Abstract

1.54 μm Si-anode organic light emitting devices with Er(DBM)3phen: Bphen and Bphen/Bphen:Cs2CO3 as the emissive and electron transport layers (the devices are referred to as the Bphen-based devices) have been investigated. In comparison with the AlQ-based devices with the same structure but with AlQ:Er(DBM)3Phen and AlQ as the emissive and electron transport layers, the maximum EL intensity and maximum power efficiency from the Bphen-based devices increase by a factor of 3 and 2.2, respectively. The optimized p-Si anode resistivity of the Bphen-based device of 10 Ω·cm is significantly lower than that of the AlQ-based device. The NIR EL improvement can be attributed to the energy transfer from Bphen to the Er complex and equilibrium of electron injection from the Sm/Au cathode and hole injection from the p-Si anode at a higher level.

© 2010 OSA

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  1. I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 207401 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Yin, K. Sun, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, S. M. Wang, and C. Q. Wang, “1.53 μm photo- and electroluminescence from Er3+ in erbium silicate,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 012204 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J.-C. G. Bünzli and C. Piguet, “Taking advantage of luminescent lanthanide ions,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 34(12), 1048–1077 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. J. Curry, W. P. Gillin, A. P. Knights, and R. Gwilliam, “Silicon-based organic light-emitting diode operating at a wavelength of 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2271–2273 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. J. Curry and W. P. Gillin, “1.54 μm electroluminescence from erbium (III) tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (ErQ)-based organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1380–1382 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. G. Sun, Y. Z. Wang, Q. B. Zheng, H. J. Zhang, and A. J. Epstein, “1.54 μm infrared photoluminescence and electroluminescence from an erbium organic compound,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(10), 7589–7591 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. V. Eliseeva and J.-C. G. Bünzli, “Lanthanide luminescence for functional materials and bio-sciences,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 39(1), 189–227 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Q. Zhao, P. F. Wang, G. Z. Ran, G. L. Ma, B. R. Zhang, W. M. Liu, S. K. Wu, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, “1.54 μm Er3+ electroluminescence from an erbium-compound-doped organic light emitting diode with a p-type silicon anode,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(13), 2711–2714 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S.-Y. Chen, T.-Y. Chua, J.-F. Chen, C.-Y. Su, and C. H. Chen, “Stable inverted bottom-emitting organic electroluminescent devices with molecular doping and morphology improvement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 053518 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Liang, Z. Zheng, B. Chen, Q. Zhang, and H. Ming, “Optical studies of Er(DBM)3Phen containing methyl methacrylate solution and poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 86(2-3), 430–434 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Q. Xin, W. L. Li, G. B. Che, W. M. Su, X. Y. Sun, B. Chu, and B. Li, “Improved electroluminescent performances of europium-complex based devices by doping into electron-transporting/hole-blocking host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 223524 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. R. Melby, N. J. Rose, E. Abramson, and J. C. Caris, “Synthesis and Fluorescence of Some Trivalent Lanthanide Complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 86(23), 5117–5125 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, “A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5406–5408 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Q. Zhao, G. Z. Ran, W. J. Xu, and G. G. Qin, “Passivated p-type silicon: Hole injection tunable anode material for organic light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 073303 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. H. C. Tan, J. M. Pearson, Y. Zheng, P. B. Wyatt, and W. P. Gillin, “Evidence for erbium-erbium energy migration in erbium(III) bis(perfluoro-p-tolyl)phosphinate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103303 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Z. Li, J. Yu, L. Zhou, H. Zhang, R. Deng, and Z. Guo, “1.54 μm near-infrared photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties of a new Erbium (III) organic complex,” Org. Electron. 9(4), 487–494 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Zhang, W. Li, B. Chu, X. Li, L. Han, J. Zhu, T. Li, D. Bi, D. Yang, F. Yan, H. Liu, and D. Wang, “Sensitized photo- and electroluminescence from Er complexes mixed with Ir complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093501 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  18. L. N. Sun, H. J. Zhang, L. S. Fu, Q. G. Meng, C. Y. Peng, and J. B. Yu, “A new sol-gel material doped with an Erbium complex and its potential optical-amplification application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 1041–1048 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2009 (2)

Y. Yin, K. Sun, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, S. M. Wang, and C. Q. Wang, “1.53 μm photo- and electroluminescence from Er3+ in erbium silicate,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 012204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Eliseeva and J.-C. G. Bünzli, “Lanthanide luminescence for functional materials and bio-sciences,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 39(1), 189–227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (4)

W. Q. Zhao, G. Z. Ran, W. J. Xu, and G. G. Qin, “Passivated p-type silicon: Hole injection tunable anode material for organic light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 073303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. H. C. Tan, J. M. Pearson, Y. Zheng, P. B. Wyatt, and W. P. Gillin, “Evidence for erbium-erbium energy migration in erbium(III) bis(perfluoro-p-tolyl)phosphinate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, J. Yu, L. Zhou, H. Zhang, R. Deng, and Z. Guo, “1.54 μm near-infrared photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties of a new Erbium (III) organic complex,” Org. Electron. 9(4), 487–494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, W. Li, B. Chu, X. Li, L. Han, J. Zhu, T. Li, D. Bi, D. Yang, F. Yan, H. Liu, and D. Wang, “Sensitized photo- and electroluminescence from Er complexes mixed with Ir complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 207401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Xin, W. L. Li, G. B. Che, W. M. Su, X. Y. Sun, B. Chu, and B. Li, “Improved electroluminescent performances of europium-complex based devices by doping into electron-transporting/hole-blocking host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 223524 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Q. Zhao, P. F. Wang, G. Z. Ran, G. L. Ma, B. R. Zhang, W. M. Liu, S. K. Wu, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, “1.54 μm Er3+ electroluminescence from an erbium-compound-doped organic light emitting diode with a p-type silicon anode,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(13), 2711–2714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chen, T.-Y. Chua, J.-F. Chen, C.-Y. Su, and C. H. Chen, “Stable inverted bottom-emitting organic electroluminescent devices with molecular doping and morphology improvement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 053518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J.-C. G. Bünzli and C. Piguet, “Taking advantage of luminescent lanthanide ions,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 34(12), 1048–1077 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. N. Sun, H. J. Zhang, L. S. Fu, Q. G. Meng, C. Y. Peng, and J. B. Yu, “A new sol-gel material doped with an Erbium complex and its potential optical-amplification application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 1041–1048 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

H. Liang, Z. Zheng, B. Chen, Q. Zhang, and H. Ming, “Optical studies of Er(DBM)3Phen containing methyl methacrylate solution and poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 86(2-3), 430–434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, “A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5406–5408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

R. J. Curry, W. P. Gillin, A. P. Knights, and R. Gwilliam, “Silicon-based organic light-emitting diode operating at a wavelength of 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2271–2273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Sun, Y. Z. Wang, Q. B. Zheng, H. J. Zhang, and A. J. Epstein, “1.54 μm infrared photoluminescence and electroluminescence from an erbium organic compound,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(10), 7589–7591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. J. Curry and W. P. Gillin, “1.54 μm electroluminescence from erbium (III) tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (ErQ)-based organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1380–1382 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

L. R. Melby, N. J. Rose, E. Abramson, and J. C. Caris, “Synthesis and Fluorescence of Some Trivalent Lanthanide Complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 86(23), 5117–5125 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Abramson, E.

L. R. Melby, N. J. Rose, E. Abramson, and J. C. Caris, “Synthesis and Fluorescence of Some Trivalent Lanthanide Complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 86(23), 5117–5125 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Bi, D.

D. Zhang, W. Li, B. Chu, X. Li, L. Han, J. Zhu, T. Li, D. Bi, D. Yang, F. Yan, H. Liu, and D. Wang, “Sensitized photo- and electroluminescence from Er complexes mixed with Ir complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bünzli, J.-C. G.

S. V. Eliseeva and J.-C. G. Bünzli, “Lanthanide luminescence for functional materials and bio-sciences,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 39(1), 189–227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-C. G. Bünzli and C. Piguet, “Taking advantage of luminescent lanthanide ions,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 34(12), 1048–1077 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caris, J. C.

L. R. Melby, N. J. Rose, E. Abramson, and J. C. Caris, “Synthesis and Fluorescence of Some Trivalent Lanthanide Complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 86(23), 5117–5125 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Che, G. B.

Q. Xin, W. L. Li, G. B. Che, W. M. Su, X. Y. Sun, B. Chu, and B. Li, “Improved electroluminescent performances of europium-complex based devices by doping into electron-transporting/hole-blocking host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 223524 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, B.

H. Liang, Z. Zheng, B. Chen, Q. Zhang, and H. Ming, “Optical studies of Er(DBM)3Phen containing methyl methacrylate solution and poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 86(2-3), 430–434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

S.-Y. Chen, T.-Y. Chua, J.-F. Chen, C.-Y. Su, and C. H. Chen, “Stable inverted bottom-emitting organic electroluminescent devices with molecular doping and morphology improvement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 053518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-F.

S.-Y. Chen, T.-Y. Chua, J.-F. Chen, C.-Y. Su, and C. H. Chen, “Stable inverted bottom-emitting organic electroluminescent devices with molecular doping and morphology improvement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 053518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Chen, T.-Y. Chua, J.-F. Chen, C.-Y. Su, and C. H. Chen, “Stable inverted bottom-emitting organic electroluminescent devices with molecular doping and morphology improvement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 053518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W. X.

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, “A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5406–5408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, B.

D. Zhang, W. Li, B. Chu, X. Li, L. Han, J. Zhu, T. Li, D. Bi, D. Yang, F. Yan, H. Liu, and D. Wang, “Sensitized photo- and electroluminescence from Er complexes mixed with Ir complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xin, W. L. Li, G. B. Che, W. M. Su, X. Y. Sun, B. Chu, and B. Li, “Improved electroluminescent performances of europium-complex based devices by doping into electron-transporting/hole-blocking host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 223524 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chua, T.-Y.

S.-Y. Chen, T.-Y. Chua, J.-F. Chen, C.-Y. Su, and C. H. Chen, “Stable inverted bottom-emitting organic electroluminescent devices with molecular doping and morphology improvement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 053518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Curry, R. J.

R. J. Curry, W. P. Gillin, A. P. Knights, and R. Gwilliam, “Silicon-based organic light-emitting diode operating at a wavelength of 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2271–2273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Curry and W. P. Gillin, “1.54 μm electroluminescence from erbium (III) tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (ErQ)-based organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1380–1382 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

W. Q. Zhao, P. F. Wang, G. Z. Ran, G. L. Ma, B. R. Zhang, W. M. Liu, S. K. Wu, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, “1.54 μm Er3+ electroluminescence from an erbium-compound-doped organic light emitting diode with a p-type silicon anode,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(13), 2711–2714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Deng, R.

Z. Li, J. Yu, L. Zhou, H. Zhang, R. Deng, and Z. Guo, “1.54 μm near-infrared photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties of a new Erbium (III) organic complex,” Org. Electron. 9(4), 487–494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Eliseeva, S. V.

S. V. Eliseeva and J.-C. G. Bünzli, “Lanthanide luminescence for functional materials and bio-sciences,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 39(1), 189–227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Epstein, A. J.

R. G. Sun, Y. Z. Wang, Q. B. Zheng, H. J. Zhang, and A. J. Epstein, “1.54 μm infrared photoluminescence and electroluminescence from an erbium organic compound,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(10), 7589–7591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L. S.

L. N. Sun, H. J. Zhang, L. S. Fu, Q. G. Meng, C. Y. Peng, and J. B. Yu, “A new sol-gel material doped with an Erbium complex and its potential optical-amplification application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 1041–1048 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, M.

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 207401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillin, W. P.

R. H. C. Tan, J. M. Pearson, Y. Zheng, P. B. Wyatt, and W. P. Gillin, “Evidence for erbium-erbium energy migration in erbium(III) bis(perfluoro-p-tolyl)phosphinate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Curry, W. P. Gillin, A. P. Knights, and R. Gwilliam, “Silicon-based organic light-emitting diode operating at a wavelength of 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2271–2273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Curry and W. P. Gillin, “1.54 μm electroluminescence from erbium (III) tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (ErQ)-based organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1380–1382 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gregorkiewicz, T.

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 207401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Z.

Z. Li, J. Yu, L. Zhou, H. Zhang, R. Deng, and Z. Guo, “1.54 μm near-infrared photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties of a new Erbium (III) organic complex,” Org. Electron. 9(4), 487–494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gwilliam, R.

R. J. Curry, W. P. Gillin, A. P. Knights, and R. Gwilliam, “Silicon-based organic light-emitting diode operating at a wavelength of 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2271–2273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Han, L.

D. Zhang, W. Li, B. Chu, X. Li, L. Han, J. Zhu, T. Li, D. Bi, D. Yang, F. Yan, H. Liu, and D. Wang, “Sensitized photo- and electroluminescence from Er complexes mixed with Ir complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Izeddin, I.

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 207401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knights, A. P.

R. J. Curry, W. P. Gillin, A. P. Knights, and R. Gwilliam, “Silicon-based organic light-emitting diode operating at a wavelength of 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2271–2273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

Q. Xin, W. L. Li, G. B. Che, W. M. Su, X. Y. Sun, B. Chu, and B. Li, “Improved electroluminescent performances of europium-complex based devices by doping into electron-transporting/hole-blocking host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 223524 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, T.

D. Zhang, W. Li, B. Chu, X. Li, L. Han, J. Zhu, T. Li, D. Bi, D. Yang, F. Yan, H. Liu, and D. Wang, “Sensitized photo- and electroluminescence from Er complexes mixed with Ir complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, W.

D. Zhang, W. Li, B. Chu, X. Li, L. Han, J. Zhu, T. Li, D. Bi, D. Yang, F. Yan, H. Liu, and D. Wang, “Sensitized photo- and electroluminescence from Er complexes mixed with Ir complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. L.

Q. Xin, W. L. Li, G. B. Che, W. M. Su, X. Y. Sun, B. Chu, and B. Li, “Improved electroluminescent performances of europium-complex based devices by doping into electron-transporting/hole-blocking host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 223524 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

D. Zhang, W. Li, B. Chu, X. Li, L. Han, J. Zhu, T. Li, D. Bi, D. Yang, F. Yan, H. Liu, and D. Wang, “Sensitized photo- and electroluminescence from Er complexes mixed with Ir complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

Z. Li, J. Yu, L. Zhou, H. Zhang, R. Deng, and Z. Guo, “1.54 μm near-infrared photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties of a new Erbium (III) organic complex,” Org. Electron. 9(4), 487–494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

H. Liang, Z. Zheng, B. Chen, Q. Zhang, and H. Ming, “Optical studies of Er(DBM)3Phen containing methyl methacrylate solution and poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 86(2-3), 430–434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

D. Zhang, W. Li, B. Chu, X. Li, L. Han, J. Zhu, T. Li, D. Bi, D. Yang, F. Yan, H. Liu, and D. Wang, “Sensitized photo- and electroluminescence from Er complexes mixed with Ir complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. M.

W. Q. Zhao, P. F. Wang, G. Z. Ran, G. L. Ma, B. R. Zhang, W. M. Liu, S. K. Wu, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, “1.54 μm Er3+ electroluminescence from an erbium-compound-doped organic light emitting diode with a p-type silicon anode,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(13), 2711–2714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, G. L.

W. Q. Zhao, P. F. Wang, G. Z. Ran, G. L. Ma, B. R. Zhang, W. M. Liu, S. K. Wu, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, “1.54 μm Er3+ electroluminescence from an erbium-compound-doped organic light emitting diode with a p-type silicon anode,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(13), 2711–2714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, “A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5406–5408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Melby, L. R.

L. R. Melby, N. J. Rose, E. Abramson, and J. C. Caris, “Synthesis and Fluorescence of Some Trivalent Lanthanide Complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 86(23), 5117–5125 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Meng, Q. G.

L. N. Sun, H. J. Zhang, L. S. Fu, Q. G. Meng, C. Y. Peng, and J. B. Yu, “A new sol-gel material doped with an Erbium complex and its potential optical-amplification application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 1041–1048 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ming, H.

H. Liang, Z. Zheng, B. Chen, Q. Zhang, and H. Ming, “Optical studies of Er(DBM)3Phen containing methyl methacrylate solution and poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 86(2-3), 430–434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moskalenko, A. S.

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 207401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pearson, J. M.

R. H. C. Tan, J. M. Pearson, Y. Zheng, P. B. Wyatt, and W. P. Gillin, “Evidence for erbium-erbium energy migration in erbium(III) bis(perfluoro-p-tolyl)phosphinate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peng, C. Y.

L. N. Sun, H. J. Zhang, L. S. Fu, Q. G. Meng, C. Y. Peng, and J. B. Yu, “A new sol-gel material doped with an Erbium complex and its potential optical-amplification application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 1041–1048 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Piguet, C.

J.-C. G. Bünzli and C. Piguet, “Taking advantage of luminescent lanthanide ions,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 34(12), 1048–1077 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qiao, Y. P.

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, “A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5406–5408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qin, G. G.

Y. Yin, K. Sun, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, S. M. Wang, and C. Q. Wang, “1.53 μm photo- and electroluminescence from Er3+ in erbium silicate,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 012204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Q. Zhao, G. Z. Ran, W. J. Xu, and G. G. Qin, “Passivated p-type silicon: Hole injection tunable anode material for organic light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 073303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Q. Zhao, P. F. Wang, G. Z. Ran, G. L. Ma, B. R. Zhang, W. M. Liu, S. K. Wu, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, “1.54 μm Er3+ electroluminescence from an erbium-compound-doped organic light emitting diode with a p-type silicon anode,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(13), 2711–2714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, “A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5406–5408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ran, G. Z.

Y. Yin, K. Sun, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, S. M. Wang, and C. Q. Wang, “1.53 μm photo- and electroluminescence from Er3+ in erbium silicate,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 012204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Q. Zhao, G. Z. Ran, W. J. Xu, and G. G. Qin, “Passivated p-type silicon: Hole injection tunable anode material for organic light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 073303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Q. Zhao, P. F. Wang, G. Z. Ran, G. L. Ma, B. R. Zhang, W. M. Liu, S. K. Wu, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, “1.54 μm Er3+ electroluminescence from an erbium-compound-doped organic light emitting diode with a p-type silicon anode,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(13), 2711–2714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, “A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5406–5408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rose, N. J.

L. R. Melby, N. J. Rose, E. Abramson, and J. C. Caris, “Synthesis and Fluorescence of Some Trivalent Lanthanide Complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 86(23), 5117–5125 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Su, C.-Y.

S.-Y. Chen, T.-Y. Chua, J.-F. Chen, C.-Y. Su, and C. H. Chen, “Stable inverted bottom-emitting organic electroluminescent devices with molecular doping and morphology improvement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 053518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, W. M.

Q. Xin, W. L. Li, G. B. Che, W. M. Su, X. Y. Sun, B. Chu, and B. Li, “Improved electroluminescent performances of europium-complex based devices by doping into electron-transporting/hole-blocking host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 223524 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, K.

Y. Yin, K. Sun, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, S. M. Wang, and C. Q. Wang, “1.53 μm photo- and electroluminescence from Er3+ in erbium silicate,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 012204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, L. N.

L. N. Sun, H. J. Zhang, L. S. Fu, Q. G. Meng, C. Y. Peng, and J. B. Yu, “A new sol-gel material doped with an Erbium complex and its potential optical-amplification application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 1041–1048 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, R. G.

R. G. Sun, Y. Z. Wang, Q. B. Zheng, H. J. Zhang, and A. J. Epstein, “1.54 μm infrared photoluminescence and electroluminescence from an erbium organic compound,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(10), 7589–7591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. Y.

Q. Xin, W. L. Li, G. B. Che, W. M. Su, X. Y. Sun, B. Chu, and B. Li, “Improved electroluminescent performances of europium-complex based devices by doping into electron-transporting/hole-blocking host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 223524 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tan, R. H. C.

R. H. C. Tan, J. M. Pearson, Y. Zheng, P. B. Wyatt, and W. P. Gillin, “Evidence for erbium-erbium energy migration in erbium(III) bis(perfluoro-p-tolyl)phosphinate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. Q.

Y. Yin, K. Sun, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, S. M. Wang, and C. Q. Wang, “1.53 μm photo- and electroluminescence from Er3+ in erbium silicate,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 012204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

D. Zhang, W. Li, B. Chu, X. Li, L. Han, J. Zhu, T. Li, D. Bi, D. Yang, F. Yan, H. Liu, and D. Wang, “Sensitized photo- and electroluminescence from Er complexes mixed with Ir complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P. F.

W. Q. Zhao, P. F. Wang, G. Z. Ran, G. L. Ma, B. R. Zhang, W. M. Liu, S. K. Wu, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, “1.54 μm Er3+ electroluminescence from an erbium-compound-doped organic light emitting diode with a p-type silicon anode,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(13), 2711–2714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. M.

Y. Yin, K. Sun, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, S. M. Wang, and C. Q. Wang, “1.53 μm photo- and electroluminescence from Er3+ in erbium silicate,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 012204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y. Z.

R. G. Sun, Y. Z. Wang, Q. B. Zheng, H. J. Zhang, and A. J. Epstein, “1.54 μm infrared photoluminescence and electroluminescence from an erbium organic compound,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(10), 7589–7591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. K.

W. Q. Zhao, P. F. Wang, G. Z. Ran, G. L. Ma, B. R. Zhang, W. M. Liu, S. K. Wu, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, “1.54 μm Er3+ electroluminescence from an erbium-compound-doped organic light emitting diode with a p-type silicon anode,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(13), 2711–2714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, “A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5406–5408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, P. B.

R. H. C. Tan, J. M. Pearson, Y. Zheng, P. B. Wyatt, and W. P. Gillin, “Evidence for erbium-erbium energy migration in erbium(III) bis(perfluoro-p-tolyl)phosphinate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xin, Q.

Q. Xin, W. L. Li, G. B. Che, W. M. Su, X. Y. Sun, B. Chu, and B. Li, “Improved electroluminescent performances of europium-complex based devices by doping into electron-transporting/hole-blocking host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 223524 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xu, A. G.

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, “A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5406–5408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W. J.

Y. Yin, K. Sun, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, S. M. Wang, and C. Q. Wang, “1.53 μm photo- and electroluminescence from Er3+ in erbium silicate,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 012204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Q. Zhao, G. Z. Ran, W. J. Xu, and G. G. Qin, “Passivated p-type silicon: Hole injection tunable anode material for organic light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 073303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F.

D. Zhang, W. Li, B. Chu, X. Li, L. Han, J. Zhu, T. Li, D. Bi, D. Yang, F. Yan, H. Liu, and D. Wang, “Sensitized photo- and electroluminescence from Er complexes mixed with Ir complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

D. Zhang, W. Li, B. Chu, X. Li, L. Han, J. Zhu, T. Li, D. Bi, D. Yang, F. Yan, H. Liu, and D. Wang, “Sensitized photo- and electroluminescence from Er complexes mixed with Ir complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yassievich, I. N.

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 207401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yin, Y.

Y. Yin, K. Sun, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, S. M. Wang, and C. Q. Wang, “1.53 μm photo- and electroluminescence from Er3+ in erbium silicate,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 012204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, J.

Z. Li, J. Yu, L. Zhou, H. Zhang, R. Deng, and Z. Guo, “1.54 μm near-infrared photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties of a new Erbium (III) organic complex,” Org. Electron. 9(4), 487–494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. B.

L. N. Sun, H. J. Zhang, L. S. Fu, Q. G. Meng, C. Y. Peng, and J. B. Yu, “A new sol-gel material doped with an Erbium complex and its potential optical-amplification application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 1041–1048 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, B. R.

W. Q. Zhao, P. F. Wang, G. Z. Ran, G. L. Ma, B. R. Zhang, W. M. Liu, S. K. Wu, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, “1.54 μm Er3+ electroluminescence from an erbium-compound-doped organic light emitting diode with a p-type silicon anode,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(13), 2711–2714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, “A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5406–5408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

D. Zhang, W. Li, B. Chu, X. Li, L. Han, J. Zhu, T. Li, D. Bi, D. Yang, F. Yan, H. Liu, and D. Wang, “Sensitized photo- and electroluminescence from Er complexes mixed with Ir complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Z. Li, J. Yu, L. Zhou, H. Zhang, R. Deng, and Z. Guo, “1.54 μm near-infrared photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties of a new Erbium (III) organic complex,” Org. Electron. 9(4), 487–494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. J.

L. N. Sun, H. J. Zhang, L. S. Fu, Q. G. Meng, C. Y. Peng, and J. B. Yu, “A new sol-gel material doped with an Erbium complex and its potential optical-amplification application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 1041–1048 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Sun, Y. Z. Wang, Q. B. Zheng, H. J. Zhang, and A. J. Epstein, “1.54 μm infrared photoluminescence and electroluminescence from an erbium organic compound,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(10), 7589–7591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q.

H. Liang, Z. Zheng, B. Chen, Q. Zhang, and H. Ming, “Optical studies of Er(DBM)3Phen containing methyl methacrylate solution and poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 86(2-3), 430–434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W. Q.

W. Q. Zhao, G. Z. Ran, W. J. Xu, and G. G. Qin, “Passivated p-type silicon: Hole injection tunable anode material for organic light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 073303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Q. Zhao, P. F. Wang, G. Z. Ran, G. L. Ma, B. R. Zhang, W. M. Liu, S. K. Wu, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, “1.54 μm Er3+ electroluminescence from an erbium-compound-doped organic light emitting diode with a p-type silicon anode,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(13), 2711–2714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Q. B.

R. G. Sun, Y. Z. Wang, Q. B. Zheng, H. J. Zhang, and A. J. Epstein, “1.54 μm infrared photoluminescence and electroluminescence from an erbium organic compound,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(10), 7589–7591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Y.

R. H. C. Tan, J. M. Pearson, Y. Zheng, P. B. Wyatt, and W. P. Gillin, “Evidence for erbium-erbium energy migration in erbium(III) bis(perfluoro-p-tolyl)phosphinate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, Z.

H. Liang, Z. Zheng, B. Chen, Q. Zhang, and H. Ming, “Optical studies of Er(DBM)3Phen containing methyl methacrylate solution and poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 86(2-3), 430–434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

Z. Li, J. Yu, L. Zhou, H. Zhang, R. Deng, and Z. Guo, “1.54 μm near-infrared photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties of a new Erbium (III) organic complex,” Org. Electron. 9(4), 487–494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

D. Zhang, W. Li, B. Chu, X. Li, L. Han, J. Zhu, T. Li, D. Bi, D. Yang, F. Yan, H. Liu, and D. Wang, “Sensitized photo- and electroluminescence from Er complexes mixed with Ir complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

L. N. Sun, H. J. Zhang, L. S. Fu, Q. G. Meng, C. Y. Peng, and J. B. Yu, “A new sol-gel material doped with an Erbium complex and its potential optical-amplification application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(6), 1041–1048 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

R. J. Curry, W. P. Gillin, A. P. Knights, and R. Gwilliam, “Silicon-based organic light-emitting diode operating at a wavelength of 1.5 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2271–2273 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Curry and W. P. Gillin, “1.54 μm electroluminescence from erbium (III) tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (ErQ)-based organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(10), 1380–1382 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Chen, T.-Y. Chua, J.-F. Chen, C.-Y. Su, and C. H. Chen, “Stable inverted bottom-emitting organic electroluminescent devices with molecular doping and morphology improvement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(5), 053518 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Qin, A. G. Xu, G. L. Ma, G. Z. Ran, Y. P. Qiao, B. R. Zhang, W. X. Chen, and S. K. Wu, “A top-emission organic light-emitting diode with a silicon anode and an Sm/Au cathode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(22), 5406–5408 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Q. Zhao, G. Z. Ran, W. J. Xu, and G. G. Qin, “Passivated p-type silicon: Hole injection tunable anode material for organic light emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(7), 073303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. H. C. Tan, J. M. Pearson, Y. Zheng, P. B. Wyatt, and W. P. Gillin, “Evidence for erbium-erbium energy migration in erbium(III) bis(perfluoro-p-tolyl)phosphinate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(10), 103303 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xin, W. L. Li, G. B. Che, W. M. Su, X. Y. Sun, B. Chu, and B. Li, “Improved electroluminescent performances of europium-complex based devices by doping into electron-transporting/hole-blocking host,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(22), 223524 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhang, W. Li, B. Chu, X. Li, L. Han, J. Zhu, T. Li, D. Bi, D. Yang, F. Yan, H. Liu, and D. Wang, “Sensitized photo- and electroluminescence from Er complexes mixed with Ir complex,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(9), 093501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (2)

J.-C. G. Bünzli and C. Piguet, “Taking advantage of luminescent lanthanide ions,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 34(12), 1048–1077 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Eliseeva and J.-C. G. Bünzli, “Lanthanide luminescence for functional materials and bio-sciences,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 39(1), 189–227 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

L. R. Melby, N. J. Rose, E. Abramson, and J. C. Caris, “Synthesis and Fluorescence of Some Trivalent Lanthanide Complexes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 86(23), 5117–5125 (1964).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. G. Sun, Y. Z. Wang, Q. B. Zheng, H. J. Zhang, and A. J. Epstein, “1.54 μm infrared photoluminescence and electroluminescence from an erbium organic compound,” J. Appl. Phys. 87(10), 7589–7591 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

Y. Yin, K. Sun, W. J. Xu, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, S. M. Wang, and C. Q. Wang, “1.53 μm photo- and electroluminescence from Er3+ in erbium silicate,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(1), 012204 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

W. Q. Zhao, P. F. Wang, G. Z. Ran, G. L. Ma, B. R. Zhang, W. M. Liu, S. K. Wu, L. Dai, and G. G. Qin, “1.54 μm Er3+ electroluminescence from an erbium-compound-doped organic light emitting diode with a p-type silicon anode,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(13), 2711–2714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

H. Liang, Z. Zheng, B. Chen, Q. Zhang, and H. Ming, “Optical studies of Er(DBM)3Phen containing methyl methacrylate solution and poly(methyl methacrylate) matrix,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 86(2-3), 430–434 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Org. Electron. (1)

Z. Li, J. Yu, L. Zhou, H. Zhang, R. Deng, and Z. Guo, “1.54 μm near-infrared photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties of a new Erbium (III) organic complex,” Org. Electron. 9(4), 487–494 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

I. Izeddin, A. S. Moskalenko, I. N. Yassievich, M. Fujii, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Nanosecond dynamics of the near-infrared photoluminescence of Er-doped SiO2 sensitized with Si nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(20), 207401 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The schematic structures and (b) Energy level schemes of the AlQ-based, AlQ-Bphen and Bphen-based devices.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

EL spectra measured at the current density of 200 mA/cm2 for Bphen-based device with 10 Ω·cm p-Si anode, the AlQ-Bphen device with 10 Ω·cm p-Si anode and the AlQ-based devices with 40 Ω·cm p-Si anode. The inset shows the PL spectrum of Bphen film (λex=325 nm) and absorption spectrum of Er(DBM)3Phen.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The NIR power of the Bphen-based and AlQ-based devices versus resistivity of the p-Si anodes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Near infrared electroluminescence power-voltage and current density-voltage curves for Bphen-based device with 10 Ω·cm p-Si anode.

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