews, T. E.

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Min, W.

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minamikawa, T.

T. Minamikawa, M. Hashimoto, K. Fujita, S. Kawata, and T. Araki, “Multi-focus excitation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and its applications for real-time imaging,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9526–9536 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-12-9526 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimito, M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, M. Kobayashi, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Murase, R.

Murnane, M. M.

Murphy, T. E.

R. Salem and T. E. Murphy, “Broad-band optical clock recovery system using two-photon absorption,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2141–2143 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Namiki, S.

S. Takasaka, Y. Ozeki, S. Namiki, and M. Sakano, “External synchronization of 160-GHz optical beat signal by optical phase-locked loop technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2457–2459 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nandakumar, P.

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” N. J. Phys. 11(3), 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Notcutt, M.

Ozeki, Y.

Y. Ozeki and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for live-cell imaging with high contrast and high sensitivity,” Laser Phys. 20(5), 1114–1118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ozeki, F. Dake, S. Kajiyama, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Analysis and experimental assessment of the sensitivity of stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3651–3658 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-3651 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Takasaka, Y. Ozeki, S. Namiki, and M. Sakano, “External synchronization of 160-GHz optical beat signal by optical phase-locked loop technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2457–2459 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pang, Y.

D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J.-X. Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, “Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), 2843–2848 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Petrich, G. S.

Potma, E. O.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) for vibrational microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2923–2925 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-24-2923 .
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J.-X. Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, “Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), 2843–2848 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Puoris’haag, M.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ritsch, A.

Ritsch-Marte, M.

Roy, R.

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saar, B. G.

Sakano, M.

S. Takasaka, Y. Ozeki, S. Namiki, and M. Sakano, “External synchronization of 160-GHz optical beat signal by optical phase-locked loop technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2457–2459 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Salem, R.

R. Salem and T. E. Murphy, “Broad-band optical clock recovery system using two-photon absorption,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2141–2143 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T. R.

Seitz, W.

Shank, C. V.

B. F. Levine, C. V. Shank, and J. P. Heritage, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy using stimulated Raman scattering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(12), 1418–1432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Shelton, R. K.

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, “Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 922–924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sunney Xie, X

Sunney Xie, X.

Takasaka, S.

S. Takasaka, Y. Ozeki, S. Namiki, and M. Sakano, “External synchronization of 160-GHz optical beat signal by optical phase-locked loop technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2457–2459 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tandon, S. N.

Tanimito, N.

T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimito, M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, M. Kobayashi, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. C.

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volkmer, A.

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” N. J. Phys. 11(3), 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Warren, W. S.

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, W.

Wei, M.-D.

P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J. 77(6), 3341–3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wise, F. W.

Xie, X. S.

K. Kieu, B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, “High-power picosecond fiber source for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2051–2053 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-13-2051 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, C. W. Freudiger, C. Ackermann, W. Hill, and X. S. Xie, “Intracavity wavelength modulation of an optical parametric oscillator for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12532–12539 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12532 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, “High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1872–1874 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-12-1872 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) for vibrational microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2923–2925 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-24-2923 .
[CrossRef]

D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J.-X. Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, “Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), 2843–2848 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J.

Ye, T.

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yurtsever, G.

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zumbusch, A.

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Barad, H. Eisenberg, M. Horowitz, and Y. Silberberg, “Nonlinear scanning laser microscopy by third harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(8), 922–924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Minamikawa, N. Tanimito, M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, M. Kobayashi, K. Fujita, and S. Kawata, “Jitter reduction of two synchronized picosecond mode-locked lasers using balanced cross-correlator with two-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Biophys. J. (1)

P. J. Campagnola, M.-D. Wei, A. Lewis, and L. M. Loew, “High-resolution nonlinear optical imaging of live cells by second harmonic generation,” Biophys. J. 77(6), 3341–3349 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. F. Levine, C. V. Shank, and J. P. Heritage, “Surface vibrational spectroscopy using stimulated Raman scattering,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(12), 1418–1432 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

R. Salem and T. E. Murphy, “Broad-band optical clock recovery system using two-photon absorption,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(9), 2141–2143 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Takasaka, Y. Ozeki, S. Namiki, and M. Sakano, “External synchronization of 160-GHz optical beat signal by optical phase-locked loop technique,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(23), 2457–2459 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

D. Fu, T. Ye, T. E. Matthews, G. Yurtsever, and W. S. Warren, “Two-color, two-photon, and excited-state absorption microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 12(5), 054004 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Phys. (1)

Y. Ozeki and K. Itoh, “Stimulated Raman scattering microscopy for live-cell imaging with high contrast and high sensitivity,” Laser Phys. 20(5), 1114–1118 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Phys. (1)

P. Nandakumar, A. Kovalev, and A. Volkmer, “Vibrational imaging based on stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” N. J. Phys. 11(3), 033026 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

W. Min, S. Lu, S. Chong, R. Roy, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Imaging chromophores with undetectable fluorescence by stimulated emission microscopy,” Nature 461(7267), 1105–1109 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

H. Kano and H. O. Hamaguchi, “Vibrationally resonant imaging of a single living cell by supercontinuum-based multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microspectroscopy,” Opt. Express 13(4), 1322–1327 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-4-1322 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Isobe, S. Kataoka, R. Murase, W. Watanabe, T. Higashi, S. Kawakami, S. Matsunaga, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Stimulated parametric emission microscopy,” Opt. Express 14(2), 786–793 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-14-2-786 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Heinrich, A. Hofer, A. Ritsch, C. Ciardi, S. Bernet, and M. Ritsch-Marte, “Selective imaging of saturated and unsaturated lipids by wide-field CARS-microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(4), 2699–2708 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-4-2699 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ozeki, F. Dake, S. Kajiyama, K. Fukui, and K. Itoh, “Analysis and experimental assessment of the sensitivity of stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3651–3658 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-5-3651 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Minamikawa, M. Hashimoto, K. Fujita, S. Kawata, and T. Araki, “Multi-focus excitation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy and its applications for real-time imaging,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9526–9536 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-12-9526 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, C. W. Freudiger, C. Ackermann, W. Hill, and X. S. Xie, “Intracavity wavelength modulation of an optical parametric oscillator for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Express 17(15), 12532–12539 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-17-15-12532 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (9)

K. Kieu, B. G. Saar, G. R. Holtom, X. S. Xie, and F. W. Wise, “High-power picosecond fiber source for coherent Raman microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 34(13), 2051–2053 (2009), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-34-13-2051 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, S. Carrasco, X. Sunney Xie, M. Katz, W. Seitz, and D. Kopf, “Broadly tunable dual-wavelength light source for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(9), 1292–1294 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-9-1292 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Ganikhanov, C. L. Evans, B. G. Saar, and X. S. Xie, “High-sensitivity vibrational imaging with frequency modulation coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (FM CARS) microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 31(12), 1872–1874 (2006), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-31-12-1872 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. D. Hudson, K. W. Holman, R. J. Jones, S. T. Cundiff, J. Ye, and D. J. Jones, “Mode-locked fiber laser frequency-controlled with an intracavity electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett. 30(21), 2948–2950 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-30-21-2948 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hashimoto, T. Araki, and S. Kawata, “Molecular vibration imaging in the fingerprint region by use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with a collinear configuration,” Opt. Lett. 25(24), 1768–1770 (2000), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-25-24-1768 .
[CrossRef]

J.-X. Cheng, L. D. Book, and X Sunney Xie, “Polarization coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 26(17), 1341–1343 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-26-17-1341 .
[CrossRef]

R. K. Shelton, S. M. Foreman, L.-S. Ma, J. L. Hall, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, M. Notcutt, and J. Ye, “Subfemtosecond timing jitter between two independent, actively synchronized, mode-locked lasers,” Opt. Lett. 27(5), 312–314 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-27-5-312 .
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, J. Kim, O. Kuzucu, J. T. Gopinath, S. N. Tandon, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, J. G. Fujimoto, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kaertner, “Attosecond active synchronization of passively mode-locked lasers by balanced cross correlation,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 947–949 (2003), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-28-11-947 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, and X. S. Xie, “Coherent anti-stokes raman scattering spectral interferometry: determination of the real and imaginary components of nonlinear susceptibility χ(3) for vibrational microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 29(24), 2923–2925 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ol/abstract.cfm?URI=ol-29-24-2923 .
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Volkmer, J.-X. Cheng, and X. S. Xie, “Vibrational imaging with high sensitivity via epidetected coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023901 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Zumbusch, G. R. Holtom, and X. S. Xie, “Three-dimensional vibrational imaging by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(20), 4142–4145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, and X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

D. J. Jones, E. O. Potma, J.-X. Cheng, B. Burfeindt, Y. Pang, J. Ye, and X. S. Xie, “Synchronization of two passively mode-locked, picosecond lasers within 20 fs for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73(8), 2843–2848 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

C. W. Freudiger, W. Min, B. G. Saar, S. Lu, G. R. Holtom, C. He, J. C. Tsai, J. X. Kang, and X. S. Xie, “Label-free biomedical imaging with high sensitivity by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy,” Science 322(5909), 1857–1861 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Y. Kobayashi, X. Zhou, D. Yoshitomi, and K. Torizuka, “Passive timing synchronization between Ti:sapphire laser and Yb-doped fiber laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2008), paper CML6. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=CLEO-2008-CML6 .

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MPG (11850 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (11329 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of lock-in detection of SRS signal employing (a) an intensity modulator (IM) and (b) subharmonically synchronized pulse sources demonstrated in this paper.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup. M: mirror, DM: dichroic mirror, SM: switchable mirror, PBS: polarization beam splitter, YDF: Yb-doped fiber, G: diffraction grating, LD: 980-nm pump laser diode, PM: in-line phase modulator, PD: photodiode, L: lens, OB: objective lens, F: short-pass filter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of the synchronization experiment. (a) Intensity cross-correlation measured by the GaAsP PD. (b) The waveform of the error signal measured when the loop was closed. (c) Solid line: in-loop error signal (upper) and out-of-loop error signal (lower). Red broken line: probability densities. (d) Solid line: spectral densities of the in-loop (gray) and out-of-loop (red) error signals. Broken line: integrated jitter. (e) Long-term out-of-loop jitter measured for 30 min.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) SRS spectrum of a polystyrene bead with a diameter of 10 µm. (b) Circle: noise level of the lock-in signal as a function of photocurrent of Si-PD. Cross: corresponding noise level in our previous setup. Green line: theoretical shot noise level given by Eq. (1). Broken line: circuit noise.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

3D SRS images of (a) a cultured tobacco BY-2 cell (Media 1), and (b) a cultured HeLa cell (Media 2). The pixel dwell time: (a) 0.2 ms, (b) 0.5 ms. Number of pixels: (a) 300 x 300 x 40, (b) 400 x 400 x 32. The size of the observed region: (a) 60 x 60 x 40 µm3, (b) 40 x 40 x 10 µm3.

Equations (15)

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v shot = RG 2 qi τ ,
Δ f < B Δ t / T ,
v ( t ) = R η q h ν m { h ( t m T ) Δ t [ I 0 δ I 2 ( 1 + cos ω 0 m T ) ] } ,
h ( t ) d t = 1 .
v L = 2 τ 0 τ v ( t ' ) cos ω 0 t ' d t ' ,
v L = 2 τ R η q h ν 0 τ cos ω 0 t ' m { h ( t ' m T ) Δ t [ I 0 δ I 2 ( 1 + cos ω 0 m T ) ] } d t ' = 2 τ R η q h ν cos ω 0 t ' m = 0 N 1 { h ( t ' m T ) Δ t [ I 0 δ I 2 ( 1 + cos ω 0 m T ) ] } = 2 R η q Δ t h ν τ [ I 0 δ I 2 ] m = 0 N 1 h ( t ' ) cos ω 0 ( t ' + m T ) d t ' 2 R η q Δ t δ I 2 h ν τ m = 0 N 1 h ( t ' ) cos ω 0 ( t ' + m T ) cos m ω 0 T d t ' ,
2 R η q Δ t h ν τ [ I 0 δ I 2 ] m = 0 N 1 h ( t ' ) cos ω 0 ( t ' + m T ) d t ' = 2 R η q Δ t h ν τ [ I 0 δ I 2 ] m = 0 N 1 [ cos m ω 0 T Re H ( ω 0 ) + sin m ω 0 T Im H ( ω 0 ) ] = 0 ,
H ( ω ) = h ( t ) e i ω t d t
v L = 2 R η q Δ t δ I 2 h ν τ m = 0 N 1 h ( t ' ) cos ω 0 ( t ' + m T ) cos m ω 0 T d t ' = 2 R η q Δ t δ I 4 τ h ν m = 0 N 1 [ Re H ( ω ) cos 2 m T + Im H ( ω ) sin 2 m T + Re H ( ω ) ] = { 2 R η q Δ t δ I 2 h ν T Re H ( ω ) , ω 0 = ω rep 2 , 2 R η q Δ t δ I 4 h ν T Re H ( ω ) , 0 < ω 0 < ω rep 2 ,
Δ v L = 2 R η q Δ t h ν τ m = 0 N 1 Δ I m h ( t ' ) cos ω 0 ( t ' + m T ) d t ' = 2 R η q Δ t h ν τ m = 0 N 1 Δ I m [ Re H ( ω ) cos m ω 0 T + Im H ( ω ) sin m ω 0 T ] .
Δ v L 2 ¯ = [ 2 R η q Δ t h ν τ ] 2 m = 0 N 1 Δ I m 2 { [ Re H ( ω ) ] 2 cos 2 m ω 0 T + [ Im H ( ω ) ] 2 sin 2 m ω 0 T } = [ 2 R η q Δ t h ν τ ] 2 m = 0 N 1 Δ I m 2 { [ Re H ( ω ) ] 2 1 + cos 2 m ω 0 T 2 + [ Im H ( ω ) ] 2 1 cos 2 m ω 0 T 2 } = { [ 2 R η q Δ t h ν τ ] 2 [ Re H ( ω ) ] 2 m = 0 N 1 Δ I m 2 , ω 0 = ω rep 2 , [ 2 R η q Δ t h ν τ ] 2 | H ( ω ) | 2 2 m = 0 N 1 Δ I m 2 , 0 < ω 0 < ω rep 2 .
Δ I m 2 ¯ = h ν I 0 η Δ t .
Δ v L 2 ¯ = { R q 2 η Δ t I 0 h ν τ T | Re H ( ω ) | , ω 0 = ω rep 2 , R q η Δ t I 0 h ν τ T | H ( ω ) | , 0 < ω 0 < ω rep 2 .
v L 2 Δ v L 2 ¯ = { δ I 2 η Δ t τ 4 h ν T I 0 , ω 0 = ω rep 2 , δ I 2 η Δ t τ 8 h ν T I 0 | Re H ( ω ) H ( ω ) | 2 , 0 < ω 0 < ω rep 2 .
Δ v L 2 ¯ = { R 2 q i 0 τ Re H ( ω ) ω 0 = ω rep 2 , R q i 0 τ | H ( ω ) | 0 < ω 0 < ω rep 2 ,

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