Abstract

We describe an efficient Er:YAG laser that is resonantly pumped using continuous-wave (CW) laser diodes at 1470 nm. For CW lasing, it emits 6.1 W at 1645 nm with a slope efficiency of 36%, the highest efficiency reported for an Er:YAG laser that is pumped in this manner. In Q-switched operation, the laser produces diffraction-limited pulses with an average power of 2.5 W at 2 kHz PRF. To our knowledge this is the first Q-switched Er:YAG laser resonantly pumped by CW laser diodes.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. S. Li, T. Koscica, Y. Zhang, D. Li, and H. Cui, “Optical fiber remote sensing system of methane at 1645nm using wavelength-modulation technique,” Proc. SPIE 5995, 59950Y (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Eichhorn, “High-power resonantly diode-pumped CW Er3+:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 773–778 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Garbuzov, I. Kudryashov, and M. Dubinskii, “110 W(0.9J) pulsed power from resonantly diode-laser-pumped 1.6-μm Er:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121101 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. I. Kudryashov, N. Ter-Gabrielyan, and M. Dubinskii, “Resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser: 1470-nm vs. 1530-nm CW pumping case,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 732505 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. W. H. Chang, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Stable, single frequency Er:YAG lasers at 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(7), 1039–1042 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. D. Setzler, M. W. Francis, and E. P. Chicklis, “A 100 mJ Q-switched 1645 nm Er:YAG Laser,” SPIE Defense and Security Symposium, paper 6552–17 (2007).
  8. D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient in-band pumped Er:YAG laser with 60 W of output at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 754–756 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. W. Chen, M. Birnbaum, P. M. Belden, T. S. Rose, and S. M. Beck, “Multiwatt continuous-wave and Q-switched Er:YAG lasers at 1645 nm: performance issues,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1501–1503 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. E. Young, S. D. Setzler, K. J. Snell, P. A. Budni, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient 1645-nm Er:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1075–1077 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. P. Barnes and B. M. Walsh, “Solid-state lasers from an efficiency perspective,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 435–447 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. W. Kim, J. I. Mackenzie, and W. A. Clarkson, “Influence of energy-transfer-upconversion on threshold pump power in quasi-three-level solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11935–11943 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

N. W. H. Chang, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Stable, single frequency Er:YAG lasers at 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(7), 1039–1042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Kudryashov, N. Ter-Gabrielyan, and M. Dubinskii, “Resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser: 1470-nm vs. 1530-nm CW pumping case,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 732505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Chen, M. Birnbaum, P. M. Belden, T. S. Rose, and S. M. Beck, “Multiwatt continuous-wave and Q-switched Er:YAG lasers at 1645 nm: performance issues,” Opt. Lett. 34(10), 1501–1503 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. W. Kim, J. I. Mackenzie, and W. A. Clarkson, “Influence of energy-transfer-upconversion on threshold pump power in quasi-three-level solid-state lasers,” Opt. Express 17(14), 11935–11943 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. Eichhorn, “High-power resonantly diode-pumped CW Er3+:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 773–778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

N. P. Barnes and B. M. Walsh, “Solid-state lasers from an efficiency perspective,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 435–447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. Garbuzov, I. Kudryashov, and M. Dubinskii, “110 W(0.9J) pulsed power from resonantly diode-laser-pumped 1.6-μm Er:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, T. Koscica, Y. Zhang, D. Li, and H. Cui, “Optical fiber remote sensing system of methane at 1645nm using wavelength-modulation technique,” Proc. SPIE 5995, 59950Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

1992 (1)

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, N. P.

N. P. Barnes and B. M. Walsh, “Solid-state lasers from an efficiency perspective,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 435–447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Beck, S. M.

Belden, P. M.

Birnbaum, M.

Budni, P. A.

Chang, N. W. H.

N. W. H. Chang, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Stable, single frequency Er:YAG lasers at 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(7), 1039–1042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D. W.

Chicklis, E. P.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. E. Young, S. D. Setzler, K. J. Snell, P. A. Budni, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient 1645-nm Er:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1075–1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clarkson, W. A.

Cui, H.

S. Li, T. Koscica, Y. Zhang, D. Li, and H. Cui, “Optical fiber remote sensing system of methane at 1645nm using wavelength-modulation technique,” Proc. SPIE 5995, 59950Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dubinskii, M.

I. Kudryashov, N. Ter-Gabrielyan, and M. Dubinskii, “Resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser: 1470-nm vs. 1530-nm CW pumping case,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 732505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Garbuzov, I. Kudryashov, and M. Dubinskii, “110 W(0.9J) pulsed power from resonantly diode-laser-pumped 1.6-μm Er:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Eichhorn, M.

M. Eichhorn, “High-power resonantly diode-pumped CW Er3+:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 773–778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Francis, M. P.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Garbuzov, D.

D. Garbuzov, I. Kudryashov, and M. Dubinskii, “110 W(0.9J) pulsed power from resonantly diode-laser-pumped 1.6-μm Er:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hosken, D. J.

N. W. H. Chang, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Stable, single frequency Er:YAG lasers at 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(7), 1039–1042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. W.

Konves, J. R.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Koscica, T.

S. Li, T. Koscica, Y. Zhang, D. Li, and H. Cui, “Optical fiber remote sensing system of methane at 1645nm using wavelength-modulation technique,” Proc. SPIE 5995, 59950Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kudryashov, I.

I. Kudryashov, N. Ter-Gabrielyan, and M. Dubinskii, “Resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser: 1470-nm vs. 1530-nm CW pumping case,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 732505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Garbuzov, I. Kudryashov, and M. Dubinskii, “110 W(0.9J) pulsed power from resonantly diode-laser-pumped 1.6-μm Er:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

S. Li, T. Koscica, Y. Zhang, D. Li, and H. Cui, “Optical fiber remote sensing system of methane at 1645nm using wavelength-modulation technique,” Proc. SPIE 5995, 59950Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, S.

S. Li, T. Koscica, Y. Zhang, D. Li, and H. Cui, “Optical fiber remote sensing system of methane at 1645nm using wavelength-modulation technique,” Proc. SPIE 5995, 59950Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mackenzie, J. I.

Munch, J.

N. W. H. Chang, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Stable, single frequency Er:YAG lasers at 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(7), 1039–1042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ottaway, D.

N. W. H. Chang, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Stable, single frequency Er:YAG lasers at 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(7), 1039–1042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pollak, T. M.

Rose, T. S.

Sahu, J. K.

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient in-band pumped Er:YAG laser with 60 W of output at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 754–756 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Setzler, S. D.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. E. Young, S. D. Setzler, K. J. Snell, P. A. Budni, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient 1645-nm Er:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1075–1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, D. Y.

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Highly efficient in-band pumped Er:YAG laser with 60 W of output at 1645 nm,” Opt. Lett. 31(6), 754–756 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Snell, K. J.

Ter-Gabrielyan, N.

I. Kudryashov, N. Ter-Gabrielyan, and M. Dubinskii, “Resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser: 1470-nm vs. 1530-nm CW pumping case,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 732505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Veitch, P. J.

N. W. H. Chang, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Stable, single frequency Er:YAG lasers at 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(7), 1039–1042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, B. M.

N. P. Barnes and B. M. Walsh, “Solid-state lasers from an efficiency perspective,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 435–447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Young, Y. E.

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. E. Young, S. D. Setzler, K. J. Snell, P. A. Budni, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “Efficient 1645-nm Er:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 29(10), 1075–1077 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

S. Li, T. Koscica, Y. Zhang, D. Li, and H. Cui, “Optical fiber remote sensing system of methane at 1645nm using wavelength-modulation technique,” Proc. SPIE 5995, 59950Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Eichhorn, “High-power resonantly diode-pumped CW Er3+:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 93(4), 773–778 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Garbuzov, I. Kudryashov, and M. Dubinskii, “110 W(0.9J) pulsed power from resonantly diode-laser-pumped 1.6-μm Er:YAG laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 121101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

N. W. H. Chang, D. J. Hosken, J. Munch, D. Ottaway, and P. J. Veitch, “Stable, single frequency Er:YAG lasers at 1.6 μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(7), 1039–1042 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Kim, D. Y. Shen, J. K. Sahu, and W. A. Clarkson, “Fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 15(2), 361–371 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. P. Barnes and B. M. Walsh, “Solid-state lasers from an efficiency perspective,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 13(3), 435–447 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28(11), 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. D. Setzler, M. P. Francis, Y. E. Young, J. R. Konves, and E. P. Chicklis, “Resonantly pumped eyesafe erbium lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(3), 645–657 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (2)

I. Kudryashov, N. Ter-Gabrielyan, and M. Dubinskii, “Resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser: 1470-nm vs. 1530-nm CW pumping case,” Proc. SPIE 7325, 732505 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Li, T. Koscica, Y. Zhang, D. Li, and H. Cui, “Optical fiber remote sensing system of methane at 1645nm using wavelength-modulation technique,” Proc. SPIE 5995, 59950Y (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

S. D. Setzler, M. W. Francis, and E. P. Chicklis, “A 100 mJ Q-switched 1645 nm Er:YAG Laser,” SPIE Defense and Security Symposium, paper 6552–17 (2007).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the Q-switched Er:YAG laser. Abbreviations: QWP, quarter wave plate; OC, output coupler.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Plot of multi-mode CW output power versus incident pump power for the reduced-length laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of the average output power versus incident pump power for CW and Q-switched (2kHz) operation of the laser shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Left) Plot of the measured beam size of the output of the Q-switched laser at an average output power of 2.5 W (dots), and the M2 = 1.04 curve of best fit. (Right) Intensity profile of the laser output.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot of the dependence of average output power on PRF for various incident pump power values.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Plot of the dependence of pulse energy on PRF for an incident pump power = 23.5 W.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measured (symbols) and expected (solid lines) ratio of average power at different PRF.

Equations (1)

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P av ( PRF ) = P av ( CW ) [ 1 - exp ( - t q / t s ) ]

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